Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Hardness

Study of the Diffusion Coefficient and Hardness for a Composite Material when Immersed in Different Solutions Polymer

S.H. Aleabi; H.G. Attiya; A.W. Watan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 191-196

In this research, a hybrid composite material was prepared of epoxy as a matrix, and reinforced by iron (Fe) powder and iron oxide (Fe2O3) powder with a weight fraction 30%.
The composite material was prepared by the Iay-up method .It was studied may tests involves absorption test to find diffusion coefficient for the composite material after the immersion it in sometime specific time (3) weeks in different chemical solution as (H2O,HNO3,NaOH) concentration (0.1N) and the hardness test measure before and after immersion .
When increase the immersion time and the result showed the high diffusion in the water (0.839) and (0.288) in the solution (HNO3) and (0.237) in the solution of (NaOH).

Effect of Al2O3 Powder on Some Mechanical and Physical Properties for Unsaturated Polyester Resin Hybrid Composites Materials Reinforced by Carbon and Glass Fibers

Reem Alaa Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 2371-2379

This research is a study of the effect of Al2O3 powder on physical and mechanical properties of the polymer hybrid composites based on unsaturated polyester resin reinforced with carbon and glass fibers. The samples were made by a hand lay-up method according to ASTM standard for various volume fractions of additives. The polymer composites materials reinforced with carbon and glass fibers are the most used in manufacture of components such as pip, part of aerospace, and leisure industries and automotive.The polyester resin matrixwas strengthened with 3% carbon and glass fibers with 1%, 3%, 5%, 7% Al2O3 powders. The water absorption, hardness (shore D), impact test, and flexural strength properties are studied. The results show the specimens (UP+3%C.F+7%Al2O3) and(UP+3%G.F+7%Al2O3) had the maximum hardness (shore D) and water absorptionwhen compared withunfilledpolyester resinspecimen, it can be observed that the specimens(UP+3%C.F+5%Al2O3) and (UP+3%G.F+5%Al2O3) have maximum impact strength and flexural strengthcompared with specimens (UP+3%C.F+7%Al2O3)and (UP+3%G.F+7%Al2O3) .

Investigation of dual phase (β+γ) CoNiAl MSMA Micro structure effect on the Mechanical Properties and Bio-Corrosion Resistance

J. A. Al-Hahidary; Sehama E. Salih; P.Mukhopadyiay; M. N. Arbilei

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 9, Pages 1888-1893

In this study five compositions of CoNiAl alloy with fixed Al content were prepaid to investigate the effect of chemical composition on the microstructure and phase volume fractions. It was found that by increasing Co the volume fraction of β phase increases and by increasing the β phase the grain size will be increased. This increase will be reflected on increasing the hardness of this alloy. Further investigations for the corrosion resistance in simulated body environment were done. It was found that phase volume fractions increased corrosion rate by increasing the volume fraction of β phase.

Effect of Micro Powder on Mechanical and Physical Properties of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composite

Aseel Basim Abdul-Hussein; Fadhel Abbas Hashim; Tamara Raad Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 7, Pages 1402-1414

In the present study, composites were prepared by Hand lay-up molding. The composites constituents were epoxy resin as the matrix, 3% volume fractions of Glass Fibers (G.F) as re enforcement and 2%, 4%, 6% volume fraction of micro powder (Aluminum Oxide Al2O3, Silicon Oxide SiO2 and Titanium Oxide TiO2) as filler. Studied the, hardness test, flexural strength, density, water absorption measurements and tests were conducted to reveal their values for each type of composite material. The results showed that the non – reinforced epoxy have lower properties than nano composites material. Measured density results had show an incremental increase with volume fraction increase and water absorption, hardness, and flexural strength had show an incremental increase with volume fraction increase and with smaller particle size.

A Study of the Chemical Resistance and Hardness of Epoxy Reinforced by Magnesium Oxide and Charcoall Activated Particles

Nabil KadhimTaieh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 950-958

In this research, some samples from Epoxy with Magnesium oxide and charcoal activated Particles as filler in different weight percent (1, 3, and 6) wt. % have been prepared. Chemical resistance test has been done using simple immersion test in different periods of time and the immersion done in different solutions (1N NaOH, 1N HCL and 25 g of NaCl per litter of distilled water). Shore (A) hardness tests were carried out on the prepared samples before and after the immersion into distilled water, (1N HCl) acid, (1N NaOH) and 25 g of NaCl per litter of distilled water with normality (1). The results exhibited increase in chemical resistance and hardnessvalues increase with increasing magnesium oxide and charcoal activated ratio. The maximum hardness was observed in the case of epoxy -6wt% MgOcomposites i.e. 108.8 and least chemical resistance in the case of pure epoxy being 4.885% in NaOH.

Study the Effect of Coupling Agents (Polyvinyl alcohol) and (Lignin) on Mechanical Properties for Polymer Composite Materials

Balkees Mohammed Diaa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 26-34

In this research study the mechanical properties of (Impact, Hardness and Surface roughness) for PMCs materials that used for (Load-bearing structure, Sandwich panels , radio controlled vehicles, sporting goods …etc.), the PMCs materials made from epoxy resin (Polyp rime-EP) type as matrix and a random glass fiber (E-type) as a reinforcementwith volume fraction (20%) by Hand-Lay up process after addition of coupling agent (Polyvinylalcohol (PVA)) with percent of (0.5%) for first sample and addition of coupling agent (Lignin (Lg)) with percent of (0.5%)for second sample but third sample was polymer composite material without addition of coupling agent for comparing with others, and we noticed an enhancement in mechanical properties for polymer composite material after addition of coupling agent. Either when immersion the three samples in solutions, first solution was water (H2O) and the second solution nitric acid (HNO3) diluted with concentration (0.1N), for seven weeks to each solution, mechanical properties were tested for samples every week, showed decreasing in values of mechanical properties, the polymer composite materials that contains coupling agents expressed more resistance than polymer composite material untreated with coupling agent. And the material that contains coupling agent after immersion in water showed much higher resistance to mechanical properties than immersion in diluted nitric acid.

Effect of Sodium Chloride on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al-Si alloy

Jafer T. Al-Haidary; Mahdie Mutier Hanon; Yasir Muhi Abdulsahib

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 9, Pages 2187-2197

In this work, the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) powder addition with different amounts on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-12 wt. %Si alloy was investigated. In this technique, modification by NaCl was used because of its availability and low price comparing to other modifiers such as Sr and Sb. A 1000 °C as pouring temperature of molten alloy was used. The present results showed that there is a significant change in the mechanical properties and microstructure compared with unmodified alloy. The optimum properties were found by adding 0.5wt% NaCl to the alloy, and also the modification of microstructure alloy. Mechanical properties and microstructure of Al-12wt. %Si alloys that poured from 1000 °C with NaCl additives were compared with the corresponding alloys but at 800 °C pouring temperature, it is found that alloys poured from 1000 °C have best properties as compared with the same alloys poured from 800 °C.

Effect of Nature Materials Powders on Mechanical and Physical Properties of Glass Fiber / Epoxy Composite

Aseel Basim Abdul-Hussein; Emad Saadi AL-Hassani; Reem Alaa Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 175-197

In the present study composites were prepared by Hand lay-up molding. The composites constituents were epoxy resin as the matrix, 6% volume fractions of Glass Fibers (G.F) as reinforcement and 3%, 6% of nature material (Rice Husk Ash, Carrot Powder, and Sawdust) as filler. Density, water absorption, hardness test, flexural strength, shear stress measurements and tests were conducted to reveal their values for each type of composite. True density results had shown an incremental increase with volume fraction increasing and water absorption, hardness, flexural strength and shear stress results had shown an incremental increase with volume fraction increasing with smaller particle size.

The Effect of PVP Addition on the Mechanical Properties Of [84%LLDPE: 15 %(( 100- X) %PP: X%PVP):1%Basalt Particle] Polymer Blend Composites.

Teeb A. Mohammed; Akram R. Jabur; Sihama E. salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 573-585

Polymer blends composites were prepared according to the formula [84%LLDPE:15%((100-X)%PP:X%PVP):1%B.P] with weight ratios selected for X values (0,4,8,12,16 %), as strips by double screw extruder and use press process the strips to prepare the samples according ASTM specification, the mechanical properties were studied for all theprepared samples which are (tensile, flexural, compression, impact, hardness, and creep tests). The results are as following:- results showed increment of mechanical properties as PVP ratio increases except elongation, furthermore the results recorded highest values of fracture strength, young modulus, compressive strength, flexural strength, maximum shear stress, flexural modulus and creep modulus at PVP 8% wt. which are (31.32MPa, 0.14GPa, 27.4MPa,24MPa, 0.6MPa, 1.08GPa and 0.558GPa) respectively.
While the highest values of fracture toughness and hardness recorded at 12% wt. (1.4696Pa√m), and at 4% wt. (56.5) respectively.

Performance Evaluation of Electrocoagulation Technique for Removing Groundwater Hardness of Tikrit University

Maha I Alali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 18, Pages 3268-3279

The performance of Electrocoagulation (EC) process for removal of hardness in
groundwater(GW) of Tikrit University in Salahaddin province, north of Baghdad in
Iraq has been studied using aluminum (Al)electrodes with both bipolar and
monopolar configurations. The effect of initial pH, applied voltage(U), electrolysis
time(t), and electrodes configurations on the performance of EC has been
investigated. It was found that the best initial pHvalue to remove hardness(HD)was
9.5. The results indicated that increasing U and t had a positive effect on the
hardness removal efficiency(%Ehardness ) to reach 90.4%andit was influenced by the
electrodes configuration in which %Ehardness was 83.5% in bipolar connection
compared with 66.2%in monopolar connection.Also The electrical energy
consumption%Ehardness and the experimentally and theoreticallyelectrodes
consumption (Wexp ) and (Wtheo )were calculated.It was absorbed,as determined, that
there is no significant difference between pseudo-first and second-order kinetic
model except at 40 volt that the pseudo second-order kinetic model fits better than
the first-order kinetic model with the data of the electrocoagulation process. Finally
the cost at themost favorable conditions for EC process was calculatedresulting that
the electrocoagulation process is successfully applied to remove the hardness rate
from groundwater with high performance.

Effect of Different Media on the Corrosion Behavior and Some Mechanical Properties of Al-Zn-Mg Alloy

Majid Hameed Abdulmageed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 525-536

This work investigates the effect of different media (0.1N of NaOH, H2SO4
and NaCl solution) on the polarization behavior of Al-Zn-Mg alloy and calculates
some of the corrosion parameters such as corrosion potential (Ecorr) and current
density (icorr), cathodic and anodic Tafel slopes (bc & ba), and the polarization
resistance (Rp) .
The results of the polarization resistance indicates that Al-Zn-Mg alloy have
resistance in slat solution higher than that observed in acidic and basic solution
respectively .
Also some of the mechanical properties like the hardness and wear were
measured. The results for hardness showed that the untreated alloy in the
experimental solutions had higher hardness than those which are treated in salt,
acidic , and basic solutions respectively .
While the results for the rate of wear at different sliding speeds showed that the
rate of wear for the samples that treated in basic solution higher than those for
samples which are treated in the acidic and salt solutions . Also the same results
were get when measure the rate of wear with different applying loads.

Mechanical Properties of The Modified Al-12%Si Alloy Reinforced by Ceramic Particles

Haitham Razouqi Saleh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 289-300

The aluminum alloys are important in many industrial applications
because of their light weight and good mechanical properties. For this reason
many researches had been done to enhance their properties. In this work a
modifier was applied to Al-12%Si alloys by adding different percentage of
Antimony powder (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 Wt %). The mechanical properties of
the modified alloys were considered. The optimum properties were found by
adding 0.3% Antimony powder. This alloy was used as the matrix for the
production of composite material (aluminum matrix reinforced by ceramic
particles (Y2O3) with different weight percent (3,6,9 and 12%Wt)) using vortex
technique. The casting parameters were 3 minute as a mixing time and 300 r.p.m
as a mixing speed. The microstructure, hardness and wear test were applied on the
modified alloy and composite materials. The effect of the addition of Antimony
and reinforcement particles on the microstructure, hardness and wear rate of the
composite material were considered. The results show that the addition of
Antimony leads to the microstructure refinement and change the silicon shape in
the alloy from the flake – like or lamellar – like to fibrous – like In addition to the
increasing the hardness when Sb is up to 0.3%, after that the hardness will
decrease, as well as the addition of ceramic particles increase the hardness and
d e c r e a se the wear rate.

Numerical Study of Forced Convection in Wavy and Diverged-Converged Ducts

Anmar M. Basheer; Sattar J. Habeeb; Waheed S. Mohamad; Qutaiba G. Majeed; Mohammed Y. Fattah; Jawad K.Oleiwi; Mohammed S. Hamza; Mayyadah Sh. Abed; Amjed J. Hamidi; Ahmed Alaa Ogla; Yaser Nabeel Ibrahem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 7, Pages 1385-1403

A three-dimensional study of developing fluid flow and heat transfer through
wavy and diverged-converged ducts were studied numerically for a Prandlt number 0.7
and 5.85 and compared with flow through corresponding straight duct. The Navier-
Stokes and energy equations are solved by using control finite volume method.
Development of the Nusselt number in wavy and diverged-converged ducts are
presented for different flow rates (50


forced convection
numerical study
wavy duct
diverged-converged duct

A study of the Hardness and Wear Rate of Elastomer Composites Reinforced by Al2O3 and SiO2 Particles

Jawad K.Oleiwi; Mohammed S. Hamza; Mayyadah Sh. Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 7, Pages 1422-1434

This research deals with the study the effect of adding the silica particles and
alumina particles separately with different ratio (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 pphr) on the
hardness and wear rate of natural rubber NR and styrene butadiene rubber SBR. The
results show that the hardness increases with the increase the loading level of reinforcing
particles, while the wear rate decreases with the increase the loading level of the
reinforcing particles. The largest value of the hardness and the lowest value of the wear
rate were for styrene butadiene reinforced with 25 pphr of silica as compared with
natural rubber. Also the reinforcing by SiO2 increases the hardness and decreases the
wear rate more than of Al2O3.
The results indicated that the hardness and the wear rate for SBR and NR
reinforced by SiO2 and Al2O3 at (25 pphr) illustrated in the following table:

Using of Taguchi Method to Optimize the Casting of Al–Si /Al2O3 Composites

Osama S. Muhammed; Haitham R. Saleh; Hussam L. Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 6, Pages 1143-1150

Taguchi method is a problem – solving tool which can improve the performance
of the product, process design and system. This method combines the experimental and
analytical concepts to determine the most influential parameter on the result response for
the significant improvement in the overall performance. In this research Al–Si /Al2O3
composites was prepared by vortex technique using three different parameters, stirring
time, stirring speed, and volume fraction of the reinforcement particles. A tensile and
hardness tests were done for the resulted castings. The primary objective is to use
Taguchi method for predicting the better parameters that give the highest tensile strength
and hardness to the castings, and then preparing composites at these parameters and
comparing them with the randomly used once. The experimental and analytical results
showed that the Taguchi method was successful in predicting the parameters that give
the highest properties and the volume fraction was the most influential parameter on the
tensile strength and hardness results of castings