Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : epoxy resin

Optimization of Curing Process for Production of Jatropha Oil Bio-Based Resin Decorated With Nano-Al2O3 and Mechanical Characterization

Agita T. Setiawan; Zurina Z. Abidin; Farah Ezzah Ab Latif; Khalina Abdan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133859.1209

Concerns on the environment, health and safety issues posed by synthetic resins has amplified numerous efforts of producing resin from various renewable sources. The use of plant oil as potential source of resin has attracted interest from various researchers. Jatropha Oil is a competitive source to petroleum counterparts due to its availability, biodegradability, low eco-toxicity but exhibit poor mechanical properties among many. The objective of this study is to study the effect of adding nanoparticles as reinforcing fillers to bio-based resin from Epoxidized crude Jatropha Oil (ECJO) to improve its mechanical performance. Various loadings of 0% to 4% of Al2O3 nanoparticles was tested on epoxy bio-resin. Later the specimens fabricated were cured and characterized for its mechanical properties. Addition of 1 wt% of Al2O3 nanoparticles improved the tensile strength of a bio-based epoxy resin to tensile stress of 29.37±2.00 MPa, elastic with an elastic modulus of 840.80±124.53 MPa. Further characterization at optimum addition of nano-Al2O3 resulted a glass transition temperature of 37.95˚C. In overall, the inclusion of nano-Al2O3 has definitely improved the mechanical properties of the material which will be useful for further application material engineering.

Erosion Wear Behavior of Natural and Industrial Material for Polymer Matrix Composite by Using Taguchi Analysis

Marwa S. Atallah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 7, Pages 1016-1025
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i7A.558

The behavior of the erosion wear for samples manufactured by hand layup method of epoxy-supported fiberglass, eggshells and calcium carbonate particles were investigated. The test was performed in accordance with the experimental designs Taguchi (L 9) MINITAB (19) to select samples that have the resistance to erosion under the influence of factors. The erosion rate was assessed under the influence of three factors: weight fraction (2% to 8% eggshells and CaCO3 particles), sand size (450, 650, 850 μm) and angles (30º, 60º, 90º) with a fixed face distance of 30 cm, 10 hours and a flow rate of 45 L/min. The results revealed that the rate of erosion is lower for samples consisting of enhanced epoxy resins (eggshell molecules and CaCO3) with chopped fiber glass compared to unfilled samples. Also from these results, it should be noted that the maximum erosion rate was when the weight fraction (2%), the sand size of 850 μm and the angle of 90º, while the minimum rate of erosion was when weight fraction (8%), sand size 650 μm and 30º angle. In this work, the sample of composite materials behaves in a semi- ductile manner.

Effect of Particle Size on Mechanical Properties of the Recycling Compact Disks Reinforced Epoxy

Shayma J. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 6A, Pages 641-645
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.6A.7

The recycling of CDs or DVDs (compact disks) as a filler in polymer composites can be used in many engineering applications such as electrical, automobile, and building applications. In the present paper, composite materials were prepared of epoxy resin reinforced with three different particles size (600˂d˂850, 200˂d˂600, d˂200 μm) of recycling of CDs or DVDs (a very thin aluminum layer is used to record information). Hand lay-up technique was conducted to produce composite material samples. Different types of tests, such as tensile, bending, impact, and hardness were applied on these samples. The mechanical characteristics of the composite samples were analyzed. The finding observed that smaller chopped of CDs or DVDs reinforced epoxy had better tensile, bending, hardness, and impact properties.

Investigate the Effect of Different Kinds of Discontinuous Fibers on the Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Matrix Composite Materials

Ahmed Muhammad; Ibrahim A. Atiyah; Hamza M. Kamal; Ahmed M. Al-Mukhtar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 5A, Pages 520-522
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.5A.7

The composite manufacturing has been a wide variety of applications. The low density, stiffness, and weight to strength ratio giving these materials significant mechanical properties in aerospace, and automotive industries. In this work, the specimens of fiber reinforced composites have been prepared by adding different percentage of two types of fibers in epoxy resins matrix. So, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of additives on the mechanical properties according to Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties ASTM D3039. The tensile and hardness testing show that the carbon fibers improve the hardness and tensile strength due to their higher mechanical properties. In addition, they have high strength to weight ratio as compare with polypropylene fibers.

Study the Effect of adding Natural Rubber and Polymethyl Methacrylate to the Epoxy Resin on the Quantitative Analysis and its Mechanical Properties

S.E. Salih; W.M. Salih; M.A. Abdul hameed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2A, Pages 163-171
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.127328

From polymer blends can be obtained more useful properties compared with single polymer. In this work, polymer blend (Epoxy (EP): Natural Rubber (NR)) with different ratios of NR (0, 2, 3.5 and 5%wt) and ternary polymer blend with ratio of (Epoxy: 2%NR: 5% wt. PMMA) were prepared. The Mechanical properties were included (tensile, flexural, impact, compression) tests and analytical physical properties (FTIR, SEM) were investigated, and the results show that the elongation values, impact strength and fracture toughness for polymer blend system (Epoxy: NR) were increment with increase natural rubber ratio in the polymer blend system. Whereas fracture strength, young’s modulus, flexural strength, flexural modulus and maximum shear stress decreased. The highest values of impact strength and fracture toughness were (0.041KJ/m2) and (0.321 MPa √m) respectively for polymers blend (95% Epoxy: 5% NR). Ductile fracture in rubber modified epoxy may be produce from the elastomeric nature of rubber which is represents an energy dissipating center.

Cure Kinetics of Epoxy Resin Studied by Dynamics and Isothermal DSC Data

Adnan A. Abdul Razak; Najat j. Saleh; Maryem Emad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 9, Pages 1731-1743
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.9A.2

Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A(DGEBA) epoxy resin was cured withhardeners aliphatic amine triethylenetetramine (TETA). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique was utilized to study the kinetics of cure of (DGEBA)-(TETA) system,diverse hardener/resin ratios werestudied, (5, 13and 20) phr. Isothermal as wellas dynamic experiments were carried out of the above mentioned DGEBA/TETA system with three hardener/resin ratios, and cure kinetics were investigated at four temperatures (30, 45, 60 and 80) °C using (DSC) technique. The process of isothermal cure was simulated by the diffusion model (modified Kamal’s model and four-parameter autocatalytic model. The obtainedoutcomes are in good agreement with the experimental results in the early andlate cure stages. The eventsdeclare that complete cure at 80 °C attains atthe stoichiometric ratio (13 phr).

Nano-SiO2 Addition Effect on Flexural Stress and Hardness of EP/MWCNT

E.A.Al-Ajaj; A.Sh. Alguraby; M.K. Jawad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 7, Pages 1248-1257

Nano-SiO2 with different weight percentage (1,2 ,3, 4 and 5) % wt. , and 3% MWCNT were usedto fabricate nano-SiO2/MWNT/epoxy composite samples by hand layup method. Ultrasonic mixing processwas used to disperse the nano additives into the resin system. scanning electron microscopy (SEM)where usedto carry out the characteristic of fracture surface. By both the high aspect ratio and the very high modulus ofnano fillers. The mechanical properties of the composite with different weight percentages of nano-SiO2 havebeen investigated and After examine, the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) explains well dispersednanotubes and SiO2 nano particles in the matrix. No evidence of agglomeration of the nanotubes can be foundin this micrographs. By adding SiO2 nano particles to epoxy/MWCNT composite, this would dramaticallyimprove the bending properties and The Young’s modulus has been doubled and quadrupled for compositeswith respectively 2 and 4 wt.% nano SiO2, compared to the pure resin matrix samples (3.36 ,4.06 ,and 1.59 )GPa respectively .While flexural strength has been increased in random manner with maximum value for 2 wt%(111 MPa). The hardness of nano composite increased with increase of SiO2 filler loading, it can be seen thatthe SiO2 filler greatly increased the hardness, which can be attributed to the higher hardness and moreuniform dispersion of SiO2 filler. The higher hardness is exhibited by the 5 wt% SiO2 filled compared to othernanocomposites. The results show that at 5wt% nano SiO2 content there is 11% increase in hardness

Study of the Cure Reaction of Epoxy Resin Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol-A (DGEBA) with Meta- Phenylene Diamine

Najat J. Salah; Bashar J. Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 9, Pages 1658-1673
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2013.82181

The cure process of epoxy resin diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) with aromatic amine (m-PDA) as curing agent was studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) Perkin Elmer Pyris 6, at ratio (15 phr). Isothermal DSC measurements were conducted between 80 and 110 oC, at 10 oC intervals. The maximum degree of cure at isothermal cure temperature 110 oC was 0.9. The isothermal cure process was simulated with Kamal modifier with diffusion model, the model agrees well with the experimental data. For dynamic cure process, the activation energy was determined by two methods. One was based on Kissinger and Ozawa approach, given only one activation energy for the whole curing process. There was a slightly difference between the obtained activation energy and pre-exponential factor, 63.6 and 70.7 kJ mol-1 respectively. Another method was based on isoconversional, given activation energy at any conversion, and observed the Ea decrease with increment conversion (67-63) KJ/mol.