Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Main Subjects : Engineering

Distinguish the Textures of Grasped Objects by Robotic Hand Using Artificial Neural-Network

Hassan D. Salman; Mohsin N. Hamzah; Sadeq H. Bakhy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 9, Pages 1420-1429
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i9.2072

The object identification properties with tactile sensing are valuable in  interaction with the environment for both humans and robots, and it is the core of sensing used for exploration and determining properties of objects that are inaccessible from visual perception. Object identification often involves with rigid mechanical grippers, tactile information and intelligent algorithms. This paper proposes a methodology for feature extraction techniques and discriminates objects for different softness using adaptive robotic grippers, which are equipped with force and angle sensors in each four fingers of an underactuated robot hand. Arduino microcontroller and the Matlab program are integrated to acquire sensor data and to control the gripping action. The neural-network method used as an intelligent classifier to distinguish between different object softness by using feature vector acquired from the force sensor measurements and actuator positions in time series response during the grasping process using only a single closure grasping. The proposed method efficiency was validated using experimental paradigms that involving three sets of model objects and everyday life objects with various shapes, stiffness, and sizes.

Preparing Nanofluids (Al2O3) for Enhancement Performance of Photovoltaic

Mohammed Saadoon; Ibtisam A. Hasan; Mohammed J. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 9, Pages 1445-1453
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i9.2110

Photovoltaic (PV) panels produce electrical energy comparable to the cumulative amount of PV radiation generated on surface of sun. The solar modules influence on temperature of PV panel and for work with its standard specifications in Iraqi environment can be used nanofluid for cooling PV and improve performance. The developed thermal model for proposed cooling method has shown on the way to be an efficient design tool that can help engineers to reduce the time and cost of experimental testing. The improvement in temperature reduction using direct flow technique at rear sides of PV panel achieved electrical and thermal performance enhancement. The enhancement of overall efficiency at 1 g of nanofluid  is  showed  15%  but in 1.5g  nanofluid is  18%. As well as the enhancement of thermal efficiency at 1 g and1.5g of nanofluid are showed 19% and 27% respectively. So in Electrical efficiency at 1 g of nanofluid is showed 11% and in 1.5g  nanofluid is  14%.The experimental results have shown that the utilization of nanofluid (Al2O3) as a result of its high thermal conductivity and tiny particle size. The coefficient of heat transfer and Nusselt number increasing with the increase of concentration of nanofluid, It can be concluded that has great impact, especially in Iraq condition where the temperature is normally high and can improve their performance and efficiency by adding nanofluid for cooling system.

Optimum Parameter Selection for Milling Different Laminate Composites Made by Hand Layup with CNC Milling Machine

Ghadak M. Alkhafaji; Fathi A. Alshamma; Enas A. Khalid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 9, Pages 1352-1361
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i9.1737

Recently, composite materials were widely used in different applications due to their lightweight, and good thermal and mechanical properties. In this study, an attempt to manufacture laminate composites by hand layup was performed. Also, optimal parameters for the best surface roughness were investigated. Therefore, three parameters had been examined; spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut. The L9 Taguchi orthogonal array, signal to noise (S/N) ratio, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were selected to determine the optimum parameters. To create composites, the compression method was employed. Four different types of composites were manufactured with 2.8 mm thickness, to determine the effect of the parameters on the surface roughness and for specified parameters using the CNC milling machine. The weight fraction ratio of fibers was 39%, the polymer was 34%, and 27% for Aluminum. The results showed that the optimum parameters for surface roughness in milling machine of composites for Polyester resin for aluminum–fiberglass composite are; spindle speed=5000 r.p.m, feed rate=1600 mm/min, depth of cut=1.6 mm and Ra=1.853 μm, and for epoxy resin; aluminum–carbon fiber composite is spindle speed=4000 r.p.m, feed rate=800 mm/min, depth of cut=1.2 mm and Ra=2.43 μm.

Hot Spot Analysis of Photovoltaic Module under Partial Shading Conditions by Using IR-Imaging Technology

Ali. H. Numan; Hashim A. Hussein; Zahraa S. Dawood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 9, Pages 1338-1344
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i9.841

The probable appearance of localized overheating (hot spot) represents one of the main matters for the reliability and safety of c-Si cells. It entails both a risk for the photovoltaic module's lifetime and a decrease in its operational efficiency. Partial shading is the most common cause of a hot spot in a PV system. The main aim of this work is to analyze the hotspot phenomena by I-V curve as well as IR thermography and investigate the impact of partial shading on the hottest cell experimentally to find its effect on the output power. The results show that at normal operating conditions (G=865W/m2 and Ta=39.7°C) the output power is 89.05W; the temperature difference between the hottest and cooled cell was about 6°C. Moreover, the short circuit current and consequently, the maximum output power reduced if only one cell fully or partially shaded. However, when the hottest cell is shaded by 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the shaded area, the power losses were 37.17 %, 50.05%, 48.61%, and 52.86% respectively. Wheals, the hottest cell temperature was 80.6, 99.1, 101.4, and 62.4°C for 25, 50, 75, and 100% of the shading area, the major temperature difference observed at 75% of the shading area.

Experimental Study of Air Ejector Performance to Cool Agricultural Products

Hassan S. Jawad; Qusay J. Abdul Ghafoor

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 9, Pages 1437-1444
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i9.2105

In this research, an ejector was designed and manufactured from brass metal as part of a cooling system to cool agricultural products, work of ejector is based on the Venturi principle. The primary fluid is air and steam of product is the secondary fluid, used the primary pressure (1, 8, 1) bar for the purpose of conducting the experiment. The ejector was manufactured from a number of interconnected parts to give the final shape. The performance of the ejector was analyzed theoretically, through operating of system evaporation of water take place in vessel  leads to cooling product at change operation condition and the examination, it was reached:
a- The cooling efficiency of the product increases by increasing the primary pressure.
b- The cooling efficiency of the product increases by decreasing the mass of the product.
c- The loss weight of the product increases by increasing the primary pressure.

An Experimental Investigation of The Dynamic Effects in Upper Drum Boiler Under Steam Mass Flow Rate Variation

Russul Mohammed; Hashim Hussein; Ali H. Numan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 9, Pages 1376-1383
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i9.1998

The dynamic effects in the “upper“ drum of the boiler (mechanical’s effects) are very complex problems and critical due to the pressure disturbance in the upper drum of the boiler. This work deals with an experimental investigation of the dynamic behavior of the boiler drum level system is reported from plant data (Al-Quds power plant) in Baghdad / Iraq under a particular condition of operating, and the mathematical equations of the boiler model variables explained and defined. The dynamic effects are investigated with increasing steam mass flow rate (10% and 20%) at the outlet of the boiler. The results showed that the rapid rise in the rate of steam mass flow causes the dynamic effects to increase (shrink and swell) by 15%, rates of evaporation and thus causes an increase in the volume of water inside the upper drum boiler that causes overheating in the tubes.

Reducing Vibrations Generated in a Gas Turbine Model MS9001E Used in South Baghdad Power Plant Station by Improving the Design of Bearings with Damper

Alaa J. Abdulah; Muhannad Z. Khalifa; Abdul Jabbar O. Hanfesh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 9, Pages 1454-1462
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i9.2134

Gas turbines are engines an energy plant makes use of for generating the rotary motion to show power generators. The gas turbine is largely a combustion engine for changing natural gas or different liquid fuels to rotational mechanical energy. Often, the gas turbine generates excessive noise or vibrations. In this work, the problem of vibrations occurrence in the gas turbine model MS9001E used in the south Baghdad power station is solved. This is done by making a groove in the bearing pad to increase the oil flow, replacing the bearing type with a tilt-pad bearing type with damper. The finite element method was used in the analysis process by ANSYS program. The results showed a decrease in the values of vibration amplitude, total deformation, stress, and strain.

Numerical Analysis of Linear Elevator Structure Using Finite Element Method

Saba A. Othman; Jamal A.-K. Mohammed; Farag M. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 9, Pages 1430-1436
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i9.2083

In this work, the structure of the linear elevator prototype had been investigated numerically using finite element method. The linear motor structure parameters analyzed using Maxwell ANSYS. The time-stepping method depending on Maxwell equations be applied for analyzing and optimizing the magnetic and force characteristics. While the elevator structure parameters were analyzed using ANSYS workbench based on the principle of virtual work. The frame considered as clamped- clamped beam, and the base of the car considered as thin plate with small deflection. The analysis done with maximum applied load of 360 N at 1.5 safety factor. The results show the distribution of the magnetic lines, the flux density values plus the leakage flux inside the slots. The maximum Von-Mises stress and the deformations of the frame and plate at maximum load are acceptable and present save design. In which the maximum deflection of the thin plate not exceed (thickness/5) at maximum design load.  

Enhanced Mechanical and Fatigue Properties In AA5052 Via TiO_2 Nanoparticles Addition Sintering Temperature (ST)

Zahraa J. Kadhim; Hussain J.M. Alalkawi; Ahmed H. Reja

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 9, Pages 1384-1391
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i9.2020

The goal of the present work is to study the effect of different sintering temperatures (900, 1000 and 1100 ) on fatigue and mechanical characteristics of the metal matrix AA5052 reinforced with 5% of TiO2 nanoparticles. The stir casting process is used for manufacturing of AA5052/TiO2 nanocomposite. The mechanical characteristics of nano composites have been obtained at ambient temperature. The results of mechanical properties showed that the best enhancement in hardness (HB), ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and yield strength (YS) is occurred in nanocomposite with 1000  sintering temperature (ST). However, the fatigue test results showed that the samples manufactured under 1000  (ST) have longer fatigue life compared to other materials with different sintering temperatures. The endurance fatigue strength is improved by 7.2% compared to metal matrix. The experimental results showed that the microstructure image of 1000  (ST) composite has uniformly distributed of TiO2 in AA5052 matrix.

Effect of Wavy Fins on Thermal Performance of Double Pass Solar Air Heater

Jalal M. Jalil; Rasha F. Nothim; Mustafa M. Hameed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 9, Pages 1362-1368
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i9.1775

In this paper, experimental study on double pass solar air heater with wavy fins absorber has been investigated. The fins attached to the upper and lower surfaces of the absorber. Two wavy fins arrangement (3 and 7 fins) have been investigated with plan absorber by changing solar radiation intensity (500, 600, 700 and 800 W/m2), air mass flow rate form 0.008575 kg/s to 0.0214375 kg/s. The results of wavy finned absorbers are compared with plane and the improving in thermal efficiency reached 80% and 84% in 3 and 7 wavy fins absorbers respectively.

Electricity Generation from Hydro, Wind, Solar and the Environment

Olumide A. Towoju; Oluwatoyin A. Oladele

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 9, Pages 1392-1398
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i9.2145

Human actions such as electricity generation are contributory causes of climate change. In a quest to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases associated with electricity generation from fossil fuels, the world is turning to renewables. Renewable sources, however, also do have an impact on the environment. Likewise, renewable electricity generation is also dependent on the climate. Hydro, Wind, and Solar are the popular renewable energy sources for the generation of electricity. This work reviews the impact of these renewables in electricity generation on the environment. It also considers the effect of climate change on its use. The construction of renewable electricity generating plants leads to habitat disruptions and can also cause fatalities. Climate change weighs an enormous impact on the performance of renewable electricity generating plants. The recent blackout experienced in Texas as a result of the cold weather is a good example. The end of extreme weather conditions is not yet, and the need to start preparing to prevent a blackout re-occurrence. A possible solution for sustainable renewable electricity generation in extreme weather conditions lies in synthetic fuel availability.

The Influence of Ultrasonic Impact Peening on the Mechanical Properties of Similar Friction Stir Welded Joints of AA 7075-T73

Abdul Ameer H. Jebur; Samir A. Amin; Ibtihal A. Mahmood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 9, Pages 1345-1351
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i9.1725

The purpose of this study is to study the ultrasonic peening influence upon the mechanical properties of the welded joints of 3 mm AA 7075-T73. Friction stir welding (FSW) was carried out by using milling machine and cylindrical tool with tapered pin. The used welding parameters were 710 rpm , 35 mm min for rotational and travel speed , respectively .Tensile tests results showed that the welding efficiency was about 60% for welded samples , and this value increased by using one and two lines ultrasonic peening treatment to 74% , and 71% , respectively , this improvement is due to generating compressive stresses along the surface of welded joints. The microhardness of the welded samples showed that there were fluctuations across the welded centerline and minimum hardness occur in the heat affected zone (HAZ).

The Influence of Convection Heat Transfers for Vertical Mini-Tubes Using Solvent Carbon Dioxide and Porous Media at Supercritical Pressure

Bilal J. Kkihlefa; Ameer A. Jaddoa; Ahmed H. Reja

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 9, Pages 1409-1419
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i9.2068

Porous media and solvent CO2 at supercritical pressure were investigated experimentally to study the effect of convection heat transfer in vertical mini-tubes. Mini-tubes diameter (5 and 8 mm) with medium porosity of 0.5 are proposed in experimental investigation. Experimental conditions consisted of bulk fluid, wall temperatures ranged from 33 to 55 oC, and 8 to 10 MPa of pressure. Reynolds number, Mass flow rate, and heat flux were 1750 to 21000, 0.5 to 4.5 Kg/h, and 3.25×104 to 1.1×105 W/m2 respectively. Some chemical additives like Ethanol, Chloroform, Acetone, Dimethyl sulfoxide, and Methanol were considered. A special focus was dedicated to studying the influence of heat flux, inlet temperature, and mass flow rate at measured values of wall and fluid bulk temperatures, and coefficients of local heat transfer for mini-tubes and porous media. A higher effect was noticed on the convection heat transfer by buoyancy and properties of the thermophysical variable of solvent CO2 in mini-tube at vertical position. However, when these results were compared with the controls (empty tube) shoewn dramatically different results. Heat transfer coefficient was bigger about 4 times when using the porous media tube compared with the empty type in the case of using a 5% of acetone solvent.

A Practical Study of The Thermal Performance of a Vacuum Tube For Solar Collector Using a Double -Sided Electronic Curtain With Nano-Fluid

Nagham A. Majeed; Khalid F. Sultan; Hosham S. Anead

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 9, Pages 1399-1408
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i9.2029

In this research, a practical study and appraisal of the thermal performance for the solar collector with vacuum tube has conducted Two types of nanomaterials (aluminum and aluminum oxide) have added to distilled water with nanoparticles diameters of 30 nm and 50 nm respectively. The nanomaterials were used in three several concentrations and three several flow rates which used as a working fluid in evacuated tube solar collector (ETSC) in order to increase the efficiency and beneficial thermal gain. An electronic double-sided reflective and absorbent electronic curtain were added to enhance the performance and control the temperature of the nanoscale. A clear improvement in efficiency was observed when using the reflective curtain that helped to speed up the Nano fluid heating and controlling the required temperature.

Experimental Investigation of Dimensional Accuracy in Non-traditional Sheet Metal Spinning Process for Producing Rectangular Spun Part

ِِAmmar M. Saleh; Aseel H. Abd; Aqeel S. Bedan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 9, Pages 1369-1375
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i9.1974

The non-conventional spinning process was adopted for producing polygons, but one of the process limitations is the error between design and the final product especially with no-mandrel. Dimensional accuracy was adopted for this purpose which gives an indicator of the ability of the formed part to matches the design and checking validated of the adopted methodology for producing rectangular cross-section spun parts, by comparing the coordinating points of real part with the points of the design model. The point of a real part was measured by using a sphere probe fixed on the three-axis milling machine and capturing the data of machine axis movements for the center location of the probe, also, the measurements oppositely took place, by offsetting the points of design along the normal vector for comparison with the real part points. Three parameters were invested for study the effects on the dimensional accuracy, these parameters are spindle speed (48, 68, and 135 RPM), feed ratio (0.16, 0.22, and 0.32 mm/rev), and the ball diameter of the forming tool (16, 22 and 25 mm). The results show that tool ball diameter mainly affecting dimensional accuracy with a higher value of average error reach (6.47mm) when 16mm diameter of tool ball was used, on the other hand, the minimum average error was 1.705mm at low spindle speed.

Determination of Suitable Areas for Establishment of Sports-City in Iraq's Center Using an Integrated Fuzzy Logic Algorithm and Geomatic Techniques

Haidar R. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 8, Pages 1291-1300
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i8.2094

In recent times, many cities have clustered new sports infrastructures in concentrated areas to create a sports city. Al Hillah City as one of the biggest cities in the center of Iraq, because of many components' countryside relocation and natural expansion of population, and other has been distinguished; extreme population expansion and lastly evolution in need of planning in some inner-city areas and places. Consequently, designated areas in terms of premier spatial allocation and appropriate location for users of general services; sports services that are rapid, on time, and at ease access to them are essential that are not considered. A small- scale recognition has spent on critical aspects of sports utilization for land measure and appropriately locating. This issue has been minimized the premier performance of these spaces and creates problems for the city and its citizens. The premier performance of these spaces has been minimized because of the above-mentioned issue, which creates difficulties for the city and its residents. This research conducted based on the integration between Fuzzy logic algorithm and GIS techniques, spatial analysis tools in ArcGIS software were utilized to implement this method. The results showed that the most suitable areas include three areas that are located on the north-west and the south of the study area. On the other hand, the largest area located on the north-west location respect to Al-Hillah city, the center of Babylon Province, which is considered the proposed area to construct sports city. This study will be useful for decision-makers and stockholders by reducing cost, time, and efforts through decreasing field works.

Operation of Mosul – Dokan Reservoirs and Samarra Barrage Using HEC – ResSim Model During Dry Period

Thabet M. Abdulateef; Raad H. Irzooki; Ali S. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 8, Pages 1273-1280
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i8.1991

The issue of time series records containing low inflow than normal, such critical period results in shortage in reservoir storage, thereby reduction in the reservoir's releases that satisfy the demands. When the expected available water is less than the demand, releases may be curtailed, and the reservoir is under stress. This study presents an application of HEC – ResSim model to simulate the operation of Mosul, Dokan Reservoirs, and Samarra Barrage during the dry period 19992000 (modeling of historical data). Simulated results and recorded data were compared in order to, first improve the applicability of the software to simulate reservoir operation by calibrating the model during the period (1990 2000), and the second to identify the similarity and differences between recorded and model result during dry period. The aim of applying this software is to manage the operation of reservoir's system by establishing an operation policy for each reservoir. The simulation plots for Mosul Reservoir, exhibit storage pool elevation within the conservation zone including the ability of release of minimum downstream requirement and the operating Dokan pool reservoir is less than the conservation level. The upstream of Samarra Barrage pool elevation is affected by the look back level with the consideration of normal and minimum operation levels.

Function and Application of Geogrid in Flexible Pavement under Dynamic Load

Fatin F. Jebur; Mohammed Y. Fattah; Ahmed S. Abduljabbar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 8, Pages 1231-1241
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i8.1771

Nowadays, the increasing demand for road transport makes maintenance and repair of road infrastructures key tasks of road engineering. The current experimental work consists of laboratory model experiments to understand the conduct of sand as a subgrade under dynamic load and its effect on the flexible pavement and base layer. The reinforcement is applied at the interface between the base and subgrade using SS2 type of geogrid. The road layers are exposed to harmonic dynamic load with two load amplitudes of 10 and 15 kN and two frequencies of 0.5 and 1 Hz. The vertical stresses in the road layers are measured using stress a gauge sensor. In the case of a reinforcing geogrid in the middle of the base course, the stress decreases by increasing the frequency and load amplitudes by about (23-42(. The best position for geogrid is in the middle of the crushed stone layer because it gives the lower displacement. In the case of a reinforcing layer at the middle of the base course layer, the stress and vertical displacement decrease with increasing in frequency and load amplitudes. When laying the geogrid between the base course and subgrade, a lower decrease in the stress and vertical displacement could be obtained with the increase in frequency and loads.

Utilization of Satellite Images-Based Indices for Assessment of Al-Hammar Marsh Restoration plan

Bayda A. Dhaidan; Imzahim A. Alwan; Mahmoud S. Al-Khafaji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 8, Pages 1328-1337
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i8.2149

Wetland landscape characterization is an important component of determining the degree to which wetlands improve environmental conditions. The present study aims to create a model used to automated extraction of the land cover of the western part of the Al-Hammar Marsh south of Iraq, and then monitor the change in land cover overtime. A model builder in ArcGIS created based on a series of spectral-based indices included the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI), and the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), the OLI satellite images from 2013 to 2020, ENVI 5.3 and ArcGIS 10.4 were used to achieve this goal. The results were six land cover classes: water, density vegetation, medium dense vegetation, low dense vegetation, wet barren land and, dry barren land. From the monitoring of the changing trend, it is clear that there is no improvement in the vegetation area, only a slight temporal improvement to 48% in 2017, an increase in water area for the years 2019 and 2020 to 47.33%, and 42.85% from the total area of the marsh respectively. The highest percentage was in 2019 while decreasing to the lowest rate of 14.05% for the year 2018.  The developed model was accepted and can be applied for reflectance Landsat 8 data in the study area and can be applied in the southern Iraqi marshes. It also can be applied to other types of sensors, but according to determinants.

Settlement of Shallow Foundation in Dry Sand Under an Earthquake

Mohammed A. Al-Neami; Falah H. Rahil; Ahmed F. Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 8, Pages 1206-1215
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i8.527

Seismically induced settlement of buildings with shallow foundations resting on dry sand soils has resulted in severe damage in recent earthquakes. A multi-degree of freedom shaking table and a fixed container were manufactured and used to study the foundation settlement. Series of shaking experiments on the shallow foundation situated in a center of the container and atop of a dry sandy soil has been performed to identify the mechanisms involved to calculate the foundation settlement induced by earthquake shaking. In this research, the important factors are identified, including shaking intensity, the soil relative density, the degree of freedom and the building’s weight. Two relative densities (55 % and 80%) are used and three local magnitudes of earthquakes (5.8, 6.4, and 7.2) (Anza, Jalisco, and Guerrero) respectively with one and two degrees of freedom. The results of the shaking indicated that shallow foundation settlement on the dry sand increases with the increase of the local magnitude of earthquakes and maximum acceleration. In the case of Anza, the percentage decrease in the settlement between the relative density of 55% and 80% for systems (x and xy) is (47% and 42%) respectively. While in the case of Jalisco and Guerrero, the percentage decreases in their settlement and for the same systems is (11% and 57%), (36% and 36%) respectively. The degree of freedom has an impact on the foundation settlement; it is proportional to the degree of freedom. Also, the results show that the settlement decreases when the relative density of sand increases.

Improvement of Soft Clayey Soil by Bio-polymer

Teba A. Abd; Mohammed Y. Fattah; Mohammed F. Aswad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 8, Pages 1301-1306
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i8.2053

This examination explains the utilization of bio-polymer powder for clayey soil enhancement. The article concentrates around examining the strength attitude of the clayey soils built up with homogenous bio-polymer. Carboxy methyl cellulose was determined as bio-polymer material to build up the normal soft clayey soil. The biopolymer has been added to the soil with two separated rates (0.5 and 3%) by total weight of soil. Different tests were carried out to consider the impact of utilizing this polymer as a balancing out specialist on the geotechnical properties of soil. It was estimated that as the bio-polymer content expands in the soil, the specific gravity decreases, while the optimum water content (OMC) is expanded. The results showed different effects on Atterberg’s limits; by increasing the liquid limit(L.L) and plasticity index(P.I) while the plastic limit decrease. The tests additionally mirrored a huge improvement in the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of the treated soils. With the increment in biopolymer content, the consolidation index (Compression index Cc and recompression index Cr) decrease.

Distribution of Pressures on Modified Stepped Spillway by Using Toothed-Steps

Jaafar S. Maatooq; Ameer L. Jasim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 8, Pages 1265-1270
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i8.1957

In the present study a new steeped spillway shape at which “toothed steps” have been adopted instead of traditional steps to enhance the amount and distribution of water pressure along the chute of the stepped spillway. Experiments were conducted under a skimming flow regime, on five physical models of spillway one of which consisted of traditional steps used as a base model. For all investigated models, the chute angle was 45° with fourteen steeps each of 3cm height. Generally, the results show that the new shape models enhance the pressure distribution and reducing the potential for negative pressures along the chute, as well as, reducing the values of positive pressures that usually impact the tread. Specifically, close to the crest, the differences in pressure values being clearly large between the toothed steps modelsand the traditional steps. The new configurations of steps reduce the positive pressures between 116.66% to 1.28 % and the negative pressures were generally close to zero.

Punching Shear Resistance of Reinforced Concrete Flat Slabs Strengthened by CFRP and GFRP: A Review of Literature

Hadi N. G. Al-Maliki; Ali Al-Balhawi; Asma M. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 8, Pages 1281-1290
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i8.2011

Flat reinforced concrete (RC) slabs or plates are still widely used in buildings and are most popular in single or multiple story floor construction systems. This is due to the ease and speed of implementation as well as the continuous smoothness that is provided in relation to the locations of members. Flat slab systems have an inadequate shear strength in both directions. Thus, they are subjected to a shear failure at their intersections with columns, which results in the collapse of a larger part of the structure. Shear failure occurs due to many reasons including changing the functions of the facility, the technical errors in the design and implementation procedures, an increase in the load, deterioration of materials, and poor quality. The carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets/strips and glass fiber reinforced concrete polymer (GFRP) are used as a composite section formulated when there is a structural deficiency. Strengthening by using CFRP and GFRP provide an improvement in the punching shear resistance in both directions as well as flexural strength, ductility, and hardness. They are more suitable for a practical use as a substitute for other costly and difficult approaches such as increase the cross-sectional area of columns and so on. This paper reviews the up to date studies of enhancing the shear resistance of flat slabs by CFRP/GFRP and discusses the used materials for strengthening flat slabs and the used methods, which are used to implement these materials. Also, a summary for the cited studies are stated and the possible future works are suggested.

Earthquake Response of Model Footings on Soft Clays Strengthened by Stone Columns

Ann M. Raheem; Mohammed Y. Fattah; Makki K. M. Al-Recaby

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 8, Pages 1216-1222
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i8.1651

The objective of the present study is to understand the behavior of soft soil strengthened by stone columns under dynamic seismic load. Ordinary and encased stone columns were used under different conditions. The present study converges around the dynamic response of stone columns of lateral shaking, the interaction of soil frame for understanding settlement mechanisms and the prediction of dynamic load limitations of foundations in soft soils subjected to seismic load (during vibrations).  The results of this research will provide the basis for assessing measures to reduce the severity of seismic hazards and the seismic design of foundation structures in soft soils. As a result, soil models will be tested on the shaking table to make seismic ground vibration under several conditions (frequencies, undrained shear strength of soft soil, for stone columns type both ordinary and encased stone columns). It was concluded that the values of horizontal displacement increase by increasing the loading frequency, as well as the horizontal displacement is faster and greater at 2 Hz than 0.5 and 1 Hz in all cases. The rate of horizontal displacement increases in models on the soil of undrained shear strength cu= 15 kPa is greater than that in undrained shear strength cu= 25 kPa because increasing the strength of the soft soil leads to greater resistance to deformation and a decrease in the level of horizontal displacement.

Shear Strength of Reinforced Fibrous-self Compacted Concrete Box Girder using Recycled Concrete Aggregate

Mohammed A. Hadi; Eyad K. Sayhood; Ali S. Resheq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 8, Pages 1307-1320
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i8.2100

Protection of environmental and conservation of natural resources is a fundamental issue in today’s world. In this research, the shear behavior of reinforced concrete box girders with recycled aggregate (RA), steel fiber, and internal diaphragms were investigated. Eleven reinforced concrete box girders with typical longitudinal and transverse reinforcement were tested under two point loading until failure. The RA was prepared by crushing the collected waste of concrete from the laboratory test cylinders and cubes. The experimental variables considered include; RA percent of 50%, 75%, and 100%(replacing from NA), steel fiber with volumetric ratios (Vf) of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2%, diaphragm numbers (two and three).The test results revealed that the shear strength of the box girders affected by the RA content, the ultimate load was decreased by (32, 25, and 19) % for the (100, 75, and 50) %RA concrete, respectively in compared with the control specimen. In contrast the steel fiber was more effective in strengthening of the RA concrete specimen, for the (Vf) of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0% with non-fibrous 100% RA concrete, the strengthening were (25, 40, and 77) % respectively. Moreover, when 1.0% steel fibers added to the 100%, 75%, and 50%RA concrete respectively, the strengthening were (40 ,45 ,and48 )% compared  each with its reference specimen.  On the other hand, when two and three diaphragms used, the strengthening for the non-fibrous 100% RA concrete was (6% and 9%) respectively. cracking load, ultimate load, load- deflection, and concrete surface strain has been taken into consideration in this research.

Carbon Fiber-Based Cementitious Composites for Traffic Detection and Weighing In Motion

Dhurgham Ghadhban; Hasan H. Joni; Ali M. Al-Dahawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 8, Pages 1250-1256
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i8.1875

New self-sensing cementitious composites embedded in the highway pavement for vehicle detection and weigh during motion is fabricated. Smart carbon fiber (CF) reinforced cement-based materials with high sensitive property are used as sensors. These smart composites may be able to detect the traffic and sense the weight in motion, thanks to their piezoresistive property. Cement-based sensors capability to vehicle detection was investigated in a real field at the University of Technology campus. Findings clarify that the CF-Based cementitious composites provide have a great potential to use as sensors for detect traffic and its composition also it possibly identifies different vehicular axle loadings (weigh during motion).

The Behavior of Piles Installed in Medium Dense Sand Within MSE Wall System

Salah M. Hamza; Shaymaa T. Kadhim; Saad F. A. Al-Wakel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 8, Pages 1249-1256
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i8.1848

Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls (MSE) were widely used in several essential infrastructures, such as the abutments on a bridge. The need for a support base of a shallow or a deep bridge increased in the MSE wall system. In this research, factors affecting the performance of laterally loaded piles embedded in medium dense sand with a relative density of 50% behind an MSE wall were studied using lower-scale models in the laboratory. For instance, the effect of pile offset and the slenderness ratio on the pile's lateral capacity and pressure on the MSE wall. Three different slenderness ratios were introduced (i.e. L/D of 19.3, 21.7, and 24.1). The results showed a significant increase in pile lateral capacity occurring with the increase in pile offset or slenderness ratio (i.e., L/D). While increasing the pile offset reduced, the pressure on the wall so that the wall's effect will be insignificant when the pile offset reaches a value of 6D.

Variation of Consistency Limits and Compaction Characteristics of Clayey Soil with Nanomaterials

Noor M. Tarsh; Mohammed A. Al-Neami; Kawther Y. H. Al-Soudany

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 8, Pages 1257-1264
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i8.1930

The arrangement of the soil for every ground structure is so important and must be efficient to sustain the whole structure. The variables and properties that have influenced their behavior must be well known. The building constructed on soft soils may fail due to their low strength, and an excessive settlement of the soil under a constant load could occur, therefore, the improvement for such soils must be carried out before construction to eliminate or decrease the maintenance cost or failure in buildings. Nowadays, one of the new technologies using to improve problematic soil is nanomaterials. In this study, experimental tests were conducted to: Investigate the effect of using conventional materials and nanomaterials on the physical properties (consistency limits and compaction characteristics) of soft soil. The soft soils were gathered from one site and process with four material types (fly-ash, silica fume, nano fly-ash, nano-silica fume). Additives were supplement in a tiny amount (≤5%) by the dry weight of the soil. The results showed a significant improvement in maximum dry density and plasticity index and the improvement depends on the type of nanomaterials. The maximum dry density has increased as the content of nanomaterials has increased until this value of maximum dry density reduces the strength of the soil to the optimum percentage. Thus, even at a low dose, the addition of soft particles such as nano materials may improve soil characteristics.

Evaluating the Use of Eggshell Waste Ash in High Strength Concrete

Basim H. Amanah; Wasan I. Khalil

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 8, Pages 1321-1327
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i8.2102

This study aims to determine the effect of incorporating eggshell waste as partial compensation from Portland cement material on high-strength concrete mixtures' performance. The properties studied are workability, compressive and flexural strengths, water absorption, dry density, and thermal conductivity. In the same trend, the environmental impact of the replacement mentioned above is evaluated. Four different weight percentages (0%,5%,10%,15%, and 20%) of the cement were replaced with eggshells ash. The results indicate that the incorporation of eggshell powder improves the compressive strength and flexural strength by about 14.7% and 6.5%, respectively, at 28days age over control concrete mixes at 15% replacement. The optimum replacement ratio was found to be 15% based on the strength. Furthermore, the results showed a reduction in water absorption and thermal conductivity as 15% of eggshell ash was used as a replacement by cement weight with 10.7% and 10.65 respectively, besides the reduction in the amount of cement used in the mixture. These results are positively reflected in supporting natural resources' sustainability and depleting the ozone layer by reducing the emitted gases.

A Desirability Function for Evaluation of Corrosion Behavior for Nanocoated- Steel Using Electroless Technique

Muroog M. Shinyar; Abbas Kh. Hussein; Laith K. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 6, Pages 946-955
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i6.2009

The current work is conducting an experimental investigation into the effect of those technical parameters, called nanomaterial, bath temperature and plating time on the micro-hardness and corrosion rate of electroless plated low carbon steel undergoing electroless deposition operation. It was used to prepare (Ni-P/ Nano TiO2), (Ni-P/ Nano Al2O3) and (Ni -P/ Nano SiO2) alloys in this research. The Taguchi design is used to describe the variations located within the corrosion and mechanical properties. To achieve a comprehensive study, a Taguchi-based design was used to account for all applicable combinations of factors. Experimental models had been advanced that linking the response and method parameters to the results of those experiments. Validation of these models is done using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The desirability function is used to simultaneously optimize all the response. Finally, the optimum combination of method parameters resulting (bath temperature=90 oC, plating time =120 min.  and Nanomaterial=(Al2O3)), nanomaterial was observed to be the major process parameter on the responses of the electroless-plated low carbon steel with an impact ratio of (47%) based on the (ANOVA) results. 

Effect of Hollow Shape on the Behavior of Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Slender Column Under Eccentric Loading

Maha Ghaddar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 6, Pages 884-892
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i6.1504

Results of testing reinforced self-compacted concrete slender columns having longitudinal holes concealing PVC pipe in their cross sections under axial compression load and uniaxial bending are presented in this paper. The effect of hollow shape on the performance of slender columns having 200x200mm quadratic cross section and 1300mm long under concentric and eccentric loads was investigated. Three different shapes of central hole: circular, square, and lozenge pattern in addition to the different load eccentricity values were considered to investigate the axial loading resistance and cracking load, lateral and longitudinal deflections of the columns. Test results have showed that altering the hollow shape inside the area of column cross section does not show a great influence on the column behavior unless the hollow ratio changed. The effect of hole shape or the hollow ratio on loading capacity is insignificant but the existence of a hole embedded longitudinally in the column significantly decreases its ultimate capacity. The effect of hollow shape or hollow ratio on a slender columns behavior subjected to eccentric loading with small ratio of load eccentricity to total column thickness (e/h=.33) was more than that of large eccentricity (e/h=1.0). Accordingly, the decrease in loading column capacity of columns was (5.0%, 2.5%, and 6.6%) compared to (3.2%, 2.2%, and 4.7%) for the same hole shapes respectively.

Study of CuS Thin Films Deposited by PLD Simulated for Prism Based SPR Sensor

Isaac S. Najm; Ali Alwahib; Suad M. Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 6, Pages 936-945
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i6.1973

Copper Sulfide CuS thin film was prepared using pulsed laser deposition PLD technique and characterized by X-ray and SEM. The optical, structural, and morphological properties are examined at different energies 500 mJ, 600 mJ, 700 mJ, and 800 mJ. The best result was 600 mJ which annealed at various annealing temperatures 300°C, 350°C, 400°C, and 450°C. The effect of thermal annealing on CuS thin film was examined X-ray and SEM. CuS Film was simulated using a prism-based SPR optical sensor. This paper introduces the optical test study of CuS thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition technique on the quartz substrate and supported by theoretical application study under the effect of surface plasmon resonance (SPR). In this research field, the optical and morphological characteristics of the CuS thin film were deposited by PLD at different laser energies. The annealing process was applied for better-deposited thin-film; the XRD results, SEM images, transmittance T%, and energy gap Eg were analyzed thoroughly and compared to evaluate the thin-film. This effort was made in an in-depth analysis of CuS thin film deposited by PLD on the quartz substrate and applied theoretically in surface plasmon application.

The Effect of the Waste of Materials and Carbon Nanotube on the Concrete Incorporated with Steel Fibers

Mayada H. Saleem; Farhad. M. Othman; Alla A. Abdul-Hameed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 6, Pages 956-964
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i6.2018

The addition of agricultural and industrial solid wastes and nanomaterials to concrete combined with steel fibers to improve the mechanical and electrical properties of concrete was investigated. This approach could be used in advanced applications in electromagnetic shielding and conductive concrete. Steel fibers were used at 2%wt. of sand and (induction furnace slag (EIF), carbon nanotube (CNT), steel wool fibers, prepared corn husks) at 0.5 and 1 wt.%. of cement. Obtained results of using 1% for both carbon nanotube and steel wool with steel fibers in the mixture 4 and 6, respectively, showed the highest rates of compressive strength. A similar result was shown when tested at 3,7 and 28 days of age and compressive strength was 47.4MPa,47.34MPa for the mixture 4 and 6 respectively. The electrical conductivity and electrical resistance of the samples were measured at the age of 7 days. The findings have also shown that adding steel wool as well as( CNT) gave the best results and the sample containing the furnace slag achieved satisfactory results as well.

Indices-Based Evaluation of Spatiotemporal Distribution of Drought Within Derbendkhan Dam Watershed

Mahmoud Saleh Al-Khafaji; Rusul A.H. Al-Ameri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 6, Pages 893-914
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i6.1802

Drought is one of the most significant natural disasters in Iraq. It has a strong impact on the water resources in Iraq. Consequently, it causes massive environmental damage, economic deficiency, and social problems to the country. Therefore, more considerations towards the study and management of drought has become of vital importance in recent decades.
In this paper, three drought indices (DIs) were computed for evaluation of the spatiotemporal of drought within Derbendikhan Dam Watershed (DDW) in the Diyala River Basin, Iraq. Based on the monthly weather data for the period (1984 – 2013) downloaded from the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) for eight stations located within DDW. The Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI), standardized precipitation index (SPI) and Streamflow Drought Index (SDI) at 12-month time scale were computed to assess droughts in the DDW. For each index, the temporal variations of the drought severity and Drought Frequency Patterns (DFPs) for the period (1984 – 2013) were computed and analyzed. In addition, spatial distributions of the drought severity for each index were mapped and investigated. Accordingly, the DFPs were compared to specify the dominant and/or more frequent DFPs. The results show that the performances of different DIs are strongly correlated with the dominant factors of droughts and drought duration. Also, the SPI and SDI are less accurate than the RDI when both precipitation and evaporation are the main factors controlling the drought events. However, the SPI and SDI indices are identical in the same proportions of the dry years which are less than the ratio of dry years to an RDI, but the severity of the drought from the SDI results is higher than the severity of the drought relative to the SPIand RDI. The three indices indicate that the Eastern region is drier than the Western region, which is somewhat wet.

An Experimental Study of Porous Hydroxyapatite Scaffold Bioactivity in Biomedical Applications

Auday A. Mehatlaf; Alaa A. Atiyah; Saad B. H. Farid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 6, Pages 977-985
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i6.2059

Hydroxyapatite is one of the most bioactive materials used in tissue engineering due to its excellent biocompatibility and chemical composition which is equivalent to the mineral element of bone. In this study, polymer sponge replication method was used to fabricate porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds. Pure phase of hydroxyapatite scaffolds and the chemical bonding were verified via Fourier Transform Infrared and X-ray diffraction. Emission scanning electron microscopy (F E S E M) examination showed that the proposed scaffold has high interconnected pores that were achieved just after sintering at temperatures 1350 ºC for 2 hours. The percentage porosity values were estimated to be between 75–78 percent. The bioactivity of porous scaffolds was also investigated. They were submerged in a slurry of simulated body fluid (S B F) for seven, fourteen, and twenty-one days, respectively. Both FESEM and XRD analysis have confirmed the bioactivity of the prepared porous hydroxyapatite scaffold through the formation of a dense layer of apatite on its surface. Based on the results, the porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds could be recommended as a critical option for bone defects as well as replacement applications.

Outdoor Localization in Mobile Robot with 3D LiDAR Based on Principal Component Analysis and K-Nearest Neighbors Algorithm

Hanan A. Atiyah; Mohammed Y. Y.

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 6, Pages 965-976
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i6.2032

Localization is one of the potential challenges for a mobile robot. Due to the inaccuracy of GPS systems in determining the location of the moving robot alongside weathering effects on sensors such as RGBs (e.g. rain and light-sensitivity(. This paper aims to improve the localization of mobile robots by combining the 3D LiDAR data with RGB-D images using deep learning algorithms. The proposed approach is to design an outdoor localization system. It is divided into three stages. The first stage is the training stage where 3D LiDAR scans the city and then reduces the dimensions of 3D LiDAR data to 2.5D image. This is based on PCA method where these data are used as training data. The second stage is the testing data stage. RGB and depth image in IHS method are combined to generate 2.5D fusion image. The training and testing of these datasets are based on using Convolution Neural Network. The third stage consists of using the K-Nearest Neighbor algorithm. This is the classification stage to get high accuracy and reduces the training time. The experimental results obtained prove the superiorly of the proposed approach with accuracy up to 97.52%, Mean Square of Error of 0.057568, and Mean error in distance equals 0.804 meters.

Effect of Input Parameters on SR and MRR for Tool Steel AISI L2 By Electric Discharge Machine (EDM)

Shukry H. Aghdeab; raead rashed; Tahseen M. Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 6, Pages 928-935
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i6.1849

Electric discharge machine (EDM) or may be call electric spark machine is one of the most important cutting process or manufacturing process because it gives high accurate dimension and can be produced the most complex shape. In this present material removal rate and surface roughness for tool steel AISI L2 studied. The input parametric for this process is current, pulse on time (Ton) and pulse off time (Toff).A full factorial method is used to formulate machine parameters and find the optimal process parameters of an electric spark. The result shows that the Surface roughness increasing with increasing current and pulse on time is increases while no effect by increase in pulse off time. Best surface roughness when using low current and pulse in time. The material removal rate is increasing with increasing in current and pulse on time while decreasing when pulse of time is increased. The experimented and predicted values by using Minilab17 software ​​of this process are approximately equal.

Investigating The Effect of Magnetite (Fe3O4) Nanoparticles on Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Resin

Ehab Kaadhm; Khansaa D. Salman; Ahameed Hameed Raja

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 6, Pages 986-995
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i6.2063

In this paper, study the effects of magnetite nanomaterial Fe3O4 on the mechanical properties of epoxy. Dispersion of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the epoxy resin was performed by ultrasonication. The samples of the nanocomposites were prepared using the casting method. The nanocomposites contain epoxy resins as a matrix material incorporated by different weight percentages of magnetite Fe3O4 that varies from 0wt.% to 15wt.% as a reinforcing material. The epoxy with the additive reinforcement materials Fe3O4 was slowly mixed in a sonication bath for 15 minutes, then the mixture poured into silicon molds. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy FESEM and X-ray diffraction spectra XRD were used to characterize the morphological and structural properties of preparing samples and the distribution of Fe3O4 nanoparticles to the epoxy resin. Mechanical testing consists of tensile, hardness shore, and three-point flexural tests were performed on the samples at room temperature according to ASTM standards. The results showed that reinforcement by 15wt.% of Fe3O4 nanoparticles maximizes these mechanical properties of nanocomposites compared with pure epoxy except for the young modulus's preferred weight at 9 wt.%, this is due to aggregation of the additives nanomaterials in epoxy resin above 9 wt.%.

Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of the Seismic Retrofitting of Existing Buildings

Shirin A. Abdulla; Mohammed J. Hamood; Mohammed A.E. Al Hamdani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 6, Pages 915-927
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i6.1834

Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is a helpful tool for finding solutions to civil engineering problems. In this paper, the numerical analysis was performed by simulating an experimental test by using FEA tools, Abaqus /CAE2019 was used to develop and retrofit solutions to sustain existing structures for seismic hazard. The 3D building was modeled, and nonlinear analysis was adopted. This experimental building was tested at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the ELSA facility that is in Ispra-Italy. This model was a building of a full-scale four-story tested using the pseudo-dynamic (PsD) techniques.
The retrofitting model was done by adding new RC walls with different connection details to the existing building. This building corresponding in gravity design only. The goal of the experimental test was to study the effectiveness of adding RC infill walls as retrofitting method, including designing it and the contribution of dowels that connect the new infill wall to the existing RC building. In other words, it is a strengthen method carry out by conversion of selected bays into new infilled RC walls.
 The results of analytical modeling of the RC structure in the Abaqus software show that the percentage of differences of X- Direction in top story displacement between Abaqus software and Experimental tested at ELSA results are 2.47% in positive and 3.12% for negative X direction, which refer to a very good similarity and accurate building simulation.

Optimized PID Control of Quadrotor System Using Extremum Seeking Algorithm

Abdullah N. Muhsen; Safanah M. Raafat

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 6, Pages 996-1010
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i6.1850

This paper presents the development of an automatic tuning of conventional PI-D controllers for Quadrotor system. The most critical problem of tuning the parameters of the PID, is that they can drastically affect the performance of the system. Accordingly, Extremum seeking (ES) algorithm is utilized here to reduce a selected cost function that brings the required performance aspects. The results show that the ES-PID controller provides better stability and performance as compared with only PI-D controller. The parameters of ES-PID controller have been successfully tuned and modified to reach the desired destination with significantly less overshoot, oscillations, and faster convergence.

Flexural Properties of Functionally Graded Polymer Alumina Nanoparticles

Mahdi M. S. Shareef; Ahmed N. Al-Khazraji; Samir A. Amin

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 5A, Pages 821-835
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i5A.1949

In this paper, a functionally graded polymer nanocomposite (FGPNC) was arranged via mixing the Alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles (50 – 100 nm) with an epoxy matrix through five layers of 1.2 mm thickness for each layer using hand lay–up technique. Different volume fractions were taken (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) % of the used nanoparticles and were cast in molds made from acrylic for creating the graded composite sheet in the thickness direction. The prepared isotropic specimen was tested by tensile and compressive test. The results showed that the (4% Vf of Al2O3) has the best enhancement of the ultimate tensile strength (85.25% from neat epoxy) and decreased thereafter. Flexural properties of three different types of functionally graded materials (FGMs), including FGM1, FGM2 and FGM3, isotropic nanocomposite (2% Al2O3) and pristine epoxy were obtained. Flexural strength and flexural modulus of the functionally graded polymer nanocomposite for each type of FGMs enhanced by (51.7%) and (67%), respectively for the FGM1 loaded from the neat epoxy side, whereas for the FGM1 loaded from the (4%) side, the improvement in these properties was (17.8%) and (29.4%), correspondingly over those for the neat epoxy. For FGM2, the improvement in the flexural strength was (27%) and (71.8%) for the flexural modulus as compared with pristine epoxy. The enhancement in the flexural strength of FGM3 was (27%) and flexural modulus (57.7%). Design Modeler (ANSYS Workbench) was used to verify the experimental flexural test results. A very good agreement was found between the experimental and numerical results with a maximum error of (3.92%) in the flexural modulus for FGM1 loaded from the composite side.

Secured Medical Image Hashing Based on Frequency Domain with Chaotic Map

Amira K. Jabbar; Ashwaq T. Hashim; Qusay F. Al-Doori

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 5A, Pages 711-722
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i5A.1786

Recently, online-medicine got increased global interest, particularly during COVID19 pandemic. Data protection is important in the medical field since when promoting telemedicine applications, it is necessary to protect the patient data and personal information. A secured process is needed to transmit medical images over the Internet. In this paper hash algorithm is employed to protect the data by using powerful features from the coupled frequency domains of the Slantlet Transformation (SLT) and the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). The Region of Interest (ROI) is localized from an MRI image then extraction of a feature set is performed for calculating the hash code. Then, hash code is enciphered to maintain security by employing a secure Chaotic Shift Keying (CSK). The suggested method of security is ensured by the strength of the CSK and the encryption key secrecy.  A detailed analysis was conducted using 1000 uncompressed images that were chosen randomly from a publicly available AANLIB database. The proposed methodology can be useful for JPEG compression. Also, this method could resist many attacks of image processing likes filtering, noise addition, and some geometric transforms.

Effect of Adding TiO2on Some Mechanical Properties of Galloy

Osamah A. Khadhair; Rana A. Anaee; Kadhum M. Shabeeb

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 5A, Pages 695-702
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i5A.1395

Because of importance the Ga alloys in dental applications, many attempts were  done  to  improve  the  properties  of  this  alloy. The  currentwork involves  addition  of  TiO2nanotube  powder  to  Galloy  to  improve  somemechanical  properties.  These  properties  included  hardness,  compression, and creep. The characterization of prepared TiO2/Galloys with five wt% of TiO2(1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 wt%) was done by XRD and SEM/EDS. The results showed  that  the  hardness,  compression, were  increased  with  increasing percentage  of  added  TiO2,  while  creep  decrease.Some phases  such as β-Sn,  Ag2Ga  and  Ag9In4were  contributed  to  improve  the  properties  of  new TiO2/Galloycomposites.

Quadratic Support Vector Machine and K-Nearest Neighbor Based Robust Sensor Fault Detection and Isolation

Ahmed M. Abed; Sabah A. Gitaffa; Abbas H. Issa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 5A, Pages 859-869
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i5A.2002

Fault detection plays a serious role in high-cost and safety-critical processes. There are two main drivers for continuous improvement in the area of early detection of process faults safety and reliability of technical plants. Detect fault in Geophone string sensors (SG-10) are very important in oil exploration to avoid loss economy. Methods are developed to enable earlier detection of process faults than the traditional limit and trend checking based on a single process variable and the development of these methods is a key matter. Classification methods will be used for pattern recognition and as such is appropriate for fault detection. In supervised training input-output pairs, both for normal and fault conditions, are presented to the network. The models were trained on the free fault and fault sensors. Then the Quadratic Support Vector Machine (QSVM) and k-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) as the classifiers are used. The test results for measuring the performance of 1232 sample classifiers from data show that the accuracy of fault-free sensor recognition is 97.4 % and 100% consecutively for these classifiers.

Experimental Investigation of The Optimal Location of PCM Capsules in a Hollow Brick Wall

Hayder Abbas; Jalal M. Jalil; Sabah T. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 5A, Pages 846-858
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i5A.1980

In this paper, an experimental investigation of the integration of PCM capsules as insulation material into the outer or inner rows of hollow brick to find out the optimum location of the PCM capsules that give the best thermal performance of a wall. A test model consists of two identical cubical rooms was designed and fabricated to test the wall with and without PCM in a natural outdoor condition in Diwaniyah city in Iraq during the summer. The results show that the PCM will reduce the temperature of the inner side of the test wall and test room by 2.7℃ for the PCM capsules in the inner row while the reduction in both the inner surface temperature and the room due to the use of the capsules in the outer row was 1.9℃. The time lag for the two cases was 1 hour. So that, the inner row location of PCM is the optimum location.

Humidification Effect on the Performance and Emissions of (DI) Diesel Engine Running on Diesel Fuel with Biodiesel Blended Nano Additives

Hussein Jumaa; Mahmoud A. Mashkour

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 5A, Pages 790-803
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i5A.1935

The effect of humidification of the air on the performance of a compression ignition engine operating on diesel, biodiesel with nano additives was investigated. The experiment was carried out on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, naturally aspirated water-cooled, direct injection Ricardo (E6/US) diesel engine at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and varying loads. A mixture of Biodiesel (waste cooking oil) and diesel fuel by four ratios (B5, B10, B15, and B20) was used in the experiment. Besides, five concentrations of Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3, with particle size 20 nm) as fuel-additives were prepared (10 ppm, 30 ppm, 50 ppm, 70 ppm, and 100 ppm), and added to the test fuels (Bio-Diesel).  Taguchi Method by DOE was used for the optimization in this investigation. The results of Taguchi Method experiments identified the biodiesel (B20), nano additive (100 ppm), relative humidity (65%). The experimental results manifested that BTE improved by 17.62% and BSFC decreased by 12.72%, while NOx and PM reduced by 8.45%, 24.17%, respectively.

Modeling and Control of Wheeled Mobile Robot With Four Mecanum Wheels

Sameh F. Hasana; Hasan M. Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 5A, Pages 779-789
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i5A.1926

This work presents a driving control for the trajectory tracking of four mecanum wheeled mobile robot (FMWMR). The control consists of Backstepping-Type 1 Fuzzy Logic-Particle swarm optimization i.e.,(BSC-T1FLC-PSO). The kinematic and dynamic models have been derived. Backstepping controller (BSC) is used for finding controlled torques that generated from robot motors while Type-1 fuzzy logic control (T1FLC) as well as particle swarm optimization (PSO) used for finding the appropriate values of gain parameters of BSC. Square trajectory has been selected to test the performance of the control system of FMWMR. MATLAB/ Simulink is used to simulate the results. It has been concluded from the results that obtained from this control system there is a good matching between the simulated and the desired trajectories.

Effect of Adding Silver Element and Zirconia Ceramic on Corrosion Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Pure Titanium

Wehad A. Al-Rawy; Emad S. Al-Hassani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 5A, Pages 674-694
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i5A.1087

In this research, all the samples are prepared using the powder metallurgy technique by adding silver element and Zirconia ceramic material to the commercially pure titanium at a different weight percent of (10, 20 and 30) to investigate the effect of adding these materials to the CP-Ti on corrosion behavior and mechanical properties. There are two sets of each type of alloys Ti-Ag and Ti ZrO2. The Preparation process was by Weighing, Mixing and Homogenizing Powders by Ball Mill, compacting at 4 tons for 1 min. and Sintering at 700 and 900 °C for 2 hrs. under a controlled atmosphere. The corrosion results showed a good corrosion resistance increases with increasing the silver content as the corrosion rate would be the best in (30% Ag) content with(0.091 mpy) at sintering temperature of 700 °C. And with a sintering temperature of 900 °C, the best result was with (30% Ag) with (0.059) mpy. In the Ti-ZrO2 alloys, the best result was with the zirconia content of (30%ZrO2) when cooled in the air with (1.347) mpy at sintering temperature of 700 °C, this results obtained in Ringer’s solution. And microstructures analysis stated that at the silver and the Zirconia content of (10-20 wt%) single phase of  (α- Ti alloy), as the silver and Zirconia content increased to (30% wt), in addition to (α-phase), (Ti2Ag) intermetallic compound developed in the silver alloy microstructure and (TiZr)3O intermetallic compound developed in the microstructure of Ti- Zirconia composites and the hardness test result best hardness of  titanium-silver alloys is with a silver content of (30% Wt) at sintering temperature of 900 C.

A Review on Path Planning Algorithms for Mobile Robots

Mustafa S. Abed; Omar F. Lutfy; Qusay F. Al-Doori

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 5A, Pages 804-820
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i5A.1941

Mobile robots use is rising every day. Path planning algorithms are needed to make a traveler of robots with the least cost and without collisions. Many techniques have been developed in path planning for mobile robot worldwide, however, the most commonly used techniques are presented here for further study. This essay aims to review various path planning strategies for mobile robots using different optimization methods taken recent publisher’s paper in last five year.

Gasoil Hydro-desulfurization using Catalyst synthesized from Iraqi Kaolin Clay: Optimization with Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

Khlood S. AlKhafaji; Zaidoon M. Shakor; Bashir Y. Al-Zaidi; Sattar J. Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 5A, Pages 836-845
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i5A.1977

This search aim to study the feasibility of hydro-desulfurization (HDS) of gas oil in fixed bed reactor by using economic support catalyst alumina meta kaolin (AMK) under various operating condition, i.e. Temp. (240−320 ◦C), Press. (3–12 bar), WHSV (2–6 h−1) at H2/HC ratio (50 vol./vol.). The support catalyst was prepared from Iraq kaolin and characterization by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.  Experimental design was used to determine which parameter (e.g. temperature, pressure and WHSV) has a greater influence on the obtained HDS and the optimum condition of process. The result shows that optimum condition given (Temp. 300 C, Press. 12 bar and WHSV 2 h-1) and all parameter have significant implication in the process.

Analysis of Distribution System Reconfiguration under Different Load Demand in AL-KUT City by using PSO Algorithm

Zahraa H. Dawood; Rashid AL-Rubayi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 5A, Pages 738-753
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i5A.1842

Network reconfiguration is the best way to inquisitive a flexible, reliable and effective distribution network. An efficient optimization technique that uses Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is described and analyzed with the goal of reducing power losses and enhancing the voltage profile in the distribution network by reconfiguring the network, taking into account the branch current limit, branch capacity limit, bus voltage limits and radial structure constraint (no meshed loop). The approach is applied to the part of AL-KUT city distribution system (TAMOZE region system) to attain an optimum network configuration in connection with power loss. Two dissimilar load situations are regarded, and the performance of the suggested approach is also proved by increasing the decrease in power loss by using MATLAB under steady-state conditions.

Effect of CO2 Laser Fluence on Cladding Geometrical Dimensions Alternations

Mohammed J. Kadhim; Mahdi M. Hanon; Suhair A. Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 5A, Pages 703-710
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i5A.1474

Geometrical dimensions could play a potential role in the function of laser cladding of nickel-base powder on the cold-rolled carbon steel substrate. The geometrical dimensions and their impact on the efficiency of the process of laser cladding of nickel-base powder (Ni -10wt% Al) on cold rolled 0.2% carbon steel substrate was investigated. This work focused on the effect of laser-specific energy input of CO2laser. The geometrical dimensions of cladding regions are including cladding width, cladding height, depth of dilution, contact angle, dilution area, cladding area, and heat-affected zone dimensions determinations. The laser power (1.8 kW) was used at different traverse speeds (1.5, 3.6, 5, 7.1, 8.6, 12.5 mm/s) with (3mm) laser beam diameter. The feed rate was kept constant after many preliminary claddings at approximately 11 g/min. Fluence values ranged from (48-400J/mm2), and the power density value was (255W/mm2). A minimum dilution percentage (25%) was obtained at the highest fluence value (400 J/mm2). Observations were measured using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy, and Image software. Obtained results indicated that the increase in the fluence leads to an increase in height of cladding, HAZ region but lower depth of dilution

Protection Coordination of 33/11 kV Power Distribution Substation in Iraq

Thamir Abdul-Wahhab; Yamur M. Obied

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 5A, Pages 723-737
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i5A.1790

The coordination between protective devices is the process of determining the most appropriate timing of power interruption during abnormal conditions in the power system. The aim of this work is to coordinate the protection of the 33/11 kV power distribution substation in Iraq using the CYME 7.1 software package. In this paper overcurrent and earth fault relays are simulated in two cases, with time delay setting and instantaneous setting, to obtain the Time Current Characteristics (TCC) curves for each Circuit Breaker (CB) relay of Al-Karama substation (2×31.5 MVA, 33/11 kV) in Babil distribution network. The short circuit current at each CB is calculated and accordingly, the protection coordination for Al-Karama substation has been simulated. The TCC curves have been obtained in two cases for overcurrent and earth fault relays; in a case with time delay setting and in the case with the instantaneous setting. The setting takes into consideration the short circuit current at the furthest point of the longest outgoing feeder and the shortest outgoing feeder.

Dynamic Power Consumption In CMOS N Bit Full-Adder Circuit

Amal F. Hasan; Qusay F. Al-Doori

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 5A, Pages 754-767
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i5A.1846

This paper discusses power consumption in the full adder circuit using some fabrication technologies. Though many studies related to power consumption in the full adder circuit were performed, however, few investigations about the effect of the number of bits on the power consumption are addressed. In this paper, the effect of changing the number of bits on the power consumption and time delay of the full adder circuit will be observed and the effect of changing the technology size is going to be calculated. The results will show that there is a direct relationship between the number of bits and power.

Experimental Investigation of Surface Roughness Using Uncoated and Coated Tungsten Carbide Cutting Tool in Turning Operation

Frzdaq N. Thamer; Ali Abbar; Farhad. M. Othman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 5A, Pages 768-778
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i5A.1887

The cutting process is an important process of industrialization. It is requisite to using advantage quality cutting tools in order to preserve the type of product. Coating on the cutting tool has a substantial effect in terms of mechanical properties and the end results of the product. The cutting tool can be manufactured in various material types, but today's cemented tungsten carbide is the most commonly used material in the tool industry because its properties comply with manufacturers' requirements. This study investigates the impact of an Al2O3 coated cutting tool relative to an uncoated cutting tool on the dry cutting process. Different parameters are used in the cutting process when cutting the metal. The cutting parameters used are feed rate and cutting speed, An analysis of the effects of these parameters on the surface roughness. In this analysis, the surface roughness are measured for components turned from steel1040, The L9 Taguchi orthogonal arrays and analyses of variance (ANOVA) was employed to analyze the influence of these parameters. In the case of (uncoated, Al2O3 coated tool), the better surface roughness (SR) with used feed rate (0.05 mm / rev) and cutting speed (140 m/min) where the roughness value was (0.81μm) and (0.78μm) Respectively. The results of this study indicate that the ideal parameters combination for the better surface finish was high cutting speed and low feed rate.

Characterizations of Synthetic 8mol% YSZ with Comparison to 3mol %YSZ for HT-SOFC

Abeer F. Al-Attar; Saad B. H. Farid; Fadhil A. Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 491-500
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i4A.351

In this work, Yttria (Y2O3) was successfully doped into tetragonal 3mol% yttria stabilized Zirconia (3YSZ) by high energy-mechanical milling to synthesize 8mol% yttria stabilized Zirconia (8YSZ) used as an electrolyte for high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (HT-SOFC). This work aims to evaluate the densification and ionic conductivity of the sintered electrolytes at 1650°C. The bulk density was measured according to ASTM C373-17. The powder morphology and the microstructure of the sintered electrolytes were analyzed via Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The chemical analysis was obtained with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Also, X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to obtain structural information of the starting materials and the sintered electrolytes. The ionic conductivity was obtained through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the air as a function of temperatures at a frequency range of 100(mHz)-100(kHz). It is found that the 3YSZ has a higher density than the 8YSZ. The impedance analysis showed that the ionic conductivity of the prepared 8YSZ at 800°C is0.906 ( and it was 0.214( of the 3YSZ. Besides, 8YSZ has a lower activation energy 0.774(eV) than that of the 3YSZ 0.901(eV). Thus, the prepared 8YSZ can be nominated as an electrolyte for the HT-SOFC.

Strut Confinement of Simply Supports Deep Beam Using Strut Reinforcement

Eyad K. Sayhood; Khudayer N. Abdullah; Sarah J. Kazem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 605-613
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i4A.117

This study investigates the effect of confining the Strut region of the deep beam by using Struts Reinforcement; which consists of four main bars enclosed by stirrups. Six specimens were tested for investigating the behavior of deep beams including; ultimate load, mid-span deflection, crack pattern, first shear and first flexure cracks, concrete surface strain and mode of failure. The specimens were tested under two symmetrical points load with and of 1 and compressive strength of 38 MPa. The main parameters were: first one the diameter of the main bars of Strut Reinforcement (8, 10, 12 mm) with constant spacing of stirrups equal to 80 while the other parameter was varied spacing of stirrups of strut reinforcement (120, 100, and 80 mm) with constant main bars diameter of 8 mm. The test results showed that the Strut confinement generally increased the ultimate load from 750 kN to 1250 kN and the ductility of the beam, confined shear cracks and strain surface across the strut and shear area and turned failures mode from shear failure to flexure. The increase in the diameter of the main bars enhanced the behavior of the beam more than the stirrups number

Effect of Octane Number on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of an SI Engine

Noor H. Athafah; Adei M. Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 574-585
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i4A.263

Spark ignition engines are very popular engines that they are running millions of vehicles all over the world. This engine emits many harmful pollutants, such as CO, UHC, and NOX. In this paper, the impact of gasoline octane number on the engine performance and exhaust emissions was studied. In the tests, four-cylinder, four-stroke engine, and two variable octane numbers (RON83 and 94.5) were used. The engine was run at different engine speeds and loads. The results from the experimental study indicated that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) of RON94.5 was higher than RON83 by 13.93%, while the brake thermal efficiency (ƞbth) was higher for RON83 compared to RON94.5 by 12.31%. The emitted emissions for the tested fuels were high when RON83 was used compared to RON94.5 by 65.52%, 49.11%, and 57.33% for CO, UHC, and NOX, respectively.

Effect of Pre-Tension on the Springback Behavior of the Yellow Brass

Anwar H. Zabon; Aseel H. Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 552-560
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i4A.96

Springback forecasting of sheet formation is constantly remarkable problem in the métier, due to their influence the great in the definitive shape of the product. Study presents effects of pretension in tow rolling direction (0, 45 degree) on the springback behavior of the (Brass 65-35) sheet under V-die bending by an experimental. The pretension ranges from five different pretensions levels starting from 11% to 55% from total strain in each rolling direction by increment of 11%. used in punching that was performed at a constant deformation velocity of (5 mm/min) then bent on a 90° V-shaped die for the springback evaluation. The results from experiment indicate that the springback increase with pretension ratio and the springback in 45 degree is higher in rolling direction.

Experimental Investigation of Combined Effect of Particle Size and Stability of Al2O3-H2O Nanofluid on Heat Transfer Augmentation Through Horizontal Pipe

Abdulhassan A. Karamallah; Hayder H. Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 561-573
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i4A.177

The stability of nanofluid plays a rule in heat transfer growth for different engineering systems. The stability and particle size of Al2O3-H2O nanofluid effects on heat transfer are studied experimentally. Two particle sizes (20 and 50 nm) with (0.1, 0.5 and 1%) concentrations were prepared and tested under constant heat flux (1404 W) with fully developed turbulent flow through a horizontal pipe. The results show an increase in Nusselt number by 20.7% and 17.6% with 1 vol.% concentration for 20 and 50 nm, respectively compared to distilled water. Examined nanofluid showed improvement in Nu number by (30.3 and 23.5) % at 1 vol.% concentration compared to water. Obtained results show minor decrease in the pressure drop and friction factor with nanofluid after stability treatment. Different correlations between Nu number and friction factor relating to studied parameters were observed

Comparative Study of Perturb & Observe, Modified Perturb & Observe and Modified Incremental Conductance MPPT Techniques for PV Systems

Mohanad H. Mahmood; Inaam I. Ali; Oday A. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 478-490
DOI: /10.30684/etj.v38i4A.329

This paper presents a modified maximum power point tracking algorithm (Modified MPPT) for PV systems based on incremental conductance (IC) algorithm. This method verified with the dynamic irradiance and sudden change of irradiance, the comparisons with conventional methods, for example, the perturbation and observation (P&O) and Modified perturbation and observation (Modified P&O) were performed. A photovoltaic (PV) panel was simulated and tested using MATLAB/Simulink based on PV panel at Power Electronics Laboratory. The results show that this method capable to find the maximum power point (MPP) under dynamic behavior faster than ( P&O) and Modified P&O). Reduced oscillation of MPP indicates enhanced efficiency, providing maximum power transfer to load

Random Forest (RF) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Algorithms for LULC Mapping

Tay H. Shihab; Amjed N. Al-Hameedawi; Ammar M. Hamza

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 510-514
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i4A.399

In this paper to make use of complementary potential in the mapping of LULC spatial data is acquired from LandSat 8 OLI sensor images are taken in 2019. They have been rectified, enhanced and then classified according to Random forest (RF) and artificial neural network (ANN) methods. Optical remote sensing images have been used to get information on the status of LULC classification, and extraction details. The classification of both satellite image types is used to extract features and to analyse LULC of the study area. The results of the classification showed that the artificial neural network method outperforms the random forest method. The required image processing has been made for Optical Remote Sensing Data to be used in LULC mapping, include the geometric correction, Image Enhancements, The overall accuracy when using the ANN methods 0.91 and the kappa accuracy was found 0.89 for the training data set. While the overall accuracy and the kappa accuracy of the test dataset were found 0.89 and 0.87 respectively

Improve the Surface Characteristics of the Electric Discharge Machining Employing a Method Burnishing Process

Shukry H. Aghdeab; Ahmed G. Abdulameer; Ahmed B. Abdulwahhab; Majid H. Ismiel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 545-551
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i4A.308

Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) applies the concept of material eradication by utilizing electric spark erosion. The target of this exploration concentrates to examine the ideal procedure parameters of EDM on Aluminum 6061-T6as a workpiece with copper as a tool electrode. The effect of various process operators 'on machining rendering was examined. Internal factors with current (10, 20, 30) Ampere, pulse on time (50, 100, 150) μs was used after which takes pulse off time (25, 50, 75) μs. All parameters applied for empirical acts with influence on Ra (surface roughness ). The result showed that MRR" Material Removal Rate” is increment by expanding in current and pulse on time and it declines by expanding in pulse off time. Optimal condition are gained when using " Using current 30 Ampere, pulse on time is 150 μs and minimize assessment of pulse off time is 25 μs.

Preparation and Characterization of Polymer Blend and Nano Composite Materials Based on PMMA Used for Bone Tissue Regeneration

Sally A. Kadhum Alsaedi; Sihama I. Salih; Fadhil A. Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 501-509
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i4A.383

As the elderly population increases, the need for bone loss treatments is increasing. Vital substances used in such treatments are required to continue for a longer period and work more effectively. The particularly important biological material is poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement, which is widely used in damaged bone replacement surgery. So, this study focused on the role of added some nanoparticles consist of zirconia (ZrO2), and magnesia (MgO) on the binary polymeric blend (Acrylic bone cement: 15% PMMA) for a bone scaffold. Where, ZrO2 and MgO nanoparticle was added with selected weight percentages (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 wt.%), which were added to the polymer blend matrix. Some mechanical properties were studied including the tensile strength and young modulus for all the prepared samples. The chemical bonding of nanoparticles and synthetic binary polymeric blend composites was evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Tensile strength and young modulus of binary polymeric blend reinforced with 1.5 wt.% ZrO2, and 1 wt.% MgO, significantly increased. The surface morphology of the fracture surface of tensile specimens was examined by Scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM images confirmed that the homogenous distribution of nanoparticles (ZrO2, and MgO) within the polymeric blend matrix.

Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Adding Alumina to Diesel Fuel on the Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics

Sadiq T. Bunyan; Abed AL-Khadim M. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 523-529
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i4A.498

The present experimental work is conducted to examine the influence of adding Alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles to diesel fuel on the characteristic of the emissions and engine performance. The size of nanoparticles which have been added to diesel fuel to obtain nano-fuel is 20 nm. Three doses of Aluminum oxide were prepared (25, 50 and 100) ppm. The nanoparticles mixed with fuel by mechanical homogenous (manual electrical mixer) and ultrasonic processor. The study reveals that the adding of Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) to gas oil (Al2O3+DF) enhances the physical properties of fuel. Also, the adding of (Al2O3) reduce CO emissions by 20.5%, decrease NOx emission by 12.2%, increasing CO2 emissions by about 2.27% and decrease UHC emission about 13.5%. Furthermore, reduces the brake specific fuel consumption by 14.3%, decreasing the equivalence ratio by14.87% and improving the brake thermal efficiency by about 10.89%.

Study of the Barreling of Copper Solid and Hollow Cylinders under Uniaxial Compressive Load

Abdullah D. Assi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 614-621
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i4A.306

In this study, the effect of axisymmetric compression of cylindrical blocks
of copper on diameter ratio, height reduction ratio and aspect ratio was
noted. The effects of these non-dimensional parameters are very
significant to the geometry of barreling throughout the process of plastic
deformation of a cylinder under axial compression. The barreling effect
was studied for solid and hollow copper cylindrical blocks having different
dimensions. The relationship between the parameters was also studied.
The practical results obtained were compared with some of the existing
theories, and there was a good correlation of the results with these

Preparation of Al2O3/MgO Nano-Composite Particles for Bio-Applications

Hayder A. Sallal; Alla A. Abdul-Hameed; Farhad. M. Othman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 586-593
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i4A.290

This study describes the preparation and study of the properties of Nano composite particles prepared in a sol-gel method which consists of two materials (Αl2Ο3-MgΟ). The powder was evaluated by x-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy analysis (SEM), particle size analysis, and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) and antibacterial test. The evaluation results of the nanocomposite particles shows a good distribution of the chemical composition between aluminum oxide and magnesium oxide, smoothness in particles size where it reached to (54.9, 59.8) nm at calcination in (550 0C and 850 0C) respectively, formation of different shapes of nanoparticles and different phases of the Αl2Ο3 particles (kappa and gamma) and nanopowder have well antibacterial action, Therefore, this reflects the efficiency of the proposed method to manufacture the nanocomposite powder and the possibility of using this powder as a strengthening material for the composite materials and using these composite materials in bio applications, especially in the fabrication of artificial limbs.

A Comparison Study on the Effect of Various Layered Sandy Soil Deposited on Final Settlement under Dynamic Loading

Hussein H. Karim; Zina Walid Samuel; Mohammed A. Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 594-604
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i4A.1569

The foundation is expansion in base of column, wall or other structure in order to transmit the loads from the structure to under footing with a suitable pressure with soil property. There are two conditions to design foundation: 1. The stress is applied by footing on soil is not exceeded allowable bearing capacity ( ). 2. The foundation settlement and differential settlement are due to applied loads are not exceeding the allowable settlement that based on the type and size of structure, the nature of soil. Rigid square machine footing with dimension 200*200 mm with two types of relative density (50 and 85)% medium and dense density respectively are using in this study in different 28 models to show the effect of layered sandy soil in two configuration, medium-dense MD and dense-medium DM on the final settlement in magnitudes and behaviors under dynamics loads applying with different amplitude of loads (0.25 and 2) tons at surface with amplitude-frequency 0.5 Hz with explain the effect of reinforcements material on reduction the magnitude of settlement. The final results appeared with respect to the specified continuous pressure and the number of loading cycles, the resulting settlement from the dynamic loading increases with the increase in the dynamic pressure magnitude, the variation on densities of layered soil effect on the amount of settlement due to different loads applied. It’s found that for increasing load amplitude increasing of settlement values particularly with low density soil when other variables are constant. As the amplitude of loading is increased from 0.25 ton to 2 tons, the settlement has been increased. MD soil density lower values of settlement can be obtained with type I of reinforcement where load amplitude equal to 0.25 ton with percent of enhancement between (28.4-34.3)% for different configuration of layers of reinforcement, for load amplitude equal to 2 tons the value of enhancement of settlement reached to about (35-38.4)%; while for DM density soil values of settlement can be obtained with type I of reinforcement where load amplitude equal to 0.25 ton percent of enhancement between (20-34.35)% for different configuration of layers of reinforcement, but the best value of enhancement of settlement get with load amplitude equal to 2 tons reached to about (38.7-41.17)%.

Optimizing of Coating Layers Parameters of (Nano Hydroxyapatite/TiO2 NPs) on Nitinol SMAs by Electrophoretic Deposition

Riyam R. Rawdan; Makarim H. Abdulkareem; Ali M. Mustafa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 530-544
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i4A.577

This study aims to obtain the optimal variable for depositing (HA, TiO2 and Composite) Nanomaterial on NiTi SMAs. Taguchi approach (with L9 array) was used to obtain the optimal conditions for coating produced by Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) techniques. The deposition process was done in different conditions (voltage, time, concentration and degree of grinding). Voltages were used (20, 40 and 60) volts, the time is (2, 4 and 6) min, the degree of the surface roughness (180, 500 and 1200) μm while the concentration of HA and TiO2 are (2, 4, and 6) g/L for each one. Chitosan (biopolymer) was used as binder material to the ceramic materials. The result of the Taguchi approach detected that the best conditions of HA layer are (20 V, 4 min, 2%C and the degree of surface 180), TiO2 is (20 V, 4 min, 4%C and the degree of surface 180) and composite layer is (60 V, 4 min, 4%C and the degree of surface 180). Solutions stability was measured by utilizing Zeta potential tests; which clarified good stability for all of them. Optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize and study the surface of the coating layers. The bonding adhesion was measured using a tape test in order to evaluate the adhesion bonding between the coating and substrate. It found that the percentage of removal coating area for samples were (8.8%for HA, 4.9% for TiO2 and 6.9% of the composite layer.

Hydrogeological and Hydro Chemical Evaluation of Groundwater in Karbala Region Using Geographic Information System (GIS)

Marwa S. Hussein; Imzahim A. Alwan; Tariq A. Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 515-522
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i4A.492

The study area is located in the holy governorate of Karbala, Iraq; the research studied a predictive mathematical model of groundwater within Dibdiba Formation and by fifty (50) wells distributed randomly within the boundaries of the study area, all of them fall within the unconfined aquifer. Likewise, there is no component to direct the activity of these wells, where a mathematical model for the study area has been developed using the groundwater system modeling program (GMS v.10). The area was divided into a grid where the dimensions of a single cell ranged from 250m×250m. The model of the steady flow state was adjusted utilizing pressure driven conductivity extending from 9 to 15 m/day with a 0.15 storage coefficient to match the groundwater levels measured with the calculated groundwater table. The model was run for unsteady flow condition in the first scenario with fifty (50) wells and five (5) years. The drawdown in the groundwater tables ranged between (0.05-1.05) m. In the second scenario, the model was run after adding thirty-six (36) wells for five (5) years, groundwater limits 0.15-1.15 meters. The drawdown values are concentrated near wells sites, and the drawdown decline as we move away from the sites of these wells and this reflects the nature of the water reservoir located in the study area, which is characterized by high production where compensation resulting from the operation of the wells decline rapidly by the reservoir. Therefore, the values of the drawdown in elevations appeared very low. The study also showed the possibility of drilling additional wells in this area depending on this model to benefit from them in the future for different uses

Influence of Cutting Speed on Residual Stresses by Machining of AISI 316L

Safa M. Lafta; Maan A. Tawfiq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 394-401
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.459

RS have an important role in the performance of components and machined structures. The objective of this paper is to study the influence of cutting speed on RS in workpieces that are formed in orthogonal cutting. AISI 316L stainless steel since it has been used in many important industries such as chemical, petrochemical industries, power generation, electrical engineering, and food and beverage industry. Four cutting speeds are selected: (44, 56, 71 and 88) m/min. The alloy was machined by turning at constant depth of cut and various feed rate from (0.065 to 0.228) mm/rev. Residual stresses are examined by X-ray diffraction. The best results of RS obtained are (-3735.28, -1784.95, -330.142, -218.747, -890.758, -2999.632, -2990.401) MPa. Increasing the cutting speed from (44-56) m/min. reduces the compressive residual stress by (21.4 %), while from (71-88) m/min the RS is reduced by (19.3 %). Finally, the RS at cutting speeds are changed from compression to tension

Multiwall Carbon Nanotube / Polyvinyl Alcohol Nanofibers Film, Electrical Conductivity Improvement

Akram R. Jabur

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 431-439
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.530

Conductive polymer films were prepared of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10) wt. % multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by electrospinning technique. The morphologies of the synthesized films were tested by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Average fiber diameters gauged statically was (115nm) for (PVA/10 wt. % MWCNT film) while (170nm) for pure PVA electro spun film. Electrical conductivity (EC) of Polymeric nanofiber films improve by increasing MWCNT addition concentration from (3.69 × 10-7 S/ cm) for the pure (PVA) film to (1.24 ×10-2 S/cm) for the film with 10 wt. % MWCNT. The maximum stress of PVA film were increased by adding MWCNTs concentration, the modulus of elasticity was enhanced from 12.87 MPa for pure PVA to 49.89 MPa for PVA/8wt% MWCNT.

Study of the Corrosion Behavior of Zinc-Aluminum Alloy Matrix Composite Reinforced with Nanosilica Produced by Stir Casting

Fatima A. Adnana; Niveen J. Abdul Kader; Mohammed S. Hamza

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 375-382
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.435

In this investigation, Zn-Al alloy metal-matrix nano composites that
reinforced via various weight percentages (2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) of
nanosilica (SiO2) particles were fabricated applying the technique of stir
casting. Behaviors of the corrosion of the unreinforced alloy and
reinforced composites were measured utilizing a potentiostat test in a (3.5
wt.% NaCl) salt solution. The optical microscopy was employed to
investigate the surface microstructure of the composite. Microstructure
analysis manifested that the uniform distributions of the reinforcing
particles in the composites are alike, consisting of a dendritic structure of
the zinc alloy matrix with an excellent reinforcing particles steady
dispersion. The improved results of the corrosion resistance for the metal
matrix composites showed an excellent resistance to corrosion than the
matrix in the (3.5 wt.% NaCl) solution. Raising the weight percentage of
the reinforcement particulates of nansilica (SiO2) reduced the composites
rate of corrosion

Characteristics of Exhaust Emissions for a Diesel Engine Fuelled by Corn Oil Biodiesel and Blended with Diesel Fuel

Abdulrahman S. Mahmood; Haqi I. Qatta; Saadi M.D. Al-Nuzal; Talib K. Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 457-464
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.446

Environmentally friend biodiesel fuel from corn oil was tested in single-cylinder 4-stroke diesel engine operated. Three blends of fuels were prepared from corn oil and diesel fuel viz. 7, 15, and 20 % (designated as B7, B15, and B20, respectively). Tests were conducted on this engine using these blends at a constant speed (1500 rpm) and varying loads (0 % to 100 %). The emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, unburned hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NOX) and smoke opacity were measured. In all engine loads, results showed that the emission of CO, HC, and smoke emissions were reduced, while that of NOX and CO2 were increased. Biodiesel blend (B20) showed the highest decrease of the CO and HC and smoke emissions by 22.13 %, 18.5 %, and 25.8 % respectively. While that of NOX and CO2 emissions were increased by 22.3 % and 22%, respectively. It can be recommended as a sound environment friend and renewable for use in diesel engines and can be used without any significant modifications in the engine design

Analysis of Thermal and Insulation Performance of Double Glazed Window Doped With Paraffin Wax

Jalal M. Jalil; Salih M. Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 383-393

In this paper, a numerical investigation has been performed to study the effect of varying the thermal properties of the paraffin wax on the performance of a double glazed window doped with it during the summer climate of Baghdad (33.3 °N, 44.4 °E). Using FORTRAN (f 90) constructed computer program, finite difference combined with the enthalpy method was utilized to deal with the conduction with phase change problems within the wax. Results obtained show that increasing the density, latent heat, and thickness of the paraffin wax PCM) would increase the temperature-time lag and reduce the temperature decrement factor of the double glazed window, and as a result, improve comparatively the performance of the unit. In contrast, changing the specific heat capacity of the paraffin wax is not a productive (inefficient) technique to develop the performance of the unit. Besides, the recommended thickness of the window (thickness of the PCM) under the ambient condition of Baghdad should be 20 mm or higher.

Discontinuous Control and Stability Analysis of Step-Down DC-DC Voltage Converters

Bashar F. Midhat

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 446-456
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.567

Step down DC-DC converters are power electronic circuits, which mainly used to convert voltage from a level to a lower level. In this paper, a discontinuous controller is proposed as a control method in order to control Step-Down DC-DC converters. A Lyapunov stability criterion is used to mathematically prove the ability of the proposed controller to give the desired voltage. Simulationsl1 are performedl1 in MATLABl1 software. The simulationl1 resultsl1 are presentedl1 for changesl1 in referencel1 voltagel1 and inputl1 voltagel1 as well as stepl1 loadl1 variations. The resultsl1 showl1 the goodl1 performancel1 of the proposedl1 discontinuousl1 controller.

Cyclic Settlement of Footings of Different Shapes Resting on Clayey Soil

Aseel N. Najim; Mohammed Y. Fattah; Makki K. Al-Recaby

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 465-477
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.483

An experimental investigation is carried out to investigate the impact of the footing shape, when rested on clayey soil under cyclic loading condition. The model footings used in this study are circular, square and the area of footings is fixed. Cyclic load test is carried out on the cohesive soil with three undrained shear strengths (20 kPa, 40 kPa and 70 kPa). Two depths of foundation embedment (at surface and 5 cm) to know the effect of the depths of the foundations on the change of settlement and total vertical stress and two rates of loading (3 mm/sec and 6 mm/sec) are used. It has been observed that the bearing capacity varies in increasing order as Solid, Circular and Square. It is found that the cyclic settlement in the square foundation is less than the circular foundation. The results reveal that the shape of the footing has a significant effect on its bearing capacity and the settlement characteristics. The vertical stress reaches a constant value which is greater below circular footing and it is about (70.9 - 92.7) % greater than below square footing.

Air Temperature Modelling Depended on Remote Sensing Techniques

Zainab T. Mohammed; Riyad H. Al-Anbari; Oday Z. Jasim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 352-360
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.398

Air temperature (T air) near the land surface is a fundamental descriptor of physical environmental conditions and one of the most widely used climatic variables in global change studies. In this study, the researcher trying to suggest a model for estimating air temperature in summer season for any region through integrating of Iraqi Agrometeorological network
daily (T air) with the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST), Duration Day Length (DDL) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM). In this model, using satellite images for the study area and data of air temperature for four weather stations located in Babylon governorate from 1- June to 30- September on year 2017 for modeling and accuracy assessment air temperature estimation. The standard error of this model is 1.72887° C, and the correlation equal to 0.69698.

Reducing Roof Solar Heat Gain by Using Double-Skin Ventilated Roofs

Mohannad R. Ghanim; Sabah T. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 402-411
DOI: /10.30684/etj.v38i3A.462

Double skin ventilated roof is one of the important passive cooling techniques to reduce solar heat gain through roofs. In this research, an experimental study was performed to investigate the thermal behaviour of a double skin roof model. The model was made of two parallel galvanized steel plates. Galvanized steel has been used in the roof construction of industrial buildings and storehouses in Iraq. The effect of inclination angle (ϴ) from the horizontal and the spacing (S) between the plates was investigated at different radiation intensities. It is found that using a double skin roof arrangement with a sufficient air gap (S) can reduce the heat gain significantly. The higher the inclination angle (ϴ) the higher the ventilation rate, the lower the heat gain through the roof. In this study, increasing the air gap from 2 cm to 4 cm reduced the heat gain significantly but when the gap was further increased to 6 cm, the reduction in the heat flux was insignificant. A dimensionless correlation was also reduced between Nusselt number ( ) and the single parameter ( ⁄ ) where L is the channel length. This correlation can be handily utilized for designing of engineering applications dealing with high temperature difference natural convection heat transfer.

Design and Implementation of a Fuzzy Logic Controller for Inverted Pendulum System Based on Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms

Ahmed F. Ghaliba; Ahmed A. Oglah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 361-374
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.400

The inverted pendulum is a standard classical problem in the branch of
control and systems. If a cart is bushed by force then its position and angle
of the pendulum will be changed. Several controllers may employed,
keeping the pendulum arm upright by controlling at the cart location. In
this search paper, the fuzzy-like PID (FPID) controller has been used to
control the inverted pendulum, and the parameters of the controller are
tuned with several evolutionary optimization algorithms like a genetic
algorithm (GA), ant colony optimization (ACO), and social spider
optimization (SSO.) The result of tuned FPID with evolutionary
optimization is compared with conventional PID, and it shows that FPID
with SSO has been given the best result.

Kinematics Analysis of 5 DOF Robotic Arm

Tahseen F. Abaas; Ali A. Khleif; Mohanad Q. Abbood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 412-422
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.475

This paper presents the forward, inverse, and velocity kinematics analysis of a 5 DOF robotic arm. The Denavit-Hartenberg (DH) parameters are used to determination of the forward kinematics while an algebraic solution is used in the inverse kinematics solution to determine the position and orientation of the end effector. Jacobian matrix is used to calculate the velocity kinematics of the robotic arm. The movement of the robotic arm is accomplished using the microcontroller (Arduino Mega2560), which controlling on five servomotors of the robotic arm joints and one servo of the gripper. The position and orientation of the end effector are calculated using MATLAB software depending on the DH parameters. The results indicated the shoulder joint is more effect on the velocity of the robotic arm from the other joints, and the maximum error in the position of the end-effector occurred with the z-axis and minimum error with the y-axis.

Comparative Study of Different Organic Molecules as an Anti-Corrosion for Mild Steel in Kerosene

Eva A. Yaqo; Rana A. Anaee; Majid H. Abdulmajeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 423-430
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.507

The investigation on the efficiency of three organic derivatives was done as inhibitors for carbon steel using electrochemical methods at four temperatures (303, 313, 323, and 333 K) and 100 ppm. The results showed that these prepared compounds gave good efficiencies at experimental conditions by adsorption process and they act as mixed-type inhibitor, the data of corrosion were measured and debated. Using SEM, the inhibited surface of specimens was characterized. In addition, for display the interaction between these compounds and the metallic surface, the Fourier transform infrared spectra was used. In addition, the activity of antibacterial of the inhibitors against some types of bacteria was tested.

Numerical Study of Bond Stress-Slip Relationship in Large Scale Reactive Powder Concrete Beams

Eyad K. Sayhood; Sameh B. Tobeia; Ammar A. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 496-505
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.1

As the reactive powder concrete (RPC) represents one of the ultra-high performance concrete types that recently used in public works and in the presence of several attempts that aims to examine the behavior of RPC, this work aims to theoretically study the bond stress between RPC and steel bars and the corresponding slip for large reactive powder concrete beams by using finite element models done by ANSYS 16.1 software. Where, these numerical models were verified through several comparisons between their results, and the experimental one from previous work, in which good agreement were achieved. The effects of several parameters on the bond stress were studied, the parameters include concrete compressive strength, and steel fibers content, bar diameter, length of the developed bar and concrete cover thickness.

Enhancement of Surface Crack Density Produced by EDM Using Hybrid Machining

Saad K. Shather; Shukry H. Aghdeab; Waqass S. Khudier

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 566-573
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.11

The present work is aimed to improve the surface cracks density of electrical discharge machining (EDM) by Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM)/Electrochemical Machining (ECM) EDM/ECM hybrid process. A hybrid method of EDM-ECM combined processing involve EDM shaping as well as electrochemical machining (ECM) finishing, also, they are conducted in sequence one same machine tool, same electrode, yet on the different dielectric. In this study, the used workpiece material is the A2-Tool Steel material, while the electrode material is copper. The influence of controllable parameters could be identified via response surface methodology (RSM), these controllable effects include: pulse current, pulse on time, pulse off time, gap, voltage, and electrolyte concentration on surface cracks density (SCD). It has been noticed that model has been developed by RSM adequacy is acceptable because the coefficient of determination is closest to one for SCD, whereas the optimal solution achieved by Desirability Function Analysis (DFA) are (current =42 A, pulse-on time =100 , and pulse-off time =50 )in addition to that, the generated surface doesn’t have any crack which has been generated via EDM are removed entirely through ECM finishing.

Experimental Study of Vibration on Pipe Conveying Fluid at Different End Conditions for Different Fluid Temperatures

Kayser A. Ameen; Mustafa J. Al-Dulaimi; Ali A. Hatem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 512-515
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.3

Dynamic behavior of a copper pipe conveying fluid at different fluid temperatures is investigated experimentally. Three types of supports are used, which are simply support - simply support, fixed – fixed support and fixed – free support. The effect of the support's types on the frequency and the amplitude of vibration for the pipe conveying the fluid are studied for various flow temperature. These vibration characteristics were tested at temperatures 50, 65 and 80 ºC

Influence of Steel Fiber and Spacing of Stirrups on the Torsion Capacity of Hybrid Beams

Alyaa H. Mohammed; Qais A. Hasan; Kaiss F. Sarsam

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 506-511
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.2

This paper investigates experimentally the torsional behaviour of hybrid reinforced concrete beams composed of reactive powder concrete (RPC) at the outer edges of the cross-section and conventional concrete (CC) at the inner parts of the cross-section. Hybrid reinforced concrete members are used extensively to deal with the members strength requirements related to flexural, shear and torsion in structural systems. The torsion failure is undesirable because of its brittle nature, it is obligatory to avoid this kind of failure in the earthquake areas. Seven reinforced concrete beams, with dimensions (100X200X1500 mm), the interior dimensions of hybrid beams of the cross-sectional area (20mm width and 120mm height) with 1500 mm length were cast and tested to failure using two opposite cantilevers steel arms that contribute to transferring the torque to the centre of the beam. The first beam was RPC, the second beam was CC and the other five beams were all poured as hybrid ones. Experimental data of the ultimate capacity, cracking torsional loads, the failure pattern and twisting angle for each beam were gained. Experimental results showed higher value of ultimate torsional strength of hybrid beams than CC ones by about (50) % and lower than reactive powder concrete specimen by about (16.67) % for both varying steel fibre and spacing of stirrups.

State Space Parallelization Method for a 16-Bit Turbo Encoder

Maha A. Fleah; Qusay F. Al-Doori

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 553-557
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.9

Turbo codes are widely used in digital communication systems. Their ability to reach the Shannon channel capacity made it the choice for most of the communication systems. Due to the huge amount of the transmitted data, there is a need to increase the processing speed of the encoders. The researchers used the state space technique to enhance the throughput of the turbo encoder. They apply it to increase the turbo encoder throughput from one bit per cycle up to 8 bit per cycle. The researchers applied the state space method to a three-flip flop, eight state Recursive Systematic Convolution Code circuit to achieve their goal. In this paper, we explored the state space technique and applied it to a four flip-flop Recursive Systematic Convolution Code circuit so that we can achieve a throughput of 16 bit per cycle. The circuit was designed and tested using MATLAB then implemented using FPGA to verify its operation.

The Synergic Effect of Fly Ash and High Reactivity Attapulgite in Ternary Blended Cement

Shubbar J. Al-Obaidey

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 528-535
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v37i12A.456

The main objective is to study the synergic effect of fly ash (FA) and high reactivity Attapulgite (HRA) together in ternary blended cement of (OPC+FA+HRA) and evaluate the efficiency factor of FA and HRA in binary blended cement and (FA+HRA) in ternary blended cement. To achieve this objective compressive strength of binary blended cement mixes of (OPC+FA) with FA replacement percentages of (20 %, 30% and 40%), (OPC+HRA) with HRA replacement percentages of (5 and 10%) by weight of cement and ternary blended cement mixes of (OPC+FA+5% and/or 10%HRA). Were tested and compared with that of reference mix at ages of (7, 28, 56 and 90) days to assess the synergic effect of FA and HRA in ternary blended cement. The results showed that using ternary blended cement of (OPC+FA+5% and/or 10%HRA) led to increasing compressive strength relative to binary blended cement mixes of (OPC+FA) at the same replacement percentages by weight of cement. More significant increments in compressive strength were noticed at the age of 7 days. The results also showed that the efficiency factors calculated according to the modified bolmoy΄s equation for ternary blended cement were always higher than their corresponding binary blended cement of (OPC+.FA).

Effect of Weather Conditions on the Properties of Cement Rendering

Ayad H. Mseer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 536-541
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.7

The cement mortar used in rendering external walls, in Iraqi hot weather summer, suffers from appearance of many cracks on surface during and after its setting. So, this research aims to study the effect of different factors that can affect those cracks. The studied variables include mix proportions of mortar, grading of the used sand, method of curing, and environmental temperature (rendering during winter or summer). The rendering was laid on two types of walls build from clay bricks or concrete blocks. Tests were carried out on the mortar mixes of the different variables including flow test and drying shrinkage. Results indicate that the suitable flow of cement mortar for rendering should be 190±10%, which means the water content should be higher than that required for standard flow of 110±5% by 10%. Also, found that the amount of cement and water content and fineness of sand have an important role in the appearance of cracks on the cement rendering. Those cracks can be reduced to large extent by a continuous water spraying twice daily for seven days.

Development of Surface Roughness and Mechanical Properties of PMMA Nanocomposites by Blending with Polymeric Materials

Hussein M. Sadeq; Sihama I. Salih; Auda J. Braihi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 585-565
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.10

This work aims to a development of mechanical properties of PMMA that is utilized in denture material, by using two types of polymers; blends (PMMA:2%NR) and (PMMA:2%SR) as a matrix materials strengthen with natural nanoparticles from the pomegranate peel powder (PPP) that were added at different weight fractions (0.0, 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7%). Two groups of bio nanocomposites specimens were prepared, using (Hand Lay-Up) method. Experimental tests were carried out on surface roughness, hardness and wear rate as well as analyzing of FTIR test. The minimum values of surface roughness and wear rate were reached 1.51 nm and 0.317×10-8 g/cm respectively for polymer blend nanocomposite ((PMMA:2%NR): 0.7% PPP). Whereas, the maximum value of Shore D hardness reached 90 for the same sample of nanocomposites. According to these results, it can be a concluded that the addition of Nano pomegranate powder and natural rubber can develop the mechanical properties of PMMA material used in medical applications.

Design a Second Order Sliding Mode Controller for Electrical Servo Drive Systems

Shams A. Hashim; Ahmed K. Hamoudi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 542-552
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.8

The aim of this paper is to design and study a powerful second-order sliding mode controller for electrical servo drive systems. The suggested controller can successfully overcome the chattering problem that was usually facing such systems during operation. The first (1-SMC) and second (2-SMC) sliding mode controllers are nonlinear controllers’ techniques capable of stabilizing the output of a plant, even though a disturbance and parameter uncertainty is present. The asymptotically stable is the significant property of 1-SMC as well as 2-SMC. Despite the robustness of the 1- SMC, in real-time but it suffers from a large settling time and a chattering (undesirable rapid oscillations) of system trajectory close to the sliding surface. The chattering must be reduced because of its negative impact on system stability. The chattering can be reduced by replacing the sign function, used in classical sliding mode, by a saturation function. In the current study, the Second Order Sliding Mode Controller (2-SMC) is used to overcome the drawbacks of 1- SMC by reducing both the chattering and the settling time of the control action. The Electrical Servo drive system was adopted in this paper for testing; both, the 1-SMC as well as the 2-SMC. The comparison of results between the two controllers indicated smaller chattering and settling time in the 2-SMC than that in the 1-SMC. The simulation results of this work were obtained by using the Matlab programming.

Study Compression, Hardness and Density properties of PMMA Reinforced by Natural Powder Used in Denture Base applications

Jawad Oleiwi; Q. A. Hamad; N. N. Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 522-527
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.5

 This research had been done to investigate the effect of adding natural powder of Pistachio Shell to PMMA, which popularly used in denture applications. The powder added in different weights fraction (3%, 6%, 9%, and 12%), and different average particle size (53µm, 106 µm, 150 µm, and 212µm %), and studying Compression Strength, Surface Hardness, and Density properties. Hand Lay-Up represented the method used to prepare the specimens in this research. The results were statistically analyzed by SPSS (one-way ANOVA) to determine the mean value and showed a significant difference for each particle size. The highest value of compression strength and surface hardness of PMMA composite specimens happened at (9%wt.) of the filler particles. Also the results represented that the density values for the composite specimens are increased with increasing the weight fraction of the filler particles.

Numerical Investigations on Seismic Response of Structures under the Effect of Infinite Boundary of Soil-Structure Interaction

Qais A. Hasan; Saad F. Al-Wakel; Zahraa R. Zaidan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 516-521
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.4

The damage caused by large earthquakes is not only due to structures but also due to the soil failure, where the dynamic response varies considerably from the fixed base state because of the interaction between the ground and the structure. The main objective of this paper is to study the effect of the infinitely extended soil on the dynamic response of the structure. A three-dimensional dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete building
considering the effect of soil-structure interaction is performed. Building with a different number of stories rest on soil with various characteristics have been taken into consideration. For simulation of wave propagation due to far-field effects, coupled finite-infinite elements is presented for modeling the soil. The infinite boundary provides a powerful tool for dealing with wave propagation problems. The analysis is performed through a finite element method which is implemented in ABAQUS program. An earthquake load is applied in the horizontal direction with various boundary conditions such as; free, and infinite boundary. The effect of boundary on the dynamic response of structure are investigated. The significant difference in dynamic response is observed when infinite boundaries are used, especially in the case of soft soil, where the existence of infinite elements leads to absorption of energy and thus greatly reduce the lateral displacement of the structure.

Design PID Neural Network Controller for Trajectory Tracking of Differential Drive Mobile Robot Based on PSO

Mohamed J. Mohamed; Mohammed K. Hamza

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 574-583
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.12

This paper introduces a nonlinear (Proportional-Integral-Derivative Neural Network) (PID NN) controller for a differential wheeled mobile robot trajectory tracking problem. This neural controller is built based on the principles of neural network (NN) and the equation of conventional structure of PID controller and is applied on kinematic model of the mobile robot. The particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) is utilized to find the best values of three PID NN parameters and connection weights that minimize the error between the reference path and the actual path. The results illustrate that the PID NN controller has a satisfied ability to make the mobile robot tracking any path with good performance, high accuracy and acceptable robustness.

Toxic Effect of Inhalation Polyurethane in Lungs, Liver, and Kidneys Fume in White Male Mice

Sura M. Ahmed; Amel A. Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 11A, Pages 460-463
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.11A.2

In this study, the toxic effect of exposure to inhalation of polyurethane resin fumes by White Male Mice was evaluated over 36 days. The study included the use of the inhalation method in an exposition room filled with the fume chemical to a period of 10, 20 and 40 minutes per day, and were then transferred to the fumigant section of the animal house. The organs of the mice was dissected, and the change of the weight determined. The lungs, liver, kidneys tissues of the exposed mice showed typical structural structures when compared with the control group. The liver cells of the mice group exposed to polyurethane were revealed to expose to some hydrolysis and led to an increase in their size. In terms of lung, tissue was characterized by the presence of interstitial infiltration and bloody congestion. It was observed that water degeneration of the lining cells of the parts of the urinary tracts of the kidney with the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the interstitial tissue. These results suggest that exposure of white mice to polyurethane coating fumes may cause observed harmful effects and cause serious health problems to their liver and lung.

Investigation the Creep-Fatigue Behavior and A.C. Electrical Conductivity of AA 6061 Under Ultrasonic Peening

Hussain J. Al-Alkawi; Ahmed H. Reja; Mahmood F. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 11A, Pages 453-459
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.11A.1

Ultrasonic peening is an innovative surface improvement process used to increase the resistance of aircraft metals and enhance high cycle fatigue life. The process creates residual compressive stresses deep into part surfaces. These compressive surface stresses inhibit the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. Aluminum alloys are relatively new materials used in aerospace, marine, automobile, and bridges due to low weight, which has significant advantages compared to the other materials. A major concern in the design of Aluminum alloys subjected to variable loads is fatigue strength and life. In this paper mechanical properties, fatigue strength, fatigue life and A.C.. electrical conductivity were studied for AA6061-T6 to assess the effects of ultrasonic peening (UP) on mechanical properties, fatigue at room temperature (RT), creep-fatigue (CF) at 250 ͦC and A.C.. electrical conductivity. Test results showed that after UP, the mechanical properties; ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and yield stress (Ys)
were noticeably improved. The improvements in UTS and Ys were enhanced by
5.7% and 1.5% respectively while the ductility was reduced from 16.5% to 15.7%.
Fatigue strength was enhanced by 8.37% compared to strength at RT. The results
of UT before creep-fatigue CF showed increasing in fatigue strength 147 MPa at
CF 250 ̊C and improved to153 MPa after applying UP, indicating 4%
improvement in strength. The fatigue life was improved after UP for both RT and
CF. It was found that the A.C. electrical conductivity increase as the frequency
increase for all the cases above.
Ultrasonic peening is an innovative surface improvement process used
to increase the resistance of aircraft metals and enhance high cycle fatigue life.
The process creates residual compressive stresses deep into part surfaces. These
compressive surface st
resses inhibit the initiation and propagation of fatigue
cracks. Aluminum alloys are relatively new materials used in aerospace, marine,
, and bridges due to low weight, which
compared to the other materials. A major concern in the design of Aluminum
alloys subjected to variable loads is fatigue strength and life. In this paper
mechanical properties, fatigue strength, fatigue life and A.C.
. electrical
conductivity wer
e studied for AA6061-
T6 to assess the effects of ultrasonic peening
(UP) on mechanical properties, fatigue at room temperature (RT), creep-
(CF) at 250
C and A.C.
. electrical conductivity. Test results showed that after UP
the mechanical propertie
s; ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and yield stress
were noticeably improved. The improvements in UTS and Ys
enhanced by
5.7% and 1.5% respectively while the ductility was reduced from 16.5% to 15.7%.
Fatigue strength was enhanced by 8.37% compar
ed to strength at RT. The results
of UT before
-fatigue CF showed increasing in fatigue strength 147 MPa at
CF 250
C and improved to153 MPa after applying UP
, indicating 4%
improvement in strength.
The f
atigue life was improved after UP for both RT and
CF. It was found that the A.C. electrical conductivity increase as the frequency
increase for all the cases above

Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan- Polyvinyl alcohol Blend Modified by Genipin and Nanohydroxyapatite for Bone Tissue Engineering

Ishraq A. Kadhim; Zuhair J. Abdul Ameer; Assel B. Alzubaidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 11A, Pages 470-474
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.11A.4

Use nanohydroxyapatite into the polymeric matrix as bioactive material for bone tissue engineering has enormous therapeutic potential because beneficial properties biocompatibility, biodegradability, and consider a major inorganic constituent of the bone matrix. The blended films of Chitosan and Polyvinyl alcohol with Genipin as cross-link agent were studied with and without addition Nanohydroxyapatite. Samples were prepared by solvent casting. The resulting films blended composite were characterized by Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, degradation behavior, swelling degree and tensile strength. Degree of swelling, and weight loss of the films blended composite was decreased with an increase of genipin and nanohydroxyapatie concentrations while tensile strength was increased with an increase of genipin and nanohydroxyapaite concentrations. The results showed that the chitosan composite could be used as effective biomaterials for bone regeneration engineering with different degradation rates.

Deep CNN Based Skin Lesion Image Denoising and Segmentation using Active Contour Method

Hadeel N. Abdullah; Hala K. Abduljaleel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 11A, Pages 464-469
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.11A.3

Automatic skin lesion segmentation on skin images is an essential component in diagnosing skin cancer. Image de-noising in skin cancer lesion is a description of processing image which refers to image restoration techniques to develop an image in predefined touch. Then de-noising is the crucial step of image processing to restore the right quality image after that which can use in many processes like segmentation, detection. This work proposes a new technique for skin lesion tumor denoising and segmentation. Initially, using Deep Convolution Neural Network (CNN) to eliminate noise and undesired structures for the images. Then, a new mechanism is proposed to segment the skin lesion into skin images based on active_contour straight with morphological processes. Different noise removal and segmentation techniques on skin lesion images are applying and comparing. The proposed algorithm shows improvement in the results of both noise reduction and segmentation

An Experimental Investigation on Thermal Efficiency of Flat Plate Tube Solar Collector using Nanofluid with Solar Tracking Mechanism

Saad T. Hamidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 11A, Pages 475-487
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.11A.5

In the present work, flat-plate solar collector (FPSC) in terms of various parameters as well as in respect of lower (Area of FPSC, volume fraction concentration of nanofluids, and mass flow rate) has been studied in this work. The FPSC has been fabricated with 0.192 m2, Dioxide silicon SiO2 (40nm) with the volume fraction of SiO2+Distilled water (0.05, 0.075, and 0.1%) and varying of flow rate (10, 15, 20L/h). These technological devices operate under forced circulation mode of fluid under varying climate conditions. The tracking mechanism has been used in the experiment of FPSC for tracking the sun position during the daytime. As per the ASHRAE standard. The results showed that at volume fraction 0.10 % and flow rate of 20 L/h, the highest increase in the absorbed energy parameter FR(τα) was 7.3 %, and the removed energy parameter FRUL was 11.9 % compared with distilled water. The changes in absorbed energy parameter FR(τα) they vary from 4.4% to 7.3% while in removed energy parameter FRUL, the vary from 1.3% to 11.9% as compared with the distilled water case. The maximum efficiency was about 70 % as the decreased temperature parameter [(Ti–Ta)/GT] is equal to zero at a volume fraction of 0.10 % and flow rate of 20 L/h

Ethical Responsibility in the Practice of Architecture

Abdullah S.S. Almaamouri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 11A, Pages 488-495
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.11A.6

The research deals with the concept of ethical responsibility as one of the most influential concepts in the process of practicing architecture. It is defined as “systems of ethical principles and engineering rules governing the architect in making decisions of design practice, making them sound, preventing them from making mistakes during the stages of design, and the maintenance “by the commitment to them, result in creative architectural texts benefit the individual and society,” and thus determine the research problem in (Lack of cognitive perception of the role of moral responsibility in the practice of architecture). Therefore, the research aims at clarifying the standards, elements and principles of the practice of architecture according to the moral responsibility of the architecture, and accordingly the research assumes that the indicators of moral responsibility have a positive impact in the formulation of creative architectural productions. For the purpose of addressing the issue of research and achieve the objectives of the research and verification of the hypothesis was first build a framework of knowledge, and a comprehensive theoretical framework of moral responsibility deduced from the architectural propositions and proposals to materialize as Chock final in three main indicators: “Standards of the practice of architecture morally, and the ingredients of the practice of architecture morally, and the foundations of the practice of architecture morally”. 

The Air Bubbles Effect for Underwater Optical Wireless Communication Using 650 nm Wavelength

Salah A. Adnan; Mazin A.A. Ali; Fatima S. Hakwar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 398-403
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.3

In this research, texts were sent by pulse width modulation
(PWM) in the channel of clean water using
Arduino hardware and software for an underwater wireless optical
communication system (UWOC). The air bubbles device utilized the
disturbance at different distances from the transmitter source within the
channel of clean water. The total length of the channel is (1) m. In this
study, the source of transmitter wavelengths 650 nm was used with the
power of 80mw. The results showed that the received power was 32 mW
in the clean water, while when air bubbles pump within the channel of
clean water at 0.2m, 0.5m and 0.8m away from the transmitter source,
the received power was 28 mW, 27.5 mW, and 27 mW respectively. This
paper shows that max. Signal to Noise Ratio (S/N) and min. attenuation
(α) in the clean water were (24.637dB) and (3.979dB/m) respectively.
The practical results showed that the Symbol Error Rate (SER) in the
case of the air bubbles pump was maximum (0.03) when the value of
(S/N) was minimum (23.899).

Design and Control of a Full-Scale Quarter Car Test Rig for Semi-Active Suspension System

Bahaa-Aldin R. Abdullah; Mohsin N. Hamzah; Ammar S. Merza

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 416-421
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.6

Passive hydraulic dampers are commonly used in the automotive suspension system. Nevertheless, they are suffering from a significant drawback owing to the changing of its characteristics at high-frequency; as a result, decreasing the ride quality due to the increase of the transmitted force, especially at high frequency excitations. The present work developed a semi-active suspension system to solve this problem with its effect. A Sky-hook control strategy is used to suppress the positional oscillation of the sprung mass in the presence of road irregularities via the use of the electrohydraulic (EH) damper, as an objective. In order to apply the control strategy used herein, a full-scale quarter-car test platform has been designed and constructed to offer increased testing flexibility at a reasonable cost not found commercially. MATLAB Simulink is applied for modeling the semi-active suspension system. The control strategy using a Sky-hook control was used to enhance the comfort due to the simplicity of this method that can easily be implemented in a real-time embedded application. The control strategy is evaluated for its performance under the road bump excitation. The experimental results were compared with the simulated ones for both passive and semi-active suspension systems, the comparison includes time response analysis of body vertical displacement, and vertical displacement of quarter car structure.

Effect of laser Peening on the Microhardness and Roughness of Al-7277 alloy

Mays O. Hashim; Abdul Hadi K. Judran; Razi J. Al Azawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 404-407
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.4

The purpose of the study conducted was an analysis of the influence of pulse density per area unit of LSP on (7277AL Alloy) regarding the surface characterization, roughness achieved and microhardness. The samples, which were used in this investigation, are 7277Al Alloy. Specify the laser parameter used in this study effect on sample surface properties were studied. Such as laser energy, and laser pulses number the results reveal that the microhardness enhancement by 80%, while the surface roughness increased by 69% when laser energy of 360mj and the number of laser pulses of 100 pulse were applied. X-ray fluorescence analyses and optical microscope were carried out for all samples.

An Overview on Most Effective DRAs in Crude Oil Pipelines

Raheeq I. Ibrahim; Manal K. Odah; Dhoha A. Shafeeq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 391-397
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.2

The flow of crude oil in pipelines suffers from a problem of fluid flow pressure drop and high-energy consumption for pumping especially in low temperatures environment. Flow can be enhanced using viscosity either reduction or drag reduction techniques. Drag reduction is considered as the most effective and most applicable method. The technique contributes in reducing the frictional energy losses during the flow by addition of little doses of materials knowing as drag-reducing agents. The present work focuses on more recent and most applicable drag-reducing agents used in crude oil flow enhancement via pipelines.

Structural and Morphological Investigation of Cr2O3/WO3Oxides Films Composite Using Modified Spray Pyrolysis Technique

Zena A. Salman; Farhad M. Othman; Alaa A. Abdul-hamed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 435-441
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.9

Cr2O3/WO3 oxides film composite was successfully synthesized via advanced controlled chemical spray pyrolysis deposition technique using two nozzles. Two solutions of tungstic acid and chromium chloride was sprayed separately at various ratios of (W: Cr) at the same time on a silicon substrate at 500 °C, the film then heat-treated at 400 °C for the 60s. The crystal structure, microstructure and morphology properties of prepared films were studied. Based on characterization techniques, crystallized Cr2O3/WO3 mixed oxides films were investigated by X-ray diffraction after the annealing process, with film thickness of about 500 nm. The SEM and AFM revealed that rough and porous microstructures of Cr2O3/WO3 were formed. The obtained microstructure has been known as one of the most effective microstructures due to having high surface area particularly in gas detection applications

Investigation the Morphological Characteristics of the Particulate Matter Emissions from the Oxygenated Fuels Combustion in Diesel Engines

Mohammed A. Fayad; Bashar R. AL-Ogaidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 384-390
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.1

Understanding the size and morphological properties of particulate matter (PM) is essential to improve analysis of the process of PM formation in diesel engines. These will help to reduce undesirable environmental impact and health effects. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to study the changes in size characteristics of PM/soot and soot reactivity. Furthermore, improve the oxidation of soot particles in diesel engines is necessary under the range of different fuel combustions. Oxygenated fuels (e.g., ethanol blend, E10 and butanol blend, B16) were used in this experimental study to show how insignificant changes in morphological characteristics and activity of PM .
The oxidation and activation energy of PM was achieved at the lower temperature from the combustion of oxygenated fuels compared with diesel fuel combustion. Besides, it was found that both the size of soot particulate and the number of primary particles are reduced with increasing the oxygen content in oxygenated fuels than the diesel fuel. The shape of primary soot particle for PM is a bit more spherical in the case of diesel fuel than to the oxygenated fuels.
Keywords- Particulate matter, PM oxidation, Oxygenated fuel, Combustion, Soot particles, Diesel engine, TGA.
Understanding the size and morphological properties of particulate
matter (PM) is essential to improve analysis
the process of PM formation in
diesel engines. These will help to reduce undesirable environmental impact and
health effects. A scanning mobi
lity particle sizer (SMPS) and thermal
gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to study the changes in size
characteristics of PM/soot and soot reactivity. Furthermore, improve
oxidation of soot particles in diesel engines is necessary under
range of
different fuel combustions. Oxygenated fuels (e.g.
ethanol blend, E10 and
butanol blend, B16) were used in this experimental study to show how
insignificant changes in morphological characteristics and activity of PM
The oxidation and activation energy of PM was achieved at
temperature from the combustion of oxygenated fuels compared with diesel fuel
, it was found that both
size of soot particulate
number of primary
reduced with increasing the oxygen content in
oxygenated fuels than the diesel fuel. The shape of
soot particle for PM
is a bit more spherical in
case of diesel fu
el than to the oxygenated fuels

Survey of User to User Recommendation System in Online Social Networks

Sammer A. Qader; Ayad R. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 422-428
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.7

The widespread use of online social networks (OSN) and their applications by users lead to the lack of knowledge identification of their needs across the vast amount of data, which made the need to create systems that help people to solve the problems and make decisions with more accuracy, an example of these systems is the Recommendation system (RS), which helps users to make decision and save time in search on a commercial or personal level, one of the most critical types of recommendation systems is the friends recommendation system (FRS) . In this survey, several studies have been suggested to solve the problem of FRS and its mechanism, techniques, and algorithms used to create them Also, the RS types and techniques, a variety of dataset that deals with a specific system, are explained. Moreover, the challenges they face to determine the needs of people in terms of the choice of items or at the level of social networks are included.

Modelling the Ecosystem Behavior of Abu-Ziriq Marsh in South of Iraq Under Different Water Discharges Scenarios

Fuaad H. Al-Yaseen; Mustafa M. Al-Mukhtar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 442-452
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.10

The marshlands are of fundamental importance to Iraq, a unique ecosystem providing local inhabitants with an essential source of habitat and livelihoods. This paper aims to study the ecosystem behavior of Abu-Ziriq Marsh in the south of Iraq under different scenarios using the Ecosystem Functions Model Program (HEC-EFM) and Hydrologic Engineering Center Data Storage System Visual Utility Engine (HEC-DSSVue). To this end, data was converted from tri-monthly and semi-monthly to daily data using the HEC-DSSVue program. The daily data natural(flow, stage) was used for five years between 2013 and 2018. The prediction process was evaluated using three criteria: correlation coefficient (R), root mean square error (RMSE), and the Nash–Sutcliffe effectivity coefficient (NSE). Results of R, RMSE and NSE for the daily inflow discharge (stage) of natural were 0.98 (0.93), 1.55 (0.19) and 0.95 (0.73). Five scenarios of a percentage decrease in gage(flow, stage) with 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% were investigated. Results showed that the decrease in discharge from 2% to 8% did not significantly affect environmental relations and could be used by the competent authorities. However, when the discharge was reduced to 10%, the environmental relations were greatly affected and threatened the life of the organisms. In addition to that, results for wetland health reverse lookup at the fifth scenario show that Abu–Ziriq Marsh need (70.2%) as a percent of the time, when flows equal or exceed four m3/sec. This discharge was chosen because it can be supplied on most days of the year, which is the time needed to be revived when flows equal or exceed 4 (m3/sec).

Experimental Investigation of Sub-Cooled Flow Boiling in Metallic Microchannel

Suha A. mohammed; Ekhlas Mohammed Fayyadh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 408-415
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.5

Experiments in microchannel heat sink were carried that examine the deionized water two-phase boiling heat transfer. The heat sink consisted of a single microchannel having 300μm wide nominal dimensions and 300μm height (hydraulic diameter of 300μm). The heat sink formed of oxygen-free copper with 72mm length and 12mm width. Experimental operation conditions spanned the heat flux (78-800) kW/m2, mass flux (1700 and 2100) kg/m2.s at 31K subcooled inlet temperature. The boiling heat transfer coefficient is measured, and compared with existing correlations. The results show that higher mass flux leads to a higher boiling heat transfer coefficient and the dominants mechanism is convective boiling. In addition, it was found that an existing correlation provides a satisfactory prediction of the heat transfer coefficient.

Hydraulic Analysis of Irrigation Network for the Proposed Taq-Taq Dam Using EPANET Software

Ibtisam R. Karim; Sarmad A. Sahib

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 429-434
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.8

Analysis of pipe network is the fluid flow through hydraulics network containing inters connected branches, whose aim is to determine the pressure drops and flow rates in the individual parts of the network. In the study using specialized software such as EPANET for automatically solving problems of network. The main objective of this study is to analysis the irrigation network of the proposed Taq-Taq dam using hydraulic simulation software, in order to study the distribution of pressure, velocity and head on the pipe network for the purpose of ensuring the operation of the network efficiently and improve quantity and quality of water that distributed through the pipelines system. Finally, the study showed velocity distribution, pressure distribution and head distribution along the pipeline in the irrigation project. All the results that the simulated model seems to be reasonably close to an actual same network.

Recycling of Waste Paraffin Wax by the Addition of SiO2 Nano-Powders to Improve Thermal Conductivity

Aseel B. Al-Zubaidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue A9, Pages 369-373
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.9A.4

Paraffin wax is an important material used in thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The thermal conductivity of the material is an important parameter that decides the degree of exploitation of the paraffin wax in TES systems. The thermal conductivity is improved by the addition of silicon oxide nanoparticles (1%, 2%, 4%, and 6%) to the paraffin wax. The average size of the SiO2 particles is equal to 38 nm. The addition of SiO2 nano-particles at very small ratios was found to enhance the thermal conductivity of the paraffin wax considerably. SiO2 nanoparticles, add to paraffin wax, have a significant effect in enhancing the thermal storage characteristics of paraffin
Paraffin wax is an important material used in thermal energy storage
(TES) systems. The thermal conductivity of the material is an important
decides the degree of exploitation of the paraffin wax in TES
systems. The thermal conductivity is improved by the addition of silicon oxide
nanoparticles (1%, 2%, 4
and 6%) to the paraffin wax. The average size of the
particles is equal to 38 nm. The a
of SiO
-particles at very
small ratios was found to enhance the thermal conductivi
ty of the paraffin wax
considerably. SiO
nanoparticles, add to paraffin wax, have
a significant effect
in enhancing the thermal storage characteristics of paraffin

Complex Surface Representation and Machining Time Estimation Upon Three Types of End Mill Cutter

Rasha J. Marzoog; Ahmed A. Alduroobi A. Alduroobi; Sawsan S. Al-Zubaidy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue A9, Pages 354-358
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.9A.1

The accuracy of data transition between CAD and CAM has been playing a great role in the product life cycle, and eventually, the product quality. As products complexity increased, the need to robust technique to data transition increased. On the other hand, Machining simulation facilitates deciding the process parameters. The aim of the present research is divided into two aims: first: building a free form surface and transforming its data accurately from CAD to CAM without any distortion. Second: study the milling process using different end cutters geometry and make a comparison between those in terms of machining time at a constant scallop height (s.h.). The study passed through three steps, first: A mathematical model and computer program had been built for non-uniform B-spline surface creation. The output points are stored in a format to be easily imported. Second: importing the data into manufacturing simulation program to emulate the milling process. Three types of milling tools with different end cutter had been used (flat, ball, and toroidal). Third, use a CIMCO edit package to estimate machining time for the three tools. A conclusion had been made that the surface data had been transformed accurately into the simulation process. Another conclusion was, with fixed (s.h.) the ball end mill takes more time than toroidal, which in turn takes more time than flat.

A Compact Single-Feed Patch Antenna with Frequency and Polarization Diversity

Fayyadh H. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue A9, Pages 374-383
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.9A.5

A new compact single feed square ring patch antenna using meandered 4λ transformer is designed, for frequency and polarization diversity. The proposed antenna is constructed from a square ring patch antenna, and two orthogonal meandered cascaded 4λ transformer (OMCT), incorporated with six switches for frequency and polarization reconfiguration purposes. The OMCT with switches is necessary to get good impedance bandwidth (BW) and axial ratio bandwidth (ARBW) for circular polarization state. In addition, it utilized to excite the antenna at two orthogonal locations, with equal magnitude and quadratic in phase, for achieving circular polarization mode at resonant frequencies 2.44GHz, 4.7GHz, and 5.6GHz. Moreover, it can excite the antenna as non-orthogonal modes for various other frequency bands, such as 2.89 GHz, 3.49 GHz, 4.9 GHz, 5.2GHz, 5.49GHz, 6.16GHz and 3.1GHz as linear polarization (LP) state. The proposed antenna has a compact low profile planar structure with area equal to 23mm2. Simulation and measured results show that the proposed antenna demonstrates a reasonable impedance bandwidth, and axial ratio in the circularly polarized state. Simulation results have been obtained from commercial CST-2014 Microwave Studio. The proposed antenna is fabricated for simulation result verification, and the implemented antenna is tested using R&S ZVL13 Vector Network Analyzer. The experimental confirms the simulation results.

Point Cloud Pre-Processing and Surface Reconstruction Based on Chord Algorithm Technique

Ali M. Al-Badairy; Ahmed A. Al-Duroobi; Maan A. Tawfiq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue A9, Pages 364-368
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.9A.3

3D laser scanner is one of the modern technologies, which used to obtain the geometric information about the 3D scanned object surface. But, there are some problems that are associated with this technique such as the huge number of obtained points which require high memory to save and the required data processing processes. This paper proposed a data simplification algorithm for point cloud of a scanned object using 3D laser scanner (Matter
and Form) in a manner to extract the necessary geometric features, which are
represented by points for a 3D object. This algorithm based on the
instantaneous calculation of chord height of each set of adjacent points in the
point cloud. A MATLAB environment was used to build a proposed
simplification algorithm program. Then this program was applied using a
proposed case study. The result which was obtained from the application of the
proposed algorithm and surface fitting process for the proposed case study
proved the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in data simplification. The
percent of data which was ignored as noisy data point was (24%) of the total
number of data point in applying the algorithm for two attempts.
3D laser scanner is one of the modern
technologies, which
used to
obtain the geometric information about the 3D scanned object surface.
there are some
associated with this technique such as the
huge number of obtained points
require high memory to save
required data processing processes.
is paper proposed a data simplification
algorithm for point cloud of a
scanned obje
ct using 3D laser scanner (Matter
and Form) in a
manner to extract the necessary geometric features, which
represented by points for a 3D object. This algorithm based on
instantaneous calculation of chord height of each set of adjacent points in th
point cloud. A MATLAB environment was
used to build a proposed
simplification algorithm program
. Then
this program
ed using a
proposed case study.
The result which was obtained from
proposed algorithm and surface fitting process for the proposed case study
proved the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in data simplification.
percent of data which was ignored as noisy data point was (24%)
of the
number of data point in applying the algorithm for two attempts.

Smoothing Smartphone GPS Raw Measurements

Tariq N. Ataiwe; Abbas Z. Khalaf; Israa H. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue A9, Pages 359-363
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.9A.2

This  research aims  to  investigate  the  smoothing  of  the  pseudo-range raw  measurements  of  the  smartphone  using  a  Hatch  filter.  The  measurements  of  smartphones  suffer  from  high  noise  generated  from  low-cost  antennas  and  oscillators, which are designed to work in a certain way. These types of low-cost antennas  and  oscillators  are  entirely different  from  geodetic  instruments,  which  are  designed  for  high  accuracy  positioning.  The  GPS  measurement  data  were  collected   using   a   Huawei   P10   device,   41   minutes   and   24   seconds   GPS   observation  time  with  sampling  intervals  of  1  second  using  Geo++  Android  application.  The  GPS  measurements  are  processed  using  standalone  (epoch  by  epoch)  method,  by  MATLAB  software  developed  by  the  authors,  as  a  part  of  a software  package  for  processing  smartphone  GPS  measurements.  The  errors  in  raw  measurements  in  the  Easting,  Northing,  and  Up  (ENU)  components  when  using  standalone  (epoch  by  epoch)  method  are  ranging  from  -50m  to  30m,  and  the errors after applying the Hatch filter are reduced to have ranged from -10m to  5m,  the  raw  data  were  very  noisy  and  funded  it  has  many  cycles  slips  as  a  result of low-cost antennas and oscillators of smartphone’s. The cycle slips in the measurements  were  detected  and  found  that  it  was  the  result  of  jumping  the  errors to 27 m in northing and 43 m in up.

Effect of Radial Clearance on Stress and Strain Distribution in the Astral Deep Drawing

Waleed K. Jawad; Ali T. Ikal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 8A, Pages 332-340
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.8A.4

In this paper, an astral die was designed and constructed to produce an
astral cup in the deep drawing operation by experimental work and numerical
simulation. The influence of radial clearance on drawing load, cup high, the
distribution of stress, strain and thickness along the side wall,
and major
axis were also studied. The deep drawing process was carried out to produce an
astral cup with
inner dimension of (41.5mm × 34.69mm), and (30mm) height
drawn from
blank sheet with
(0.7) and diameter (80) made of
carbon steel. A commercial
program (ANSYS18.0
was used to perform the
numerical simulation. Three types of radial clearance equal to (1.1
, 1.2
, and
) are used to investigate the influence of radial clearance
was found that
the maximum value of the drawing load
with radi
al clearance
equal (1.1
). The process of a squeeze in the wall that occurred with the radial
clearance (1.1
) due to the difficulty of the flow of the metal to be exposed to
maximum tensile stress. The maximum effective stress
recorded with the clearance of (1.1
) at the minor axis.

Characteristics of Artificial, Gypsified and Natural Gypseous Soils under LeachingCondition

Wisam M. Yaqoob; Falah H. Rahil; Mammed A. Al-Neami

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 8A, Pages 313-325

The gypseous soil known as a problematic soil with a collapsibility
behaviour, three types of gypseous soils are prepared (artificial, gypsified
natural gypseous soil), special manufactured leaching system used for testing the
soil models, the main objectives of this study are testing the soil models in dry and
leaching conditions for measuring earth and pore water pressures with
s and gypsum dissolved of the soil models under monotonic and
repeated loads within relatively large physical model. The results at leaching
process for three days revealed that the natural and gypsified soils have earth
pressures reach about (150 kPa) and
(4 to 4.5 cm) for displacements, while pore
water pressure increased until reaches about (120 kPa), but for artificial gypseous
soil, earth pressures reaches about (300 kPa) and (1 cm) for displacements. TDS
and SO3 content measured and reaches to about (
1900 ppm) for gypsified and
natural soils while reaches about (350 ppm) for artificial gypseous soil. STATISICA
program used to verify the results with a very good agreement reaches to 95% of
the statistical models.

Vacuum Effect on the Performance of Solar Air Collector with Micro-Channel Absorber Plate

Jalal M. Jalil; Nashwa A.Abdulkadhim A. Abdulkadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 8A, Pages 348-353
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.8A.6

In this study, the effect of vacuum with micro-channel technique on solar air collector performance is investigated experimentally. Vacuum space reduces the loss of heat for the absorption plate by conduction and thus improves the solar collector performance. It has been demonstrated that the solar collector is evacuated to 0.1 bar of pressure for absorber-to-cover spacing of 4cm. An absorber plate was manufactured from Aluminum metal with 30 rectangular micro-channels (length 0.9, width 0.004, height 0.0008 m) is constructed with measurements facilities of velocity, temperature and differential pressure. The tests are carried out indoor using solar simulator. Results showed that the performance of solar collector increases with vacuum about 2-5% than gained with non-vacuum utilizing a micro-channel absorber plate-black surface.
In this study, the effect of vacuum with micro
on solar air collector performance is investigated experimentally.
space reduces the loss of heat for the absorption plate by conducti
thus improves the solar collector performance.
It has been demonstrated
that the solar collector
is evacuated to 0.1 bar of pressure
for absorber
cover spacing of 4cm. An absorber plate was manufactured from Aluminum
metal with 30 rectangular micro
channels (length 0.9, width 0.004, height
0.0008 m) is constructed with measurements facilities of ve
temperature and differential pressure. The tests are carried out indoor using
solar simulator.
esults showed that the performance of solar collector
increases with vacuum about 2
5% than gained with non
vacuum utilizing a
channel absorber
black surface

Effect of Potassium Chloride and Potassium Sulphate Electrolyte Solutionon Surface Roughnessand Material Removal Rate in Electro Chemical Machining (ECM)

Heba S. Qasim; Shukry H. Aghdeab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 8A, Pages 341-347
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.8A.5

Electrochemical machining (ECM) is nontraditional machining
which is used to remove metal by anodic dissolution.
In this study the metal workpiece (WP) was stainless steel (AISI 316) and potassium
chloride (KCl) and potassium sulphate (K2SO4) solutions were used as
electrolyte, and the tool was used from copper. In this work the experimental parameters that used were concentration of soluti
on, current and voltage as input. While surface roughness (Ra) and material
removal rate (MRR) were the output. The experiments on electrochemical
machining with using concentration (10, 20 and 30) g/l, current (2, 5 and 10)A and voltage (6, 12 and 20)V.
Gap size between tool and WP (0.5)mm.
The results showed that (K2SO4) solution gave surface roughness
and material removal rate less than (KCl) solution in all levels, maximum
(Ra) is (0.471) and minimum (0.049), while (KCl) solution gave
maximum (Ra) wa
s (4.497) and minimum was (0.837). Generally
increasing in machining parameter (concentration of solution, current
and voltage) lead to increase in (Ra) and (MRR).
This study aims to compare the effect of using different electrolyte solution includingpota
ssium chloride (KCl) and potassium sulphate (K2SO4) on the surface
roughness (Ra) and material removal rate (MRR)

A Hybrid Neural-Fuzzy Network Based Fault Detection and IsolationSystem for DC Motor of Robot Manipulator

Arkan A. Jassim; Abbas H. Issa; Qusay A. Jawad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 8A, Pages 326-331
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.8A.3

In this paper, the detecting and isolating fault that occurs in (actuator
and sensor) in robot manipulator, which is used as a mathematical model were proposed for fault detection, where the neural network was used to detect the fault. The neural network was trained on the data set obtained from the Input/output on the (DC motor).The output of the sensor or actuator was compared with the output of the model (neural network) after that the residual signal is used to detect the fault. The fuzzy logic circuit was used for fault isolation that is depending on the residual signal from any sensor or actuator that faults. There are three types of faults detected and isolated in this study abrupt fault, incipient fault and intermittent fault. The Matlab R2012a was used to the model steady state designed and simulated .The model has a high capacity for detecting faults.

Characteristics of Artificial, Gypsified and Natural Gypseous Soils under Dry Condition

Wisam M. Yaqoob; Falah H. Rahil; Moammed A. Al-Neami

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 8A, Pages 302-312
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.8A.1

Gypseous soil characteristics were studied types many researchers, but
the bearing capacity of sandy gypseous
soil with different preparing of the soil
models were tested in dry condition under static and cyclic loads in this study, three
types of gypseous soils are prepared (artificial, gypsified and natural gypseous
soils). The laboratory tests were needed to
evaluate geotechnical soil properties.
The main objective of this study is testing of the soil models in dry condition for
measuring earth pressures with displacements of the soil models under monotonic
and repeated loads within relatively large manufactur
ed physical model. The
results found that the natural and gypsified soils have displacements of about (1 to
2 cm) and the pressures of earth reaches to about (500

550 kPa) and the artificial
gypsified soil reaches to (600
650 kPa) and the displacement
of about (1 cm). SO3
content tested for the soil samples reaches to about (11.7 %) for gypsified and
natural soils while reaches about (24.5 %) for artificial gypseous soil.

Assessing Water Quality for Al-Diwaniyah River, Iraq Using GIS Technique

Khalid M. Hussein; Sataa A.F. Al-Bayati; Salih A.A. Al-Bakri A.A. Al-Bakri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 256-264
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.6

In this  study,  Al-Diwaniyah  River  within  Al-Diwaniyah  Governorate was monitored for a set of chemical, physical,and bacteriological parameters for the assessment of water quality during January to July 2018. Water quality maps for  this  river  were  plotted  torepresent  the  change  in  each  parameter  during  the study  period  using  GIS  program.  Three  sampling  stations  along  the  river  and eighteen parameters were selected: air temperature, water temperature, turbidity, pH  value,  electrical  conductivity  (EC),  biochemical  oxygen  demand  (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), alkalinity, chloride, Sulfate, total suspended solids (TSS), total  dissolved  solids  (TDS),  calcium,  magnesium,  total  hardness,  lead,  total coliform,and  Escherichia  coli  bacteria.  The  results  explained  that the  water temperature  varied between (15-31) °C. pH  values ranged between (7.4-8.2) and river  water  was  considered  as  slightly  alkaline  with  alkalinity  concentrations between (124-176) mg/L. Most waterof the  river was very  hard according to the values of hardness that varied between (384-531) mg/L. The turbidity values of the river  ranged  between  (1.5-35.2)  NTU.Electrical  conductivity  was  between  (998-1380)  μs/cm.  Total  dissolved  solids  and  total  suspended  solids  were  their  values varied  between  (620-932)mg/L  and  (2-28)  mg/L  respectively.  It  was  found  that among  measured  positive  ions,  calcium  concentrations  were  higher  than  the magnesium  concentrations,  ranging  between  (71-175)  mg/L  and  (21-67)  mg/L respectively.  On  the  other  hand,  when  studying  Anions, sulfate  concentrations were  higher  than  chloride  concentrations  with  values  ranging  from  (152-339) mg/L  and  (101-167)  mg/L  respectively.  River  water  contained  dissolved  oxygen concentrations  ranging  (6.3-10.1)  mg/L  while  concentrations  of  biochemical oxygen  demand  varied  between  (0.6-7.6)  mg/L.  Lead  ranged  in  valuesbetween (0.001-0.017)  mg/L.  The  study  found  that  bacteriological  parameters,  including total coliform and E. coli, ranged between (500-1600) MPN/100ml and (30-1600) MPN/100ml respectively. In general, the parameters of Turbidity, SO4, BOD5, TC and E. coli have exceeded Iraqi standards for drinking water IQS: 417 while the rest  of  the  parameters  were  within  these  limits.  It  revealed  that  station  2  which was  located  only  at  ashort  distance  from  the  site  of  the  wastewater  treatment plant  was  more  polluted  than  the  other  two  stations.  The  results  showed  that  the water  of  the  river  is neithersuitable  for  drinking,  nor  suitable  for  swimming according  to  the  high  bacterial  pollution  in  addition  to  the danger  and  threat  to aquatic life but can be used for irrigation purposes.

Using Microbial Desalination Cell to Treat Iraqi Wastewater

Talib R. Abbas; Majid A. Dixon; Mustafa Hussein Al-Furaiji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 227-234
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.2

A Three
chambers MDC was made using three identical cubical
glass sections. Each chamber has an effective volume of 35 cm3. An anion
exchange membrane (AEM) was used to separate the anode from the
desalination chambers while a cation exchange membrane (CEM) was used to
separate the cathode from the desalination ch
ambers. Two graphite sheets were
used as anode and cathode electrodes. Biotic experiments have included air
cathode MDC fed with synthetic municipal wastewater, Bio
cathode MDC in
which the cathode chamber was inoculated with microalgae as an oxygen
and air
cathode MDC was fed with floated oil layer in the anode
chamber as
organic source. Maximum power density obtained from the
MDC was 121 mW/m2. The corresponding current density was 410 mA/m2.
Maximum power density obtained in this study was in
with that
presented in previous studies. Maximum coulombic efficiency and charge
efficiency achieved were 9% and 165% respectively. The results of this study
confirmed the validity of using MDC technology to treat municipal wastewater
as well as
oil, desalinate brackish water and generate electric power
simultaneously. Moreover, the results revealed the possibility of using mixed
culture algae, available in
Iraqi environment, in the cathode chamber as an
oxygen source to develop more energy
efficient MDC.
urther study deals with
different system configurations and
different operating conditions are

Study the Behavior of High Performance Concrete Circular Short Columns Confined by CFRP

Asmaa A. Ahmed; Shatha S. Hasan; Ali J. Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 273-281
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.8

This paper presents the results of experimental study on reinforced
concrete columns rehabilitation with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP)
under concentrated load.
short circular reinforced concrete columns
(150 mm diameter and 600 mm height) were tested. Three specimens were
unstrengthening and tested until failure as control specimens. Nine specimens
were rehabilitation by carbon fiber reinforced polymer after loading about
75% from ultimate axial load capa
city of control specimens. The test
parameters were the type of concrete are normal strength concrete (NSC),
high performance concrete (HPC) and high performance concrete containing
engine oil (HPCEO) in additional to effective the ratio CFRP confining (fa
(50%strengthening)and 40mm strips wrap
60mm spacing(40%strengthening)).
Test results showed that Adding used engine oil to concrete have significantly
effect on workability of concrete where work a
s plasticizer. HPCEO mix
showed lower strength (compressive, splitting tensile and flexural)
ultimate axial load of column than those HPC mix but greater than NSC mix.
Where the compressive strength of concrete was (27.3 MPa, 45.8 MPa and
69.7 MPa) for
NSC, HPCEO and HPC respectively. The ultimate axial load
capacity of unconfined reinforced concrete columns was (52 ton, 78 ton and
117 ton) for NSC, HPCEO and HPC respectively. Reducing efficiency of
rehabilitation by CFRP with increasing in compressive
strength of concrete.
The ratios of increasing in ultimate axial load capacity of rehabilitation RC
columns with 100% and 50% wrapping in comparison with 40%wrapping are
20% and 4% respectively for NSC, while these ratios become 15% and 5%
respectively for
HPCEO and for HPC , these ratios are 10%and 3%

Investigation of External and Internal Inversion for Aluminum Tube with Various Die Parameters Effect

Basim M. Fadhil; Ava Ali Kamal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 235-240
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.3

Finite element modeling has been conducted to investigate the
effect of die radius fillet, tube wall thickness, and friction coefficient on both
external and internal inversion for
aluminum tube. A 3D model was used
to build the contact pair for the a
luminum tube and the steel
. Due to the
axial symmetry, a 45
sector for the contact pair has been chosen. It has been
found that there is an important role for those parameters to govern the
inversion process and the mode of deformation beside the valu
e of the
applied force. No local buckling was seen in the external inversion in
contrast with internal inversion. A good correlation for current results with
experimental one that has been got by others.

Gait Analysis Before and After Total Knee Replacement

Sadiq J. Hamandi; Safa’a D. Al-Hussainy; Summer M. Sabeeh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 282-289
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.9

Total knee replacement is a surgical procedure for treatment of knee
Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis and
arthritis. The main goals
of TKR are relieve the pain, restore function, mobility and restore normal limb
alignment for the patients. The aim of the study to investigate the gait dynamic
improvements following TKR surgery by compare the dynam
ic parameter pre
operative and post
operative and then compar
the results with the normal gait
parameters. The gait analysis was performed on five patients before and after
they underwent unilateral TKR surgery. After three months from the total knee
placement there was a remarked increase in the function and decrease in pain.
The varus and valgus malalignment will be return to normal alignment after
operation, which is one of the main goals of the TKR. Post
operative cadence is
higher than pre
ve for four patients, post
operative speed is faster than
operative for four patients and post
operative stride length is larger than pre
operative for four patients. The patients continue to walk with significant gait
abnormalities by examining the ki
netics and the kinematics of the operated limb,
the results show the knee function not fully restor
ed three months after unilateraL
TKR surgery

Torsional Behavior of Solid and Hollow Core Self Compacting Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Fibers

Tareq S. Al-Attar; Sarmad S. Abdul Qader; Hind A. Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 248-255
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.5

Torsion of structural members and the behavior of steel fiber self
compacting reinforced concrete became the area of interest for many
researchers nowadays. The experimental program of the present work consists
of casting nine reinforced self
concrete beams in three groups.
Each group consists of three beams with the dimensions of 200×300×1500
mm. The first beam has a solid cross
section, the second beam has a hollow
core with the dimensions of 60×120×1500mm and the last beam has a hollow
with the dimensions of 80×180×1500mm. The steel fiber contents were 0,
0.5 and 1.0 % by volume for first, second and third groups respectively. T
orsional angle of twist versus torsional moment (torque) of each beam was
found during the experiments, and
the effect of variables, fibers volume
fraction and section geometry, on this relation
was investigated.
Moreover, the fresh and hardened properties of concrete were carried out
using several tests, which included slump flow, L
Box, compressive streng
tensile strength, and finally the torsion test.
The current results showed that
the addition of steel fibers has improved the torsional strength for all beams
and the fibers were more effective in hollow core sections than in the solid

Enhanced Solution of Inverse Kinematics for Redundant Robot Manipulator Using PSO

Hind Z. Khaleel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 241-247
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.4

Kinematics of
robot is divided into two parts: the forward
kinematics, which evaluates the end
effector’s position from joint angles,
and the
kinematics, which
the joint angles from the end
position. The solution of
inverse kinematics problem is too difficult and
complicated for the redundant robot arm manipulator. A Particle Swarm
Optimization (PSO) algorithm is an effective method to solve global optimization
problems. This paper presents the solution of inverse kin
ematics problem of a
link redundant manipulator robot arm using PSO without using the inverse
kinematics equations. The circle, square and triangle generated trajectories using
PSO are enhanced as compared with the trajectories of other works. The
hanced PSO algorithm is successfully found the best generating three joint
angles and the best generating end
effector's position of
link robot arm.
Then according to these joints and positions the circle, square and triangle path
ults are smoother than the path trajectories of other work. This
enhanced solution of inverse kinematics using PSO algorithm is too fast due to
the short elapsed time in every
iteration of trajectory. Besides that, these
velocities results have been given
evaluated and give
that the three
link robot is moving fast during the PSO algorithm. The elapsed time of circle
trajectory equals to 20.903981 seconds, the elapsed time of square trajectory
equals to 11.747171 seconds and the elapsed time of
triangle trajectory equals to
15.729663 seconds. MATLAB R2015b program is used in order to
results. The main benefit
of this work
to solve
two problems: 1) inverse
kinematics is too complex equations of the three
link robot. The solutions
of best
joint angles using PSO are computed within joint limits without using inverse
kinematics equations. 2) Another problem, this work is enhanced three
trajectories with respect to the best joint angles and reaches 96% percent as
compared with another
work. The error is too small according to the start and
goal PSO generated points for each trajectory.

Zoning Areas Susceptible to Land Subsidence in Tigris and Euphrates Basins

Ali Darvishi Boloorani; Masoud Soleimani; Ramin Papi; Seyed Kazem Alavipanah; Ayad M. Fadhil Al-Quraishi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 265-272
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.7

Land Subsidence is considered as one of the riskiest hazards in nature
geology. It may be caused by human activities including but not limited to
term depletion of water, petroleum, and gas from underground reservoirs.
Monitoring and zoning of regions susceptible to land
subsidence within Tigris
and Euphrates rivers basi
n can play a major role in predicting and preventing
damages from subsidence and can aid in better planning for utilizing its water
resources. Accordingly, this study proposed to employ 9 effective parameters
on subsidence including: precipitation, total w
ater underground changes,
elevation, slope, population, land use, distance from petroleum and gas fields,
distance from faults, and distance from rivers. Decision Making Trial and
Evaluation Laboratory method was applied for analyzing relationships between
parameters. Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process and Boolean methods were
combined to produce zoning maps of Tigris and Euphrates basin subsidence.
The results were indicative of the high potential of subsidence in zones
contributing to 1.39% of the total a
rea of the Tigris and Euphrates basin. Inter
parameter analysis by using of Decision Making Trial and Evaluation
Laboratory indicated that land cover, total water underground changes, and
population were the most impressible factors in land subsidence zoni

Monitoring of Agricultural Drought in the Middle Euphrates Area, IraqUsing Landsat Dataset

Imzahim A. Alwan; Abdul Razzak T. Ziboon; Alaa G. Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 222-226
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.1

was conducted to monitor
agricultural drought in
the Middle Euphrates
, Iraq
period from 1988 to 2018.
Multispectral Landsat TM, ETM
, and
were used
dated 1988, 1993, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2018
, which
obtained duri
of plants (January, February, March, November, and
A computerized drought monitoring was adopted using
Imagine 2015, ENVI 3.2, and ArcGIS 10.5 environments to process and
analysis the
data. The
indices, which
used in this
study were
: The
Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Vegetation Condition
Index (VCI).
The change analysis presented in this
is based on the
statistics extracted from the six
drought maps. The final results
were il
lustrated that drought area in the region had a noticeable increase
compared with no drought area. The results
of no
drought area
ranged between
) and
period from 1988
to 2018
. The extremely and severely drought classes recorded high
followed by moderately and mild drought in the region.
this study can be concluded that t
here is a high rate of drought in the
especially in its southern and western parts.

A Cooperation of Fog Computing and Smart Gateways in a Secure and Efficient Architecture for IoT-Based Smart Homes

Amin H. Seno; Sahar A. Alshammari

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 290-301
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.10

Nowadays Internet of Things (IoT) is growing to be a serious factor in
numerous areas of our daily life style. Internet of Things b
rings different
opportunities of intelligence to important aspects such as health, payments,
energy management, industrial sectors, transportation and also many other
specialties. It is important to notice that the interaction between these two part
the em
bedded equipment and Cloud based web services is such a common or
prevalent scenario of Internet of Things deployment. When it comes to the
security point of view, jointly users (consumer) and smart devices need to
reassure and establish a secure and confi
dent communication channel and
should have a perfect form of digital identity. In many situations, IoT devices
needs an already or earlier established infrastructure for their usage and that
cannot be managed by the device owner, such as the case in smart
Furthermore, the scenario presupposes a security stack that it is appropriate for
heterogeneous devices which can be integrated in Internet of Things frameworks
or in already presented operating systems. We proposed a Foggy Smart Home
Architecture (
FSHA). We identify end users by writing an authentication and
authorization protocol, and we will reduce the time required for this security
operation, so that the proposed method can prevent Non
online/offline password guessing attack and us
er impersonation attack and man
middle attack. Our method improves performance of smart home and
using fog layer can minimize traffic between cloud and gateways.

Assessment of the DesalinationEffect on ShatAl-Arab

Mohammed I. Al-Hashimi; Falah Alnedawy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 385-390
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.13

The resource of the dulcet water decreasing on our plant. Obstacles
and problems that face water resources are the pollution and increasing of
industrial wastes because of the human activities, lack of water resources in a
place is considered
dryness on well as unacceptable quality and quantity. The
effect of outstretch and tide in estuaries of rivers increase the concentration of
the salt in surface water.
The city of Basra suffers from the lack of water
discharge and high concentration of
salt , wastewater, and the salt wedge
ascending from downstream of Shat al –
Arab river. The water decrease in
quantities due to the decrease of water discharge in Shat al –
Arab river from
1300 m
/s to 1000 m
/s . Now the water discharge reaches less than 40 m
by the end of 2015.
Shat al –
Arab river suffers from the shortage of incoming
water from rivers, which cause increase of salinity.
Proposals are made for
resolving some of the questions

Modification of Prepared (Al 2024/Alumina/Mn) Composite by Laser Surface SiC Clad Layer

Marwa H. Juber; Amer H. Majeed; Mohammed S. Hamza; Thair A. Tawfiq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 6A, Pages 201-206
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.6A.3

The present work shows the cladding process of silicon carbide on the substrate of prepared composite (Al 2024/Alumina/Mn) by using a laser beam (pulsed Nd-YAG). To obtain the desired results, the best laser parameters were chosen. The parameters of the laser beam that have chief affected during the experiments in this work are peak power (1.9)kW, work frequency (8)Hz and pulse duration (5.3)ms, the preplaced powder technique favorite during a cladding process and the results in this work were proved by SEM, micro-hardness, EDS, and chemical corrosion tests. The results of the experimental work have shown that a micro-hardness increased about (28%) times for Aluminum/Alumina composite by silicon carbide cladding compared with the original value of micro-hardness, and thickness of the cladding layer was about (34μm). The resistance of corrosion was enhanced with about (35%) for the Aluminum/Alumina composite with SiC cladding.

Removal Performance Assessment of Dyes in Solution Using Mesoporous MCM-41 Prepared from Iraqi Rice Husk

Najat Saleh; Anaam A. Sabri; Ban S. Abdul Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 6A, Pages 207-213
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.6A.4

In this study, mesoporous silica MCM-41 material was synthesized using Iraqi rice husk for the first time, as silica precursor and Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template. MCM-41 was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), BET surface area, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Then the ability of MCM-41 as adsorbents were tested to treat dyes as one of the organic pollutants from synthetic wastewater . The adsorption behavior of Gentian violet(GV), Methylene blue(MB) and Congo red(CR) dyes from synthetic wastewater onto mesoporous MCM-41 was tested. Batch adsorption was employed to determine the effects of pH (2-11), adsorbent dose (0.05-1g), contact time (0–200 min), initial concentration (25-300 mg/L) and temperature (293,313,333ͦ K). It was found that MCM-41 has higher potential for adsorption of basic dyes (GV, MB) and lesser for acidic dye (CR) from aqueous solution in batch system .Adsorption isotherms were fitted with the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin models. It was found that the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model for GV and CR had the best fit with; on the other hand, the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model had the best fit for MB.

Study on Removal of Vanadium from Iraqi Crude Oil by Prepared Nanozeolites

Amin D. Tamer; Faras Q. Mohammed; Luma H. Mahmood; Marwan Hussein; Mahdie M. Hanyn

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 6A, Pages 188-194

The present study has been conducted to investigate the removal of vanadium from Iraqi crude oil by prepared zeolite nanoparticles. Ball milling was used as a top-down approach to synthesize zeolite nanoparticles. Different variables such as adsorbent loading, Vanadium loading, and operating time were investigated for their influence on Vanadium removal. Experimental results of adsorption test show that both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms predict well with the experimental data. Kinetic analysis of the studied system gives the following linear equations, For Langmuir isotherm: 1𝑞𝑒=1.6505 1𝐶𝑒−0.0139 with R2 = 0.9738, For Freundlich isotherm: 𝑙𝑛𝑞𝑒=1.0848 1𝐶𝑒 – 0.4412 with R2 = 0.9711
XRD and EDX analyses reveal the noticeable uptake of zeolite for V. In crude oil, experimental results indicated that for zeolite loading at 1 g/100 ml oil and within approximately 6 h, the removal efficiencies of V were 65, 40, and 30% at vanadium loadings of 70, 80, and 90 ppm respectively. Long-time tests revealed the high capability of zeolite A for vanadium removal.

Improving the Properties of Main Drainage Water by Using of Magnetic Field Technique

Olla H. Kareem; Abdul Hameed M.J. Al-Obaidy; Riyad H. Al-Anbari

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 6A, Pages 195-200
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.6A.2

In this research, main drainage channel treated by using a magnetic field with a density of (6000 Guesses). The general drain water samples flowed through the magnetic field with three levels of treatment (5 minutes, 15 minutes and 30 minutes) depending on the contact time. After treatment, it was found that the magnetic field works to improve more than ten physical and chemical properties of water. Essentially, Magnetic treatment has had a significant effect on the high salt content found in general drain water samples as it has been reduced and converted into simpler compounds. In addition, the magnetic field has an important role in increase the percentage of dissolved oxygen in water.

Hydrogeologic Sustainability and Mitigation of Shallow Groundwater against High Saline and Chemical Pollutants

Najah M.L. Al Maimuri; Arkan R. Ali; Abdulhadi M. Al-Sa’adi; Mohammed K. Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 303-310
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.1

A hydrogeologic study has been adopted to conceptualize the concepts of groundwater levels lowering in swamped area of Tyass, middle of Iraq. 2D dimensional groundwater model and, mitigation model has been used to mitigate the aquifer against high salinity and chemical pollutants by the mitigation theory of heterogeneous subsurface media, which depends upon physical and mathematical derivation, evaluation of chemical pollutants and total dissolved salts (TDS) of subsurface water before and after mitigation process. The water table level was lowered up to 2.43m at the center of a pumping well of abstraction discharge (400m3/day) obtained after 2755days in steady state. The ions concentrations of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), mercury (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and TDS in groundwater of 0.4, 3.25, 1.15, 0.004, 0.033 mg/liter and 7000ppm respectively were reduced to less than the allowable limits according to WHO of 0.3, 3, 1, 0.003, 0.01mg/liter, 1200ppm respectively by adding 0.2WD of fresh water from Hillah river and using maximum no. of pumping wells of (19 at April) after 240 months. The mitigation period was reduced to 120 months when the addition of solvent volume was doubled. Mitigation process in heterogeneous against high saline levels and chemical pollutants has been proven a good tool for the rehabilitation of polluted aquifers.

Seasonal Variations of Air Pollutants Concentrations within Baghdad City

Layla L. Alwan; Sedik A.K. Al-Hiyaly; Ayat H. Mahdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 356-364
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.9

Air pollution is increased significantly nowadays due to various
industrial activities and car combustion emissions. In this work, data have been
collected from Al
Monitoring Station (JMS). The effects of seasonal
variation on the pollutants concentration were examined. Furthermore,
relations of nitrogen oxides concentrations (NOx) were assessed during the first
hours of the working days. Three randomly days from ea
ch of January,
February, July and August have been taken to represent winter and summer
respectively. It has been found that concentrations of all examined
pollutants have not exceeded the acceptable limits. However, nitrogen oxides
(NOx) seem to
be effected by seasonal variation where its concentration has
increased in June and August of
summer season. The concentrations of other
pollutants (SO
, CO, PM) have not been influenced by seasonal variations
they depend on the gaseous source emi
ssions at different times of the year.
Hourly monitoring for nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentration showed increasing
in concentrations during
summer season
especially in
early hours of the
working days.

Rubber Pad Sheet Metal Forming of Round Metal Blanks into Multi Shape Axisymmetric Cups by FEA and Experimental Methods

Karem M. Younis; Adnan I. Mohammed; Jalil Shukur

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 370-376
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.11

pad forming process of round sheet blanks into axisymmetric
cups is studied
by numerical and experimental approaches. In the experiments,
round metal sheets are formed into the axisymmetric cups by pressing them
between a rubber pad and a former block with desirable shape. To investigate
influences of different pa
rameters on the forming load, three former block
different shapes, blank material of low carbon steel (ST12) with thickness 0.5 mm
,three polyurethane rubber with different hardness (50,60 and 70) shore A and
rubber pad having three different
thickness (40,60 and 80) mm . ANSYS Workbench
utilized to perform the numerical part of this research. The results showed that the
produced cup height is significantly affected by rubber pad hardness.

DNA Fingerprints of Two Tilapia Fish Species of Euphrates River at Governorate ofAl-Muthanna Using RAPD Markers

Taha Al-Khafaji; Mustafa S.F. Ziyadi; Marwa K. Musad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 345-349
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.7

During the last decade, tilapia species (Cichlidae: Teleostei) became
members of Ira
qi fish fauna. They characterized with morphological similarity among
genera and species. That makes species differentiation not easily. Molecular methods
followed to differentiate between redbelly tilapia Coptodon zillii (Gervais, 1848) and
blue tilapia O
reochromis aureus (Steindachner, 1864) of the Euphrates River sector
at Al
Samawah city. RAPD
PCR method used to create the genetic fingerprints of two
tilapia fish species. Seven decamer primers (OPA08, OPA10, OPA13, OPA17,
OPA19, OPB08 and OPC02) used to
amplify DNA fragments using PCR
technique. Forty
four bands scored after electrophoresis on 2% agarose gel along
with molecular marker fragmented to each 100 base pair. The molecular weight of
bands was calculated using PhotoCapt
MW software. The vol
ume of bands ranged
from C. zillii 168 bp to 2227 bp while they ranged from 62 bp to 2154 bp in O.
aureus. The results achieve the RAPD fingerprints of two tilapia species in Euphrates
River at for genetic Al
Samawa city and draw the genetic tree with the
same species
from Shatt A
Arab River in Basrah city. The study concluded that there is the closest
relatedness among tilapia populations from Euphrates and Shatt Al
Arab Rivers. The
results proved that RAPD markers were efficient to generate DNA fingerprin
ts of
tilapia fish species. Furthermore, the utilizing of the RAPD markers can differentiate
the two studied species. The present study may be the first genetic study on these
tilapia fish species. Moreover, this would be the baseline studies in the future
. In
addition, this study would be valuable for conservation program and documentation
of identities of tilapia fish species in Iraqi inland waters.

Behavior of Recycled Aggregate Fibrous Reinforced Beams Under Flexural and Shear Loading

Eyad K. Sayhood; Ali Sadiq Resheq; Farah L. Raoof

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 338-344
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.6

The use of recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) to replace part or
all of the natural coarse aggregates (NCA) in the production of concrete
has been on the increase. Such use helps in the protection of the natural
resources and in the reduction in the use o
f landfills.
The experimental
work consists of casting and testing ten rectangular simply supported
reinforced concrete beams of dimensions (1500*150*240) mm with
concentric point load at mid span as well as tests for control specimens to
determine the mechanical prope
rties of the concert. Five beams of these
ten beams were designed to fail in flexure and other five beams were
designed to fail in shear. Two beams were considering as a reference
beams using normal aggregate (NCA) and two beams were considering as
a refer
ence beams using recycled aggregate (RCA. The other six beams
were cast using recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) with steel fiber in
three different volumetric ratio (vf).The present investigation contains
three main variables: Coarse aggregate (normal and
reinforcement (with stirrups spacing 50 mm for flexure failure mode and
without stirrups for shear failure mode). Steel fiber (vf) = (0.5) %, (1) %
and (1.5) %.
In addition, constant longitudinal reinforcement ratio 0.012
al results have generally showed that ultimate loads (Pu) of
beams made with RA are approximately close to the results of beams made
with NA but with decrease of values (14% and 21%) for flexural and shear
behavior respectively.
The ultimate load of fibrou
s concrete beams is
greater than beams without steel fiber by
50%) for shear behavior
35%) for flexure behavior.

Recycling of Sewage Sludge Ash in Polymer Structures

Mohamad Alsaadi; Aseel B. Al-Zubaidi; Mukhallad Haider; Hasanain Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 311-318
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.2

In this study sewage sludge ash (SSA) particles were used as filler in the polyester resin to fabricate particulate composites with various filler contents of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 wt%. The tensile, flexural, impact, hardness, chemical composition and scanning electron microscope tests wear done on the samples in accordance with ASTM standards. The results were improved at the particle content of 5 wt% for the tensile and flexural strength and then showed reducing trend with extra particle addition. Tensile and flexural modulus values of the particulate polyester composites significantly enhanced compared with the unfilled polyester composite. Energy Dispersion Spectrometry (EDS) results showed that the SSA contains elements and oxides which may increase adhesion force with polymer. In spite of the particle content of SSA that used with polymer to produce various structures for different applications was low, this study approved that using of SSA can protect the environment due to increasing the amount of SSA can affect the environment badly in addition to produce cheaper polymer composite for industrial applications.

Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals(Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb) by Using Aquatic Plants in Shatt Al-Arab River

Taha Y. Al-Edani; Hayfaa J. Al-Tameemi; Zainab F. Jasim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 365-369
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.10

The study conducted to evaluate the ability of some aquatic
plants in
absorption and accumulate some heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb) in their
tissues from contaminated water in two sites of Shatt Al
iver, Province of
/Iraq. Water samples were collected from two sites one of them north of
(Gurna) and the other from Sindbad island middle site of Shatt Al
The c
hemical analysis had been performed to find out water quality. A
laboratory experiment had bee
n conducted by using three types of aquatic plants
which were; Common Hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum L., Common Reed
s australis L, and Nut Grass (Cyperus rotundus L.). Two type
water qualities (Gurna and Sindbad island) from Shatt Al
river in addition
to distilled water as a control treatment. Plants were planted in glass containers
filling with water samples to know the ability of plants to absorb heavy metals.
Results showed that water quality
according to American salinity laborato
classification was C
for both sites. Concentration of cadmium, copper, iron,
and lead in Shatt Al
Arab river in both sites was (0.021, 0.034), (15.40, 23.50),
(248.1, 181.0), and (15.5, 54.0) ugL
respectively. The preliminary analysis of
heavy meta
ls concentration in aquatic plants of Cd, Cu, Fe and Pb were 0.18,
14.5, 650.5, and 26.2 mg kg
of dry weight respectively. While the results were
0.45, 36.2, 1173.0, and 50.5 mg kg
dry weight respectively in the
eratophyllum, Finally, in the common re
ed, the concentration was 0.2, 30.5,
1095.2, and 45.2 mgKg
dry weight for each heavy metals respectively.
emoval efficiency of aquatic plants was varied with plant species and they took
the following order common hornwort >common reed>nut grass.

Environmental Impact Assessment for Modern Brick Factory in Baghdad, Iraq

Saadi M.D. Al-Nuzal; Salih A. Al-Bakri; Sarah D.A. Zankana

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 377-384
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.12

The environmental and social impacts of a bricks factory was
evaluated and the information's have been collected from a community
questionnaire, as well as the analysis quadrilateral (SOWT) strategic for
default modern bricks factory. The results devolve t
oward the manufacture of
bricks with a modern and environment friend technology showed the extent of
the community's awareness about contaminants posed by traditional brick
plants. The analysis of the strategic quadrilateral project gave positive results
n terms of overcome strength elements and of weakness in the internal
environment and opportunities to overcome threats in the external environment
for the modern factory. The study summarizes number of recommendations
concerning, the most important use of
modern technologies to reduce pollutants
outside of the brick factories and alternatives and environmental monitoring
plan for the project so as to ensure that the protection of the surrounding

Heavy Metals Accumulation in Two Types of Tree Leaves from Baghdad Urban Areas

Maha A. Mahmood; Athmar A.M. AL-Mashhady; Ali N. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 350-355
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.8

It is well known that environmental pollution by many heavy
metals is a serious problem to the natural ecosystem due to their toxic
effects. Most heavy metals such as Cu, Mn, Fe
and Zn are needed by
various organisms but at certain concentrations
very necessary for
both plants and
animals. However
, it has been suggested that ever green
plant trees can assist in controlling such pollution via various methods
where one method is the ability of these plant trees to absorb heavy
metals from contaminated soils. The current work was designed to assess
Cd, Mn and Pb plant content in two tree s
pecies (Eucalyptus sp. and
Albizia sp.) collected from Tourist Baghdad Island (TBI) situated in Al
region. It
seems very obvious that these examined trees can be
regarded as certain heavy metals eliminator where
ucalyptus tree has
shown considera
ble ability in removing all examined heavy metals which
significantly higher than that of Albizia trees.

Physical and Chemical Characteristics Comparison of the Drinking Water and Water Produced from the Conventional and Modification Solar Water Distillery

Hussein H. Mohammed Ali; Sabah T. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 6A, Pages 214-221
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.6A.5

A comparison of the physical and chemical characteristics of water samples produced from the conventional and modification solar water distilleries, and water samples of networks from different regions in Kirkuk were carried out. Two samples of each water type were tested. The study has focused on measuring the total dissolved solids, pH, electrical conductivity, sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, sulfate, nitric and chloride. The results show that all tests of distillate water produced from the solar water distillery are within Iraqi and world standards lower than the other samples, but only pH values ranged from 7 to 8.3, which are within the standard specifications.

Optimization Using Taguchi Method for Physical and Mechanical Properties of Bio Mimicking Polymeric Matrix Composite for Orthodontic Application

Jenan S. Kashan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 5A, Pages 181-187
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.5A.5

This work take in consideration the application of Taguchi optimization methodology in optimizing the parameters for processing (composition, compounding pressure) and their effects on the output physical (Density and true porosity) properties and mechanical(fracture strength and microhardness) properties for the Nano HA,Al2O3 fillers reinforced HDPE hybrid composite material for orthodontic application. An orthogonal array of the Taguchi approach was used to analyses the effect of the processing parameters on the physical and mechanical properties. On the other hand, the surface roughness and particle size distribution were also calculated to study their effect on the output properties. The result shows that the Taguchi approach can determine the best combination of processing parameters that can provide the optimal physical and mechanical conditions, which are the optimum values (the optimum composition was15HA/ 5Al2O3/80HDPE, and optimum compounding pressure was102 MPa.

Controlling the Q-Point in Distributed Feedback Lasers Using a Numerical Optimization Methodology

Hisham K. Hisham

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 5A, Pages 148-156
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.5A.1

In this paper, a new methodology for controlling the Q-point in the distributed feedback (DFB) lasers is proposed. The method based on reducing the DFB transient period (TP) by optimizing laser’s model parameters numerically. The analysis has taken into account investigated the effects of the laser injection current (Iinj), the dc-bias level (Ibias), the temperature (T) variation, and the gain compression factor (ε). Results showed that by optimizing the value of Iinj, Ibias, T and ε; the Q-point could be controlled effectively. Where increasing the current ratio (i.e., Iinj/Ith) leads to reduce the TP value. In addition, by increasing Iinj and/or Ibias, the relaxation oscillation period (TRO) and the laser delay time (TDelay) are reduced significantly. From the other hand, the temperature varying may push the DFB laser to operate in an improper region through increasing the TP value; which may lead it to operate in the off-mode. Moreover, as ε is increased, the sinusoidal oscillations are dramatically damped results in a reduction in the TRO value and larger period of stabilized.

Removal oil from produced water by using adsorption method with adsorbent a Papyrus reeds

Firas K. Al-Zuhairi; Rana Azeez; Suhair A. Mahdi; Wafaa A. Kadhim; Muna Kh. Al-Naamee

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 5A, Pages 157-165
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.5A.2

A papyrus reed, as a type of unusable farming waste, was used as a
kind of low-cost biosorbent for the elimination a crude oil from produced water
that was produced in an Al-Ahdab field, Iraq, in a batch stirred operation
mode. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron
microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the biosorbent before and after
adsorption. Batch tests were employed as a function of the contact time,
adsorbent dose, and the pH of the solution. The experimental results show at
increases the amount adsorbent dosage, pH and contact times, the removal
efficiencies were increases and optimum condition was obtained at pH value
equal to 9, 5000 ppm adsorbent dose and 45 minutes contact time for removal
about 94.5% of crude oil, for test sample initial crude oil concentration 257.06
ppm. Therefore it can be disposed of without environmental damage. The better
fitting for equilibrium sorption process data was satisfactorily by the
Freundlich isotherm model with (R2= 0.9665) and the adsorption kinetics best
described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

A Group Authentication Protocol on Multilayer Structure for Privacy-Preserving IoT Environment

Maytham Azhar; Amin H. Seno

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 5A, Pages 172-180
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.5A.4

In the Internet of Things (IoT) systems, large amounts of data are accumulated from anywhere at any time, which may attack individuals' privacy, especially when systems are utilized in medical and everyday environments. With the promise of IoT's proactive systems, the integration of smart things into standard Internet creates several security challenges, because most Internet technologies, communication protocols and sensors are not designed to support IoT. Recent research studies have shown that launching security / privacy attacks against IoT active systems, in particular, Wearable Medical Sensor (WMS) systems, may lead to catastrophic situations and life-threatening conditions. Therefore, security threats and privacy concerns in the IoT area should be actively studied. This causes us in this paper to create a privacy authentication protocol for IoT end-devices on a four-layer structure that does not have the ability to accurately identify the device of request's sender so that some attacks can be minimized. We used the Blakley Sharing scheme to design a key generation and distribution system for secure communications between edge devices and end devices and examined the security properties of the protocol for the five common attacks in the IoT. The results of the experiments show that the proposed authentication protocol by the Blakley method is more efficient with increasing number of instructions in both fog structures and in a without fog structure, which shows a higher flexibility of the Blakley method than the Schemer because of the increasing number of instructions indicating increasing the number of nodes in the network.

Lung Cancer Detection from X-ray images by combined Backpropagation Neural Network and PCA

Israa S. Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 5A, Pages 166-171
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.5A.3

The lungs are portion of a complex unit, enlarging and relaxing numerus times every day to supply oxygen and exude CO2. Lung disease might occur from troubles in any part of it. Carcinoma often called Cancer is the generally rising and it is the most harmful disease happened in humankind. Carcinoma occurs because of uncontrolled growth of malignant cells inside the tissues of the lungs. Earlier diagnosis of cancer can help save large numbers of lives, while any delay or fail in detection may cause additional serious problems leading to sudden fatal death. The objective of this study is to design an automated system with an ability to improve the detection process in order to perform advanced recognition of the disease. The diagnosis techniques include: X-rays, MRI, CT images etc. X-ray is the common and low-cost technique that is widely used and it is relatively available for everyone. Rather than new techniques like CT and MRI, X-ray is human dependable, meaning it needs a Doctor and X-ray specialist in order to determine lung cases, so developing a system which can enhance and aid in diagnosis, can help specialist to determine cases in easily.

Experimental Study of 3D printing Density Effect on the Mechanical Properties of the Carbon-Fiber and Polylactic Acid Specimens

Wafa A. Soud; Ihsan A. Baqer; Mohammed R. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 4A, Pages 128-132
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.4A.3

Two 3D printed materials (Polylactic Acid and Carbon fiber) with variable printing density have been investigated due to their practical uses in the engineering utilization. The effect of printing density composites was studied by the tensile test. The used materials stress-strain curves were analyzed to find modulus of elasticity and ultimate tensile strength of the mentioned materials. The results manifested that the carbon fiber has the highest strength-weight ratio. On the other hand, the carbon fiber showed more ductility than the Polylactic Acid. The results of this paper will be aiding the researchers or engineering students to decide which material is suitable for 3D printing applications.

Mapping LCLU Using Python Scripting

Oday Z. Jasim; Khalid I. Hasoon; Noor E. Sadiqe

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 4A, Pages 140-147
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.4A.5

Land cover land use changes constantly with the time at local, regional, and global scales, therefore, remote sensing provides wide, and broad information for quantifying the location, extent, and variability of change; the reason and processes of change; and the responses to and consequences of change. And considering to the importance of mapping of (LCLU). For that reason this study will focus on the problems arising from the traditional classification (LCLU) that based on spatial resolution only which leads to prediction a thematic map with noisy classes, and using a new method that depend on spectral and spatial resolution to produce an acceptable classification and producing a thematic map with an acceptable database by using artificial neural network (ANN) and python in additional to other program. In this study the methods of classification were studied through using two images for the same study area , rapid eye image which has three spectral bands with high spatial resolution(5m) and Landsat 8 image (high spectral resolution with eight bands), also several programs like ENVI version 5.1, Arc GIS version 10.3, Python 3, and GPS. The result for this research was sensuousness as geometrics accuracy accepted in map production.

The Extraction of Alumina from Kaolin

Alaa H. Ali; Mohammed H. AL-Taie; Ihab F. Ayoob

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 4A, Pages 133-139

Alumina has wide industrial and technological applications that can be extracted from different locations, different methods and materials. Kaolin from Iraq Alduikhla astrologer has used as a raw material source for alumina production. The alumina concentration in the Iraqi kaolin is more than 34% which considered as a good replacement for bauxite rack. Crushing andground is the first process to reduce the kaolin particle size to the micron level which increases the surface area of kaolin.
The kaolin is heat treated at different temperatures (600, 650, 700 and 750) ̊C for 2 hours to remove some of ithe mpurity like organic materials and crystal water before acid treatment. A different concentration of hydrochloric acid (pH) (0.45, 0.5, 0.55, 0.6 and 0.65) has used for extraction of alumina from kaolin. The reaction between the hydrochloric acid and kaolin has studied at different temperature (30, 60 and 90) ̊C. The extraction of alumina has decreased with increase t inhe reaction temperature. Finally t,,he alumina extraction by this method has characterized using XRD and XRF to investigation the crystal structure and the amount of impurities presented there. The final extracted alumina h isaving cubic crystal structure (γ alumina) with purity above 95%.

Study the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High Chromium White Cast Iron (HCWCI) under Different Martempering Quenching Mediums

Ali H. Ataiwi; Zainab A. Betti

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 4A, Pages 112-119
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.4A.1

The aim of this study is to find an alternative quenching medium for the ordinary nitrate mixture that is cheaper and more available in Iraqi markets. So to obtain the suitable medium , the  effect of different quenching mediums used in martempering treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of  high chromium white cast iron was studied  . This type of cast iron is used in mining ,crushing and cement plants as mill liners so it is subjected to extreme conditions of wear and impact that eventually cause failure . In this study, two types of quenching mediums were used in martempering treatment: (50% Sodium hydroxide + 50 % potassium hydroxide) mixture and (50% Sodium nitrate + 50 % potassium nitrate) mixture with different quenching intervals. It is  also found that both of the quenching mediums produce higher hardness values at 350°C martempering temperature for 4 hr quenching time ,but there were several advantages and disadvantages associated with using these two different mediums

Development the Physical Properties of Polymeric Blend (SR/ PMMA) by Adding various Types of Nanoparticles, Used for Maxillofacial Prosthesis Applications

Sihama I. Salih; Jawad K. Oleiwi; Hajir M. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 4A, Pages 120-127
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.4A.2

As maxillofacial defects increased due to cancer; it became necessary to select high-quality prosthetic materials in this field. Silicone rubber is widely used in damaged maxillofacial affected areas replacement surgery as bio material. The aim of this research, prepared a nano composites materials, from polymer blend (silicone rubber: 5% PMMA) reinforced by different types of nano-powders; pomegranate Peels Powder (PPP), Seeds powder of dates Ajwa (SPDA) and TiO2 nano-powders with loading level (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4%). Some physical properties such as density, water absorption, and Thermo-Physical test, FTIR analysis, as well as, FTIR, antibacterial tests were done on prepared samples. The results showed that the composites material based of polymer blend with optimum percent are of 0.2% of pomegranate Peels Powder (PPP), 0.3% of Seeds powder of dates Ajwa (SPDA) and 0.1% of TiO2 nano-powders that have ideal characteristic. Also for antibacterial tests, polymeric blend composites with optimum percent of this nano-powders show that more antibacterial efficiency against S.aureus bacteria than E.coli bacteria.

A Survey on Deceptive Detection Systems and Technologies

Harith H. Thannoon; Wissam H. Ali; Ivan A. Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3A, Pages 90-95
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3A.3

There are many types of indicators that have been proven to be useful clues for deceptive detection techniques, and most of this indicators that have been presented and proven by psychology to be signs of lying. This paper presents a survey of most popular deceptive detection systems. Many techniques for lie detection have been presented by researchers; most of them are reviewed in this paper. This study focus on the algorithms, which are presented in some pervious work, and how the database has been collected for each technique, furthermore explain the adopted cues for each deception detection technique. The accuracy of each proposed technique is included in this paper, then this study shows the advantage and disadvantages for each deception system with the useful and robust cues here.

Analysing Some Mechanical Properties of Cinnamon Powder Reinforced with Polymeric Materials Used in Dental Application

Ahamed M. AlGhabban; Reem A. Mohammed; Jumaah R. Mahmood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3A, Pages 96-105
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3A.4

In the dentures industry, materials must be chosen to have good mechanical properties in order to resist the conditions that may occur in the mouth. A study was conducted to assess tensile strength, elasticity coefficient, elongation, flexural strength, flexural modulus with impact properties of poly methyl methacrylate resin as matrix strengthened with cinnamon powder and also analysing these mechanical properties by using (OriginLab) software program. The samples of Poly Methyl methacrylate bio composites which containing 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% weight fractions of cinnamon powder and an unfilled as control sample were fabricated using “hand lay up” method. The results indicate that the addition of 8% weight fraction cinnamon powder into Poly Methyl methacrylate resin improved of ultimate tensile strength, modulus elasticity ,flexural strength, flexural modulus (62 MPa, 3.7 GPa, 96 MPa, 6.4 GPa) respectively, compared with the values of pure Poly Methyl methacrylate (51 MPa, 1.5 GPa, 78MPa, 2.0 GPa) respectively. Also can be noted that the elongation at break values decreases with an increase in weight fractions of filler, where the sample (Poly Methyl methacrylate +2% cinnamon) has the best value for elongation compared with samples reinforced (4%, 6% and 8% wt). The impact strength results observe the maximum value was present in the sample (Poly Methyl methacrylate+6% cinnamon). From the results, descriptive, One Way ANOVA statistical analysis and means comparison by used (Scheffe test and Tukey test) for all mechanical properties indicated, turns out if Sig equals 1 shows that the variance in mean is significant at the level of 0.05, whereas Sig is 0 designates that the mean variance is not significant at the level 0.05.

Design of n-Bit Adder without Applying Binary to Quaternary Conversion

Walaa MH. Khalaf; Dhafer Zaghar; Kadhum Al-majdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3A, Pages 106-111
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3A.5

Microprocessor has been considered as most important part in ICs manufacturing and making progress since more than 50 years, so increasing microprocessor speed is paid attention in all technologies. ALU is known as the slowest part in microprocessor because of the ripple carry, nowadays microprocessor uses 8-uints as pipeline, each one has 8-bits for implementing 64-bit, working in this form has been captured the microprocessor development and limited its speed for all its computations. Parallel processing and high speed ICs always trying to increase this speed but unfortunately it remains limited. The contemporary solution for increasing microprocessors speed is the Multiple Valued Logic (MVL) technology that will reduce the 8-bits to 4-qbits, this paper proposes a new design of a 2-qbit full adder (FA) as a basic unit to implement MVL ALU (AMLU) that has 8-units as pipeline, each one consists of 4-qbits to implement 32-qbit which is equivalent to 64-bit, without applying binary to quaternary conversion and vice versa. The proposed design increases microprocessors speed up to 1.65 times, but also a little increase of implementation.

Design of Double Notch Band Half-Elliptical Shape Reconfigurable Antenna for UWB Applications

Haydar M. Al-Tamimi; Salah M. O.

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3A, Pages 85-89
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3A.2

A compact ultra-wideband (UWB) reconfigurable antenna with dual band-notched properties is presented in this paper. The dual notch band half – elliptical reconfigurable antenna is fed by (50 Ω) microstrip feed lines and it is printed above an FR-4 substrates (32 × 32.6) mm2 dimensions. This dual band notched characteristic is accomplished by embedding two crossing U-shaped slot in the half-elliptical radiating patch of the proposed reconfigurable antenna. The modeling procedure and performance evaluation of the presented antenna was achieved by using the electromagnetic simulator software, (CST) Computer Simulation Technology. The measured bandwidth of the presented antenna for (VSWR < 2) spans 2.6 GHz to 12 GHz, which covers the entire UWB band of 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz, with a controlling dual notched band (VSWR > 2) in 3.5 GHz and 5.2 GHz. The presented antenna is appropriate for UWB applications with another benefits of reduces the interference effect with the wireless local area network (WLAN) systems that operating in 5.15–5.35 GHz band (IEEE 802.11a), as well as reducing the interference effect with the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) application, which operates in 3.5 GHz band (IEEE 802.16e). The parameters that affect the efficiency of the antenna as regards to its frequency domain and radiation pattern qualities are studied.

Performance of Geopolymer Concrete Exposed to Freezing and Thawing Cycles

Mohammed H. Shamsa; Basil S. Al-Shathr; Tareq S. al-Attar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3A, Pages 78-84
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3A.1

In this study, the effect of rapid freezing and thawing (ASTM C666 – procedure A) on three different types of Geopolymer concrete studied using three types of pozzolanic material: fly ash, metakaolin and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). The Geopolymer concrete was prepared using 400 kg of the pozzolanic material with alkaline liquid prepared at 8 molar concentration with normal fine and coarse aggregates. The ratio of alkaline to fly ash and GGBFS was 1.5: 1 and for metakaolin was 2: 1 for workability and compressive strength requirements. Specimens (100 × 100 × 400) mm were exposed to 100, 200 and 300 cycles of freezing and thawing. The decrease in measured compressive strength was (23, 43, and 26%) for Fly ash, metakaolin and GGBFS respectively. The investigated types of concrete showed good resistance to freezing and thawing. The durability factor of these types was (77%, 68%, and 81%) for fly ash, metakaolin, and GGBFS respectively.

Effect of Using Local Insulation Materials on the Indoor Temperature of Residential Buildings at Iraq

Abdulrahman S. Mahmood; Haqi I. Qatta; Nassr F. Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2A, Pages 37-45
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2A.1

In this research, a thermal insulation between the two layers of a wall has been used for the residence buildings to reduce the heat transmitted across the walls and thus reducing the power consumption for cooling load. A MATLAB program was used to obtain the thermal response for various types of walls from the energy sources (solar radiation and ambient temperature) in summer season in Baghdad, Iraq. Local materials used in this study as thermal insulators between the two layers of walls are: local cane mat, wood sawdust and cork grains. Modeling tests were carried out on June, July and August via using Matlab program. The simulation results obtained have been compared for five different types of walls are: usual wall, thick wall, wall containing local cane mat, wall containing wood sawdust and wall containing cork grains, which helps in finding the heat flow across the wall where boundary conditions varied according to solar radiation and environment thermal load. The results showed that using the walls containing of local cane mat, wood sawdust and cork grains can reduce the heat gain by 50%, 44% and 40% respectively, compared with usual wall and thus reduce the power consumption.

Examining the Impact of Different Thermosyphon Diameters and Working Fluids on Their Performance

Talib Z. Farge; Sahar R. Al-Sakini; Aseel A. Ismael

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2A, Pages 46-51
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2A.2

This work was designed to examine the effect of various thermosyphon diameters and working fluids on the thermosyphon performance. A thermosyphon made from copper tubes with three different external diameters 7, 13 and 22mm with thickness of 1mm is used in this work. The length of evaporator and condenser were 120 and 300 mm respectively. Working fluids were water, acetone and Freon R11 working fluids are tested. The obtained results have shown that the temperature gradient was decreased when increasing the thermosyphon diameter. Also, the results showed that the Merit for water had the highest value than the other working fluid at the operating range of temperature. The results were shown the heat dissipation by the thermosyphon increased when increasing the thermosyphon diameter for all working fluids. Also the heat dissipation from the thermosyphon with working fluid of water had a highest value of heat dissipation than the others working fluids. The percentage decreased in the temperature gradient by using thermosyphon with diameter of 22mm for water, acetone and Freon R11 were 73.53 %, 68,53 % and 52.35 % respectively compared with that without using thermosyphon.

Investigation of Corrosion Protection for Steel by Eco-Friendly Coating

Majid H. Abdulmajeed; Hiba A. Abdullah; Slafa I. Ibrahim; Ghaith Z. Alsandooq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2A, Pages 52-59
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2A.3

The coupling effect of coating and inhibition has been investigated in the present work. polypyrrole coating with adding coumarin was applied on carbon steel to protect it against corrosion. Electropolymerization process by cyclic voltammeter was carried out in 0.2M oxalic acid electrolyte containing 0.1M pyrrole monomer without and with 0.01M coumarin as an eco-friendly inhibitor. SEM/EDS, AFM and FTIR techniques were used to identify the coating film. Corrosion test using Potentiostat was achieved for uncoated and coated specimens and the results indicated that the corrosion potentials became nobler compared with uncoated specimen, this means that the anodic sites were covered by undoped and doped PPy film as illustrated from the deceasing of anodic and cathodic Tafel slopes. Protection efficiencies were acceptable and good (71.46% for PPy film and 77.47% for coumarin/PPy film). The polarization resistance was increased from 0.114 Ω.cm2 for uncoated C.S. to 0.176 and 0.404 Ω.cm2 for PPy coated and coumarin/PPy coated C.S. While the porosity percentage was 0.44% and 4.50 for PPy coated and coumarin/PPy coated C.S. due to increasing the roughness of coumarin/PPy film.

Optimal Location and Parameter Setting of STATCOM Device Based PSO for Iraqi Grid Voltage Profile Enhancement and Power Losses Minimizing

Rashid H. Al-Rubayi; Mohammed B. Eesee

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2A, Pages 60-69
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2A.4

The main goal of this work is to enhance the Voltage stability by using optimum location and parameters setting of STATCOM device. The parameters are the magnitude of the output voltage 𝑉𝑉𝑅 and the angle 𝛿𝑉𝑅, these parameters are taken to control the device performance. The simulation results have been done by using power flow program solution by Newton-Raphson method (Matlab program / M-file) with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique, for power losses minimizing and improving voltage profile. Two systems have been implemented:- IEEE 5-bus test system and Iraqi (400 kV) National super Grid System 27-bus. The MATLAB programs are Applied in the first step on IEEE 5- bus test system to examine the performance of the programs by comparing the results with other references, then it is implemented on Iraqi (400 kV) National super Grid System to find optimum location and parameter setting of STATCOM device. The results show that, the STATCOM has significant effect on improving the voltage profile and reducing apparent power losses, The STATCOM device performance depends on its location and parameter settings, and The PSO algorithm can easily find out the optimal location and parameters setting of the STATCOM for which the voltage deviation are minimum

Diagnosis and Evaluation of Defects Encountered in Newly Constructed Houses in Erbil City, Kurdistan, Iraq

Khalil I. Wali; Noori S. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2A, Pages 70-77
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2A.5

This study investigated the types and profile of defects facing newly constructed houses through conducting a survey and analyzing defect records of data observed for 652 houses out of 1000 houses newly constructed for Salahaddin University academic staff in Erbil City. The result of analysis revealed that the overall of 6758 defects identified with the mean average of 10 defects per house. The overall percentage of defected houses for each type of defects and the location of the defect ranged from 10% to 67%. The most defected components found in the doors and windows, which comes in rank 1 with the highest percentage of defected houses reached to 76%, whereas coating and painting of doors come in rank 2 with percentage of 75%, and cracks in structural elements come in rank 3 with 73%. Analyzing the defects in terms of area and location showed that the finishing works representing the major defects area of 48%. While, the defects in the doors and window representing second highest defects of 42%. The results indicated that the quality performance in newly constructed houses is low due to poor workmanship and lack of experience and skills of construction staff and inadequate supervision

Proposed Collision Avoidance System in Driverless Cars

Hiba A. Tarish; Alaa Q. Rahima; Tanya A. Jaber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1A, Pages 1-5

Avoiding collisions is an important matter in the majority of transport systems and in many other applications in driverless cars it is very important to have an active collision avoidance system since only the car to take an action and no driver to help. The goals of collision avoidance systems are tracking objects of possible collision risks and decide any action to avoid or mitigate a collision with the help of sensors and radars. Car accidents have become quite common nowadays. After investigations, conclusions have stated that a great deal of those accidents happened because drivers fail to stop the car at the right time. Sometimes, the pedestrians are not crossing the road at the right time. Researchers discovered that about 35 percent of people die due to accidents, 98 percent of which die because of fatal road accidents. Many car industries have proposed an AI system in the vehicles for the aim of reducing accidents and this is considered as the backbone of the auto-driven car. However, this system is complex and expansive. That is why; ordinary people are still under the risk of accidents . The system proposed to driverless cars is simulated and modeled via small Miniatures and in Matlab and assembled in Arduino.

Production of Lightweight Concrete by Using Construction Lightweight Wastes

Huda S. Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1A, Pages 12-19

This research covers the use of cellular lightweight concrete waste as recycled coarse aggregates to produce lightweight concrete. Various volume fractions of coarse aggregate (35%, 50%, and 75%) were used. The specimens were tested for compressive strength and density at age of 28-days. The compressive strengths for the resulting lightweight concrete with a density of (2131, 1826 and 1630) kg/m3 were (24, 22.6 and 11.5) MPa, respectively. In addition, silica fume was utilized as a constant replacement ratio 6% of cement weight for mixes lightweight aggregate to enhance the compressive strength of such concrete.

Investigation of Optimum Helix Angle of a Wire Rope Subjected to Harmonic Dynamic Loading

Hatem H. Obeid; Riham A. Nima

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1A, Pages 6-11

The current work includes the dynamic structural analysis of wire rope with different helix angle. The main objectives are; estimating the stress and deflection for each helix angle, comparing the results to get the best helix angle suitable for practical applications. This paper falls into two parts: The first part includes modal analysis for the models of wire rope using finite element method with certain boundary conditions that are suitable to obtain the first five frequencies for each helix angle and the second part focuses on harmonic analysis of wire rope to estimate stress and deflection and compares maximum results that coincide with the first natural frequency of each model. In the analysis the results of each helix angle were compared to other helix angle results, the structure of 82° helix angle have the smallest stresses and deflection. That means when the helix angle increases the flexibility decrease and rigidity increase.

Automatic Tool Path Generation for Parametric Surfaces

Tahseen F. Abbas; Sara J. Shawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1A, Pages 20-27

A tool path generation algorithm has been proposed and implemented in the presented work. The aim of the development of tool path algorithm is to machine parametric surface with a given tolerance and scallop height. The algorithm proposes dividing the desired parametric surface to several linear segments depending on the desired accuracy of the parametric surface. The Bspline technique has been used to generate the required data of the parametric surface. After generating the tool path, the cutter movement has been simulated allowing to reduce the cutting time and cost. The tool path is verified on the C-TEK CNC milling machine by machining six models. Various tool path strategies are also discussed and compared with the developed algorithm. The machining performance includes machining time; dimensional accuracy and surface roughness were measured for result evaluation. A measuring method has been proposed and implemented to measure the accuracy of the final 3D models. A Digital 3D-Touch Probe was used. The statistical method of error assessment and similarity factor has been implemented in this work to show the efficiency of the proposed works. The results showed that the similarity factor of the proposed works were (87.6%) for one model, and (85.9%), (89.6%) for other models. Matlab (v.7.1), UG-NX8.5, and VERCUT software have been used in this work for implementation. A comparison between the proposed method and UG-NX8 has been done to present the flexibility of the proposed method.

A Comparative Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Various Fibers Reinforced Concrete

Ahmed M. Al-Ghaban; Hussein A. Jaber; Aya A. Shaher

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1A, Pages 28-36

The present work presents an investigation the effect of adding various fiber materials such as (glass, nylon, and carbon) into the concrete mix for inspecting and compare the mechanical properties of different fibers reinforced concrete. Two different fiber length states of (short=3cm and long=10cm) are used in this work. The concrete of ordinary Portland cement of (1:1.5:3), (cement: sand: gravel), were mixed with each of the fiber materials at four different weight percentages (0, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2) wt% per cement content. Compressive strength and flexural strength were experimentally investigated of different fibers reinforced concrete specimens after curing for 28 days. The results showed that the incorporation of various fibers with the concrete mix generally improved the strength of concrete by improving the toughness. The flexural strength of concrete with addition of various fibers was strongly enhanced than compression. Addition 0.8% of nylon fiber to concrete resulted in the maximum increase of its compressive strength, reaching the rate of increasing to 11.08% for short fiber and 20.75% for long fiber. Addition 1.2% of nylon fiber to concrete mix resulted in the maximum increase of the flexural strength, reaching rate of increasing to 120.02% for short fiber and 211.49% for long fiber. Increasing the length of fibers increases the strength of the concrete but a little extent. Among these fibers, nylon containing concrete composite exhibits promising mechanical strength that could be easily used as low-cost partitioning wall, false ceiling, and other household purposes.