Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Iraq

Urban sustainability in Old City Centres, a Comparison Between the City of Najaf in Iraq and Italian Cities Experiences

Sabeeh Lafta Farhan; Ihsan Abbass Jasim; Ahmed Naji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 2347-2360

This paper discusses the current situationinold cities ofIraq, whichis not commensuratewiththe highprestige andsanctity ofwhatit containsandwhatit represents of rarityandtypicality. The aim of the research is tobuild a baseof knowledge about the urbansustainabilityin development ofthe historiccity centers and in particular city of Najaf,the center ofNajaf. The research also explores the possibilities of benefiting from theItalian citiesexperiences to reach a state ofconsistencyand harmonybetween the variousplanningdimensions, tokeep thefunctional, structural and spatialsustainabilityandcultural heritage, and tocreatea sustainable environmentfor theoccupants, visitors and workers.
Theoretical part of the paper includes definitions for methods of dealing with historic cities then displays the treaties and conventions, which are important as they represent the gist of schematic scientific thought on the global level, Iraq is committed to (such as Athens Conference, the Hague Act 1954, Gobineau Conference in 1960, UNESCO 1962, UNESCO in 1962, the Kyoto criteria in 1967, the Paris meeting in 1968, the Rome Conference in 1972, the Rome Declaration in 1983, etc.)
Then, second part studying Italian cities experiences of the historic centers, for example (Florence, Venice, Bologna), It is important to have a precise analysis according to the approved urban sustainability criteria.
In the third part, the paper presents the condition of the old city of Najaf through the available information and field work, which included obtaining information on the structural, demographic, economic, administrative, religious, cultural and environmental aspects and the infrastructure in the old city of Najaf to diagnose the strengths and weaknesses.
After comparing with the Italian cities experiences, the paper proposes plans for the restructuring of the old city of Najaf Ashraf and then recommendations.

Monitoring Change of Marshes In South of Iraq by Using Image Processing Techniques for Landsat Images Through Period From 1990 to 2015

Alaa Ghadhban Khalaf; Ghadah Hasan Mohammed; Ammar Abd Jaseem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 9, Pages 261-274

This study was conducted for the purpose of monitoring changes in the marshes of southern Iraq, depend on image processing techniques for Landsat images for the period from 1990 to 2015.Landsat satellite images such as TM, ETM+, and LDCM for years 1990,2000, and 2015 in addition to set of maps were used, and then all these data were analysed and extracted the information from it by using ERDAS EMAGINE 2014 program also to extract the final maps layout the ARC GIS 10.2 program was used .Two important indices were extracted from satellite images, Transformed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (TNDVI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) for extract natural vegetation and water in study area. Supervised classification has been used to product three land cover maps for study area. After conducting all necessary analyses, the final results showed that the deterioration has happened largely in the waters of marshes and natural vegetation area in the period from 1990 to 2000 and then this deterioration was beginning decrease gradually and marshes began to recover from 2000 to 2015, there is increase in the surface area of waters of the marshes and natural vegetation in year 2015 than in year 2000, but this increase does not reach to the area of water and natural vegetation in year 1990.

A Comparison between the Chemical and Physical Aspects of Sawa Lake Water which is Located Western Samawah City (Iraq), and the Aspects of some Wells Water which are Located around the Lake

Taha Yaseen Farhan; Athier Hussin

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 49-58

This research included a comparison between the chemical and physical aspects of Sawa Lake water and the chemical and physical aspects of wells water, which are located around Sawa Lake. This research has chosen four wells that are located near Sawa Lake and then the laboratory tests were done for the samples of wells water and Sawa Lake water a long three months (November, December and January 2014-2015). The results showed, there are large differences between the chemical and physical aspects of wells water, in comparison with the chemical and physical aspects of Sawa Lake water. The high concentration of salinity for the water of Sawa Lake and the differences of temperature between the water of Sawa Lake and wells was the distinguishing feature. The average temperature for well (1) water was (24.5ºC) whereas for Sawa Lake was (12ºC). In addition, the average of electrical Conductivity for Sawa Lake water was (37600µs/cm) whereas for well (1) was (5244µs/cm) and well (4) (5730µs/cm). In addition, there were very large differences in the Chloride concentrations between the Sawa lake water (8987 mg/L), the water of first well (993.3 mg/L) and the water of second well (1135 mg/L).

Natural Radioactivity of Soil Samples from the Abu Sakhir- Najaf (Iraq) by Using Gamma Spectroscopy

Khalid H.Mahdi; Soaad A. Eesa; Zina J.Rahim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 41-48

This work aims to measure the concentrations of radionuclides of natural radioactivity of the elements of uranium series (Bi-214 & Ra-226), thorium (Tl-208 and Pb-212), and Potassium-40 and industrial isotope Cesium-137 using gamma spectroscopy.High purity detector Germanium (HPGe) with efficiency (50 %) and the ability of the analysis (2.2 keV) for energy 1332 keV belong to 60Co. This detector connected to ICS -PCI card as multi- channel analyzer. The results of the specific activity Ra-226 ranged between 89.46- 368.52Bq/kg while Bi-214 had a range of 22.74 -48.65 Bq/kg.However, Tl-208 gave a range of 18.66 -40.61 Bq/kg and Pb-212 values varied from 18.56to 44.13Bq/kg. In case of potassium-40, the values ranged between 181.59 -926.58 Bq/kg. For the cesium-137 has ranged from 7.36to12.94 Bq/kg. In general, the results that have been obtained are within the allowable range but higher than those of the worldwide average for the concentration of uranium and close to worldwide average for other radionuclides, and this is due to the nature of the geological composition of the area.

Reservoir Operation by Artificial Neural Network Model ( Mosul Dam –Iraq, as a Case Study)

Thair S.K; Ayad S. M; Hasan H.M

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 7, Pages 1697-1714

Reservoir operation forecasting plays an important role in managing water resources systems. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was applied for Mosul-Dam reservoir which is located on Tigris River, which the objectives of water resources development and flood control. Feed-forward multi-layer perceptions (MLPs) are used and trained with the back-propagation algorithm, as they have a high capability of data mapping. The data set has a period of 23 years from 1990 to 2012..The Input data were inflow (It), evaporation (Et), rainfall (Rt), reservoir storage (St) and outflow (Ot). The best convergence after more than 1000 trials was achieved for the combination of inflow (It), inflow (It-1), inflow (It-2), evaporation (Et), reservoir storage (St), rainfall (Rt), outflow (Ot-1) and outflow (Ot-2) with error tolerance, learning rate, momentum rate, number of cycles and number of hidden layers as 0.001, 1, 0.9,50000 and 9 respectively. The coefficient of determination (R2) and MAPE were (0.972) and (17.15) respectively. The results of ANN models for the training, testing and validation were compared with the observed data. The predicted values from the neural networks matched the measured values very well. The application of ANN technique and the predicted equation by using the connection weights and the threshold levels, assist the reservoir operation decision and future updating, also it is an important Model for finding the missing data. The ANN technique can accurately predict the monthly Outflow.

Management of Salinity Issues in Iraq's Agricultural Sector Using SWOT Analysis

Adnan Zowain; Alhassan H. Ismail

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 644-658

Iraq's agricultural sector suffers from the salinity problem of agricultural land which reflects negatively on the production of field crops and agricultural land investment, particularly in the governorates geographically located in the sedimentary plain. The management of salinity problems facing by the agricultural sector has become crucial priorities for the Iraqi government. In this study, SWOT analysis was applied to suggest proper strategies that might be followed to solve the problem of salinity. After the internal and external factors have been identified, 17 strategies planning was developed. Internal–External Matrix (IE matrix) was used to select the appropriate type of strategy. Based on the results of Internal–External Matrix, government should consider the conservative strategies. Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM) was also used in this study. By applying the QSPM, re-arrangement of the proposed strategies has been made by importance and priority. The first three suggested strategies in term of importance and priority were establishment of the National Center for Agricultural Policy, investing in improved irrigation systems such sprinkler and drip irrigation and innovative agricultural technologies to control salinity are urgent.

Radon Concentrations Assessment and Effective Dose Estimation in The Buildings of University of Technology/ Baghdad

Sahar A. Amin; Saadi M. D. Al-Nuzal; Muwafaq H. M. Lami and; Shemaa K. Kataa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 13, Pages 3216-3227

The objective of the present work was to assess the distribution of radon in the University of Technology buildings, Baghdad - Iraq and to identify the effective dose of radon exposure to the staff using passive dosimeter (SSNTD) CR-39. One hundred CR-39 dosimeters were distributed over different buildings in the University campus according to the number of floors area. The exposure time started from December 2012, and the dosimeters were left inside buildings for 40 days. Only 93 dosimeters were collected, while the remaining 7 were considered lost. The average concentrations were calculated in units of Bqm-3, for each sample in each building, and then are repeated after grouping in each floor of the same building. The average radon concentrations per building and at the university as a whole were also calculated.
Radon concentrations were found to vary from 80.1 to 416.7 Bqm-3. The highest radon concentration with a mean value of 416.7 Bqm-3 was found atuniversity press section building, while the lowest radon concentration was found at the welding division 2 building with a mean value of 80.1 Bqm-3. The average value of radon concentration at the university was found to have the value of 181.9 Bqm-3 which is less than the recommended value of 200 Bqm-3 UNSCEAR [18].
Dose rate (in µSv/h), annual dose rate (in mSv/y & WLM/y), cumulative dose (in mSv& WLM) and cancer risk were also calculated. It was found that the university staffs are exposed annually to 2.083 mSv which equal to 0.231 Working Level Month (WLM) from radon gas and its short-lived daughters. Hence, a person takes on the average an annual effective dose equivalent to 2.56and 1.84mSv according to average value considered by UNSCEAR [18] and ICRP [19], respectively. This implies an expected value for lung cancer probability of 0.0046.

Cobalt-60 And Cesium-137 Soil Contamination In Al Tuwaitha Nuclear Site, Using GIS Technique

AbdolRazak T. Zaboon; AbdulHameed M. Jawad Al Obaidy; Hisham M. J. Al Sharaa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 13, Pages 3209-3215

In this paper, the author aims to introduce the hazard contamination in Al Tuwaitha nuclear site using GIS technique. The contamination level of 137Cs and 60Co, from different soil samples of the nuclear reactor surrounding areas has investigated and compared to the international standards of UNSCEAR 2000,. The results show that distribution of 137Cs and 60Co indicates a relatively asymmetrical distribution tailing slightly towards higher concentration. However, the activity level of 137Cs and 60Co in the soil samples of the study area exhibit large variability. Which were above the suggested normal environmental levels.

Assessment of Ground Water Quality for Drinking and Agricultural Uses in Mouqdadiya District, Diyala, Iraq

Abdul Hameed M. Jawad Al Obaidy; Abbas J. Kadhem; Nihda H. Hamiza; Athmar A.M. Al Mashhady

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 12, Pages 2921-2936

In order to evaluate the quality of ground water in Al-Mouqdadiya District, Diyala, Iraq, ground water samples were collected from 15 wells in the summer and winter seasons of 2012 and analyzed for various parameters. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater including electrical conductivity, pH, TDS, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, HCO3, NO3 and heavy metals (Cd, Fe, Pb, Mn, Zn) were determined. Irrigation indices such as, Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR), Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP), Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC), Permeability Index (PI) and Magnesium Hazard (MH) were calculated. Based on the observed results, the TDS of ground water in the study area exceeded the Iraqi guideline for drinking water in 47% while this ground water falls generally in the category of very hard (TH>300 mg/L). For Ca, Mg, Cl, Cd, Pb and Mn it can be concluded with some exception most of the ground water sample were observed to be above of the Iraqi guideline for drinking water. According to the SAR values most of the ground water samples are belong to slight to moderate to severe degree of restriction on use. While the calculated vales of SSP indicated low degree of restriction on the use of this ground water in irrigation. However, the ground water in the study area can be selected as Class III (with 25% maximum permeability) water, which are unsuitable for irrigation purposes according the Permeability and magnesium hazard indices.

Evaporation Estimation Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System and Linear Regression

Ali H. Al-Aboodi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 10, Pages 2465-2474

Evaporation is important for water planning, management and hydrological practices, and it plays an influential role in the management and development of water resources. This study demonstrates the application of two different models, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and linear regression (LR) models for estimating monthly pan evaporation in Basrah City, south of Iraq. In the first part of this study, the ANFIS model is used twice, in the first one, the temperature is used as input data only, and in the second one, the temperature and relative humidity are used as input data for predicting the evaporation. A verification test is added to check the model correctness by matching the calculated evaporation with the once observed in Basrah city for the period (1980-2009). In the second part of the study, the results obtained by ANFIS models are compared with results of linear regression model. The comparison reveals that the ANFIS models give better accuracy in estimating monthly pan evaporation than the linear regression model. The accuracy is improved about 5% in correlation coefficient (R) and determination coefficient (R2). The results proved that monthly pan evaporation could be successfully estimated through the use of ANFIS models.

Estimation of Land Surface Temperature for Different Regions in Iraq Using Remote Sensing Technique (ETM+); Yaseen K. Al-Timimi yassen-atimimi; Ali M. Al-Salihi; Alaa M. Al-lami

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1084-1091

Temperatures are important factors that have an impact directly and indirectly on human, so the attention to this aspect certainly will be in the interest of human life.
In this research, the land surface temperature was estimated for different regions in Iraq, using the thermal Band of ETM+ sensor mounted in the Landsat 7 satellite. By using ERDAS 8.4 software, the thermal images are converted to thematic maps which represent land surface temperatures. The results showed that the estimated land surface temperatures are 29.7°C, 31.8°C, 17°C, 17.8°C, 17°C, 20.6°C and 30.2°C for Al-Mousl , Taleafer, Al-Ramadi, Heet, Kerbela, Al-Hai and Al-Basrah stations respectively. Also the results show that there is high correlation between the estimated and the observed data with a difference of 1-2°C.

Radioactive Doses Contamination in Al Tuwaitha Nuclear Site, Using GIS Techniques

Abdol Razak T. Zaboon; Abdul Hameed M. Jawad Al Obaidy; Hisham M. J. Al Sharaa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 9, Pages 1612-1617

In this paper, the authors aim to introduce contamination in Al Tuwaitha nuclear site, Iraq using GIS techniques and visual interpretation. This contamination problem draws attention to the new result of high-radiation dose equivalents found in part of the country. The radiation levels in Al Tuwaitha nuclear site, compared with the international standards of UNSCEAR 2000 and world nuclear association (WNA 2011), the absorbed doses in the study area vary between (0.01-140) mrad/hr, in Al Tuwaitha nuclear research center. The maximum radiation dose was nearby the Russian 5 MW reactor. The absorbed dose in Russian 5 MW reactor was about (140) mrad/hr which is the highest hotspot in Al Tuwaitha nuclear research center. The obtained values of the average absorbed dose rate level are exceeding the permitted level by (9500) times higher than environmental levels given by UNSCEAR (2000).

Assessment of Water Quality Status for the Euphrates River in Iraq

Mohammed Abdulkhaleq Ibrahim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 14, Pages 2536-2549

The aim of this study was to assess a spatial and temporal variations in water quality of the Euphrates River flowing through Iraqi lands, with two approaches: the use of water quality index (WQI) and a principal component analysis (PCA). In the studied section of the river the global water quality WQI was 63.09 (classified as medium – slightly polluted), this value denotes that Euphrates water requires
treatment for drinking, no treatment necessary for most industries and crop uses and suitable for most fish and not recommended for sensitive one. PCA results indicate that three factors for river water explain 92.95% of the total variance. Varifactors obtained from factor analysis for water quality variations indicate that factors responsible for water quality variations are mainly related to soil leaching and runoff process, organic pollution from municipal effluents, pH and