Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Main Subjects : Engineering


Nonlinear 3D Finite Element Model for Round Composite Columns under Various Eccentricity Loads

Dara A. Mawlood; Serwan K. Rafiq

Engineering and Technology Journal, In Press
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133106.1168

Composite columns are often used in constructing high-rise structures because they can reduce the size of a building's columns while increasing the usable area in the floor plan. This research aimed to develop a nonlinear 3D finite element analysis model using the ABAQUS, version 6.13-4, of various round composite column designs with varied multi-skin of tubes for solid and hollow columns subjected to various eccentricity loads (90, 180 mm). Extended data to another 12 specimens of composite columns by numerical method, based on six references experimental data of composite columns. The results of ABAQUS data in this study show that; increasing eccentricity for applied loads causes a decrease in loads to fail for composed columns. The ultimate load of hollow composite sections under eccentricity is lower than solid composite sections under different eccentricity loads. Also, the same results indicated fort eccentricity loads. The same results indicated an increased number of steel layers. The stiffness of concrete is greatly influenced by its strength. When the concrete strength rises, the stiffness of the composite column rises as well. The ratios of concrete compressive strength values according to the reference column (CC1S00 with fc’=31.96 MPa) were (-4.4, 3.1, and 6.5) percent for the specimen (CC1S00) with (fc’=25, 35, and 40) MPa, respectively. The method utilized is in the nonlinear analysis, and the finite element results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

Optimization of Curing Process for Production of Jatropha Oil Bio-Based Resin Decorated With Nano-Al2O3 and Mechanical Characterization

Agita T. Setiawan; Zurina Z. Abidin; Farah Ezzah Ab Latif; Khalina Abdan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133859.1209

Concerns on the environment, health and safety issues posed by synthetic resins has amplified numerous efforts of producing resin from various renewable sources. The use of plant oil as potential source of resin has attracted interest from various researchers. Jatropha Oil is a competitive source to petroleum counterparts due to its availability, biodegradability, low eco-toxicity but exhibit poor mechanical properties among many. The objective of this study is to study the effect of adding nanoparticles as reinforcing fillers to bio-based resin from Epoxidized crude Jatropha Oil (ECJO) to improve its mechanical performance. Various loadings of 0% to 4% of Al2O3 nanoparticles was tested on epoxy bio-resin. Later the specimens fabricated were cured and characterized for its mechanical properties. Addition of 1 wt% of Al2O3 nanoparticles improved the tensile strength of a bio-based epoxy resin to tensile stress of 29.37±2.00 MPa, elastic with an elastic modulus of 840.80±124.53 MPa. Further characterization at optimum addition of nano-Al2O3 resulted a glass transition temperature of 37.95˚C. In overall, the inclusion of nano-Al2O3 has definitely improved the mechanical properties of the material which will be useful for further application material engineering.

Applications of Helical Versus Straight Hollow Fiber Membranes: A Review

Adel Zrelli; Jamila Debaya; Abdoulaye Doucoure; Bechir Chaouachi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134743.1247

The production of straight and helical hollow fibers plays an important role in developing hollow fiber membrane technology that encompasses a broad range of designs. During the last two decades, scientific studies devoted to straight hollow fibers were more abundant than those focused on helical fibers. Several major applications considering side-by-side testing of these two geometries are discussed in this review. For membrane extraction, desalination, and membrane contactor processes, it is observed that permeability rates are 10%-400 % higher for helical fibers compared to straight fibers. This outcome is justified by the presence of Dean-vortices-induced flow turbulences inherent to the geometry of helical membranes. These conditions give rise to an uptake of mass and heat transfer coefficients and a reduction of temperature and concentration polarization phenomena.  Aside from enhanced flow properties, helical hollow fiber bundles tend to be more robust by design, thus exhibiting better resiliency over long service operations than straight bundles. One persistent shortcoming of the helical fibers seems to be an increase in pressure drop. However, this does not always translate into a higher energy consumption – i.e., versus straight bundles. Given the performance advantage, product robustness, and adaptiveness to a broad range of applications, the adoption of helical hollow fiber technology deserves growing support from the membrane community in academic and industrial settings.

Fault Detection and Fault Tolerant Control for Anti-lock Braking Systems )ABS) Speed Sensors by Using Neural Networks

Ayad Q. Abdulkareem; Abdulrahim Th. Humod; Oday A Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.135106.1259

This paper proposed neural networks to continuously provide alternative constructed signals for vehicle and wheel speed sensors utilized for the Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS), which serves as the fault tolerant control method. These alternative constructed signals are used for two purposes. The first is to generate residual signals, and the second is to be adopted instead of isolated faulty signals. The residual signal is generated by extracting the difference between the alternative constructed signals and the corresponding actual signals. These residual signals serve as an indication of fault occurrence and to express that fault severity. Whenever a fault occurrence is detected and diagnosed in one of the sensor’s signals, the faulty signal is isolated and replaced by the corresponding constructed signal to maintain the system's normal behavior under a faulty condition. The range of data covered under the proposed estimating neural networks is huge, continuous in time, and not sampled. In this work, the range of the data lies between [50 to 120 km/h] when the braking is started. That cannot be performed by any available method. These models' training process is based on the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm, implemented and tested by MATLAB/Simulink. The results show that these models can accurately map the measured data into the desired output through the best-fit functions. The fast response of the trained models makes them suitable for real-time alternative signals for fault-tolerant purposes for speed sensors during hard or panic braking.

Gaussian Process for GPS Receiver Predictor and INS GPS Integration

Nawras K. Ahmed; Sameir A. Aziez; Ali Y. Khenyab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.131426.1037

Global Positioning System (GPS) has become important and necessary in daily life.  It is possible to reach any destination using GPS, which is included in many lands and marine applications.  In this work, GPS was applied to a real navigation boat, integrated with the inertial navigation system (INS) device, and installed on the boat. The navigational devices were linked to the (mission planer) program, through which the results of the navigation process were shown. The system can provide better navigation performance accuracy and reliability due to the integration between GPS and INS. The data extracted from the navigation devices are processed using the Gaussian process (GP) prediction algorithm, to perform the GPS synchronization with the INS and predict the GPS cut-off values for specified periods. The prediction results of the GP algorithm are effective for the cut-off GPS data as the apparent error amount of the algorithm is low. In addition the inertial navigation system provides the location, speed, and position of the boat, but it contains a cumulative error that increases over time. On the other hand, the GPS better accuracy with a lower data rate than  the INS, so the integration system between INS/GPS is necessary. It must be developed to overcome the negatives in both systems. Two types of integration were introduced and implemented herein: loosely and tightly. From the results obtained, one can see that the tight system is better at improving errors.

A Modification of Shortest Path Algorithm According to Adjustable Weights Based on Dijkstra Algorithm

Luay S. Jabbar; Eyad I. Abass; Sundus D. Hasan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.136107.1296

It is possible to represent the road map on the paper and study it using Dijkstra`s algorithm to find the shortest path on the real earth. Dijkstra`s Algorithms are used for calculating the shortest path from source to sink to enable query operations that follow. Dynamic shortest-route techniques are needed to accommodate the modifications within the underlying community topology. Every solution includes figuring out the nodes whose shortest routes could be impacted through the updates and producing a list of affected vertices and their updated shortest pathways. In this work, the advent of the retroactive priority queue information structure makes the Dijkstra algorithm dynamic. In this research, the stepping is changed forward in the shortest direction for 2 networks and two directions. That changed by locating the shortest static path, then circulating to the first node after the beginning node. At this node, the weights inside the segments directed from this node will exchange and cancel the vintage shortest direction and locate the new direction. Then flow to the next node in the new find shortest path, and repeat the operation until the end.  The idea is that the best path can be constantly changed based on the latest data. These continuous changes are addressed in this paper, where the proposed system can find the best methods and update them automatically according to the variables.

Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Voltage Control for LCL-Filter Grid-Connected Converter

Safa S. Olwie; Abdulrahim T. Humod; Fadhil A. Hasan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132342.1115

Inductance – Capacitance – Inductance (LCL) filter is a very attractive candidate for renewable energy system applications due to its high efficiency. High attenuation of the switching frequency harmonics, small size, low fee, and improving the overall harmonic distortion (THD). This paper presents how voltage is affected by increased loads or voltage sag. Therefore it is necessary to control it with certain controllers. The Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) is used as an intelligent controller, the voltage constraint as training data for ANFIS obtained from PI. The filter works in a good connection between the inverter and the grid and rewords unwanted harmonics from using the inverter. The mathematical models for the LCL filter are investigated. The proposed approach shows more effective results than previous performance for voltage controlling and harmonic reduction. It gives overshoot (0.5%), steady state error (0.005), settling time (0.03 sec), rise time  (0.005 sec), and improving THD 8.67% to 2.33%  by comparing these results of ANFIS respectively with the results of PI which gave(3%),(0.01),(0.2sec)and( 0.02sec).

Performance Evaluation of Integrated Antennas on Photovoltaic Solar Cells

Ahmed Al-Alawi; Said Al Gheilani; Ahmed Al-Zeidi; Mohammed M. Bait-Suwailam

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134215.1228

The performance of antennas is critical to ensuring reliable wireless communication and robust data transmission. Unfortunately, antennas’ performance gets degraded when loaded with lossy materials. This paper presents the numerical and experimental evaluation of low-profile antennas’ performance when integrated with photovoltaic (PV) solar cells for potential use in smart grid and green power networks. Such integrated antennas can serve as a communication unit and sensors to monitor PV solar cells. For convenience, a microstrip patch antenna was used in this assessment study, where the antenna was designed, numerically simulated, and experimentally tested. After which, it was installed on top of a PV solar cell at different orientations. The antenna is designed to operate within the 2.45 GHz ISM band. Based on the results, the antenna performed well when placed at the middle of the PV solar cell with a peak gain of 2.58 dBi compared to other placements within the PV solar cell. Moreover, creating a small air gap between the antenna and the PV solar cell results in better performance. Based on the findings of this study, the antenna has satisfactory performance when integrated with PV cells, which is promising to deploy in many applications, including smart grid networks.

A Modified Global Management Controller for a Grid-connected PV System with Battery under Various Power Balance Modes

Diana S. Obaid; Ali J. Mahdi; Mohammed H. Alkafaji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132323.1102

This work presents an Energy Management System (EMS) constructed on dissimilar power balance modes and dynamic grid power to activate a DC-link microgrid with a solar (PV-array) generator and battery storage. In addition, the option of requesting adjustable power from the grid to encounter load demand is also presented.  Based on the availability of solar sources, battery state, and grid power, energy management offers the appropriate references for all modes. Six power balance options are defined based on power supply, storage system, and grid mobility to match the load requirement. The aims are to reduce energy usage and upsurge the life of the storage device. The microgrid is controlled to maintain a consistent DC-link voltage and manage the battery current depending on the mode of operation. Using MATLAB\SIMULINK software, the anticipated energy management system, which is based on power balancing modes, is tested under various scenarios. The simulation results demonstrated that the microgrid operated admirably, with seamless switching between power balance modes.

Review on Virtual Inertia Control Topologies for Improving Frequency Stability of Microgrid

Raof F. Idan; Ali J. Mahdi; Thamir M. Abdul Wahhab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.136217.1304

Renewable energy sources (RESs), such as solar and wind power, offer new technologies for meeting the world's energy requirements. The distributed generator (DG) based on RESs has no rotational mass and damping effects compared to the traditional power system with synchronous generators (SG). However, the increasing penetration level of DG based on RESs causes low inertia, a dampening effect on the dynamic performance of the grid, and stability. A solution to improve the frequency stability of such a system is to provide virtual inertia by using virtual synchronous generators (VSG), which can be created by using short-term energy storage and a power inverter, and a suitable control mechanism. The VSG control mimics the dynamics of the rotation SG and enhances the power system's stability. This paper presents an overview of various topologies on virtual inertia, VSG concepts, control techniques, and VSG applications. Finally, the VSG challenges and future research will be discussed.

Reliability Assessment Based on Optimal DGs Planning in the Distribution Systems

Ali M. Jaleel; Mohammed K. Abd

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131169.1010

Due to increased load demands, distribution systems suffer from high power losses, low voltage levels, high current, and low reliability. To solve these problems, integrate distributed generator units (DG) into the distribution system. DG units are among the most popular methods of improving distribution system reliability, power losses, and bus voltage improvement through the placement and selection of distributed generator units in an optimal location and size. This work proposed Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization (EPSO) technology to find the optimum location and size of DG units to reduce power losses, improve bus voltage level, and employed the Transient Electricity Analyzer (ETAP) to evaluate the reliability of the distribution system network. ETAP is a programming tool for modeling, analysis, design, optimization, operation, and control of electrical power systems. These findings may be useful in conducting reliability assessments and correctly utilizing dispersed generation sources for future power system growth by power utilities and power producer companies. The proposed method was employed on the Iraqi distribution system (AL-Abasia distribution network (F10 feeder)). After adding three DG units to the distribution system, theer adding three DG units to the distribution system, the obtained simulation results showed a significant reduction in power losses, voltage levels, and reliability enhancement.

Numerical Simulation of Powering Turbofan Propulsion Aircraft with Electricity

Thomas O. Onah; Christian C. Aka; Bethrand N. Nwankwojike

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 132-141
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133963.1214

The gas turbine-based propulsion systems were responsible for the emission of pollutants that damage the ecosphere. Commercial aviation represented a large portion of carbon emissions within the aviation industry, so this study focused on novel aircraft propulsion systems for large commercial aircraft. Electric propulsion was considered to be an alternative to conventional propulsion systems. Therefore, this report analyzed the various electric aircraft concepts within the aerospace industry to see whether they have environmental benefits. A flying wing aircraft was compared to a conventional tube-and-wing aircraft using Computational Fluid Dynamics to determine which aircraft requires more power. The lift forces acting on the conventional aircraft and flying wing at cruise speed were 269,110 N and 10681 N, while the drag forces acting on the conventional aircraft and Flying Wing Aircraft at cruise speed were 260,940N and 7679N, respectively. More electric aircraft approach has allowed the older power subsystems to be replaced by electrical systems within modern aircrafts such as the Boeings, airbus, etc. This has increased fuel efficiency. The result of the lift power requirement should be a boost for battery companies to develop FWA.Conclusively, the result inferred that the Flying Wing Aircraft is more aerodynamic and, therefore, would improve aircraft efficiency and emit less emission.

Omnidirectional Mobil Robot with Navigation Using SLAM

Hiba A. Najim; Iman S. Kareem; Wisam E. Abdul-Lateef

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 196-202
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v41i1.2252

As mobile robots have become widespread in indoor environments with narrow and crowded corridors, such as institutions, the demand for mobile robots has recently increased, especially for service purposes (homes, hospitals, and nursing homes for the elderly). The most important factor of autonomous navigation is the mobile robot's awareness of its surroundings, with the robot's ability to move from one place to another smoothly and safely in terms of avoiding obstacles. In this paper, a mobile robot with multi-directional wheels was designed to work in indoor environments and narrow corridors. SLAM was used to map the environment in which the robot operates, as well as determine the robot's location within this environment based on the data of the LIDAR sensor. The robot was controlled through the ROS robot operating system. In this research, we conducted a practical experiment for the robot's movement inside a corridor and mapped this corridor by SLAM.

Heat Pipe Thermal Performance Analysis by Using Different Working Fluids

Ali K. Soud; Qusay J. Abdul Ghafoor; Akeel A. Nazzal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132052.1086

This study investigated the thermal performance of the heat pipe and conducted on the effects of working fluids with wick and vertical position. The experiments were conducted using a copper heat pipe with ) a 20.8( mm inner diameter, and the length of the evaporator, the condenser, and the adiabatic regions were 300 mm, 350 mm, and 300 mm, respectively. The working fluids selected were water, Methanol, Ethanol, and different binary mixtures (50: 50) %, (30: 70) %, and (70: 30) % mixing ratios. The filling ratio for all working fluids remained constant with the value of  50% of the evaporator volume, and the heat input values were 20, 30, 40, and 50 watts. The results show that the heat pipe charged with Methanol has a thermal resistance of (0.7666 oC/W) which is the lowest value of thermal resistance. The lowest thermal resistance of using mixtures is (0.7466 oC/W) for (70 % methanol: 30% ethanol). Both are achieved at 50 W heat input. Also, the highest value of heat transfer coefficient when using water as a working fluid is (519.1073 W/m2. oC), and for using a mixture (70 % water: 30% methanol) is (805.89 W/m2. oC). Both are achieved at 50 W heat input.

The Effect of Eichhornia Crassipes Biodiesel/LPG Dual-Fuel on Performance and Emissions in a Single-Cylinder Compression Ignition Engine

Hawraa S. Mohammed; Mahmoud A. Mashkour

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 232-242
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.135176.1266

This study investigates the effects of Eichhornia Crassipes Biodiesel (ECB) with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) dual-fuel on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions characteristics. A four-stroke, single-cylinder and water-cooled diesel engine was used. The engine was operated with pure Iraqi diesel (PID) as a reference fuel, 40% ECB-60% PID, and duel fuel mode (DFM) (40% ECB-60% PID-2.4 l/min LPG). The experimental testing was carried out at 1500 rpm constant engine speed, compression ratio 18, and time injection 23° bTDC under various load conditions (25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) full load. Using a gas analyzer, the engine emissions, including carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), and nitrogen oxides (NOx), were measured. An OPABOX smoke unit was used to determine the smoke intensity. The result manifested that the 40% ECB reduced the thermal brake efficiency (BTH) by 7% at partial load, compared with the PID. Exhaust emissions tests at full load displayed a reduction in CO2, CO, HC, and smoke by 44.4%, 70.34%, 31%, 76%, and 47%, respectively, with increasing NOx emission by 17.02% compared with the PID. The (LPG- 40% ECB) DFM at full load elucidated a reduction in CO2, CO, and smoke by (52.38%-14.28%), (81.48%-37.5%) and (86.28 %-41.7%), respectively, while there was an increase in HC and NOx emission by of (15.38%-40%) and (34.2%-20.07%), respectively, compared with the PID and 40% ECB, where the BTH in DFM was higher than 40% ECB by 9.07%. Finally, the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) decreased by (10.11%-11.2%) compared with PID and 40% biodiesel.

Thermoelectric Generators as a Heat Recovery System for Exhaust Gases of Vehicles Driving at Low Speeds

A. Al-Janabi; O. Al Salmi; E. Al Subhi; A. Al Hadhrami

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 185-195
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134206.1253

To save the environment and utilize the waste heat associated with exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, it is crucial to design an efficient system that can recover this heat loss and convert it into useful energy. This study is devoted to developing, through an experimental approach, a practical technical solution to minimize the waste heat of the exhaust gases and convert it into a source of power for further applications in the vehicle. Six thermoelectric generators (TEG1-1263-4.3) were attached to the exhaust pipe in an arrangement of three connected in parallel and three connected in series. The thermoelectric generators were in a square shape of size 30 mm x 30 mm, and operated at a maximum temperature of 320. The experiments were conducted for a vehicle speed limit between (10 km/h - 60 km/h). It has been found that at a vehicle speed of 55 km/h, the exhaust pipe surface temperature reached approximately 116oC. For six models of TEGs, the output voltage was 4.13 volts. And the system efficiency was found to vary between 3.6% -15.9%, depending on the surface temperature of the exhaust pipe, i.e., the surface temperature that is in contact with the hot side of the thermoelectric generators. Such outputs refer to the efficiency of TEGs to be used as a heat recovery system. Furthermore, the produced power can be used for feeding other applications within the vehicle, such as using a small fridge for a cooling process. 

The Effect of Rectangular Grooves on the Lubrication Mechanism in an Inclined Slider Bearing

Muhannad M.Mrah; Ammar S.Hamid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 218-231
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.136148.1299

This research aims to study the effect of rectangular grooves on the lubrication mechanism in an inclined slider bearing. Reynolds' equation was used in the theory part to calculate the pressure gradient in a one-dimensional fluid film. The tilted sliding bearing compared the practical results, where the researcher manufactured and developed the device by adding pressure sensors along with the pad. These sensors will give accurate readings because they will read the pressure directly from the bottom of the pads without manometer tubes. Four pads were manufactured, one without grooves and three with rectangular grooves, varying slot widths (3, 5, 8mm), and a depth of 2mm. This study examined various variables: sliding velocities, pad inclination values, and oil temperatures. The conclusions indicated that the flat model is significantly superior to the groove’s models. One significant finding for grooved models is that as the inclination increases, the maximum load capacity approaches the pad's center, allowing grooved models to be used in applications requiring less load and weight. The maximum load-carrying capacity of flat and grooved models was in the film ratio (K) = 2–2.5. In contrast, the load capacity of the flat model was greater than that of the groove model by percentages of 0.5%, 4.27%, and 14.66%, respectively. Moreover, the flat model's coefficient of friction is lower than the coefficient of friction of the groove models, with percentages of 0.38%, 4.63%, and 17.37%, respectively.

A comparative study between two lubrication nano-additives (Bi2O3 & TiO2) based on vibration response analysis

Sarah S. Jaffar; Wafa A. Soud; Ihsan A. Baqer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 60-68
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133013.1162

The purpose of this paper is to present a vibration monitoring analysis of a hydrodynamic journal bearing working with nano-additives lubricants.The vibration response is generated on bearings at various rotational speeds and dynamic load conditions.These bearings were tested experimentally by adding two types of nano additives; Bismuth (3) oxide (Bi2O3), which is considered a green, nontoxic metal, as well as a new additive, and nano Titanium dioxide (TiO2), which is moderately toxic, with SN150 base oil.The performance of additives was studied on the base oil. The comparisons between the two nano-additives Bi2O3 with (1, 2, and 4 wt. %) and TiO2 with (1 and 1.25 wt. %) were studied experimentally with the SN150 base oil. And the obtained results manifested that at different concentrations of Bi2O3 and TiO2 in the SN150 base oil for each rotational speed and dynamic load, there was a reduction in the vibration system response, where Bi2O3 has a good performance at a wide range of rotational speed and dynamic load. At the same time, TiO2 performs better at higher rotational speed and dynamic load.

Investigation of Offshore Wind Turbine Structure Deflection Using Experimental Work, Numerical, and Theoretical Approach

Hayder M. Ali; Hassan M. Alwan; Israa Al-Esbe; Kochneva O. V

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 159-175
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133645.1199

Electrical energy from offshore wind turbines is an important source of clean, renewable energy production. One of the reasons for the low efficiency of wind turbines is the change in the flow angle of attack, denoted by the symbol (α), as a result of the deflection of the structure. The study aims to know the values of the maximum deflection of the proposed structure under the environmental conditions of the Arabian Gulf water area. Our research adopted a novel approach to extracting results; the characteristics of sea waves were extracted from the experimental work after fixing five sea waves, knowing the displacement of the top of the structure, and using the numerical approach in the ANSYS-Fluent program to know the average wind and wave forces. Two simulations were performed. The first included the five cases of sea wave characteristics without rotating wind turbine blades. The second was for the fifth case only with the wind turbine blades rotating at a speed of (20.5 rpm), assuming that the structure was exposed to a constant wind speed (12 m/s) for the two simulations. The study also included obtaining the maximum deflection value of the structure. Then, the equations of the theoretical approach were developed based on the Euler-Bernoulli bending moment equation, and the forces extracted from the simulations were entered into the theoretical equations to extract the maximum deflection values of the structure. Reading the experimental work resulted in the highest displacement of the top of the structure in the fifth case (0.178 m). The result of the second simulation had the highest value of the structure deflection (0.201 m). In comparison, its value came in the theoretical approach (0.160 m), which adopted the forces of the second simulation.

Effects of Magnetic Field on the Performance of Solar Distillers: A Review Study

Wissam H. ِAlawee; Karrar A. Hammoodi; Hayder A. Dhahad; Z.M. Omara; Fadl A. Essa; A.S. Abdullah; M I. Amro

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 121-131
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134576.1240

Due to the rising demand for treated water, the enhancement of potable water yield technologies, such as traditional solar distillers, is a pressing concern. Solar desalination is one of the easiest techniques for producing fresh water from salt water. It has several benefits, not the least. It utilizes free solar energy. Moreover, it is a simple and inexpensive technique compared to other alternatives. They are, nevertheless, relatively inefficient devices. Many studies have been done to boost the daily output of solar stills by using many active strategies to produce a large amount of evaporation and condensation compared to a basic standard type distiller.  The magnetic field (MF) is one of the most important and recent techniques affecting the productivity of the solar still due to its positive impact on the water evaporation rate. The primary focus of the current study is to review the effects of magnetic field approaches on the distillate production, performance, and thermal efficiency of several types of solar distillers. Based on previous studies, the magnetic field is responsible for increasing the partial pressure difference between water and glass cover. The change occurs in the hydration shells of the saltwater, which should enhance the evaporation rate and improve the performance of solar still. Besides, the magnetic field significantly reduces the surface tension of salty water, which leads to increased evaporation. Furthermore, the intensity, direction, position, and magnet sizes of magnetic have a strong effect on the rate of water evaporation as well as the rate of heat transfer.

Determination of Impingement Cooling Fluid Temperature-Time Profile For Extracted Tiger-Nut Juice (Cyperus Esculentus) By Lumped Thermal Mass Analysis

Nwankwo, Michael Azubuike; Onah Thomas Okechukwu; Egwuagu Michael Onyekachi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 142-150
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134483.1239

Determination of Temperature-Time Profile by the Lumped thermal mass analysis (LTMA) method using Tiger-Nut Juice as the impinging fluid on the cooling system was carried out. With a stationary hot steel plate on a modified run-out table for the top surface controlled the accelerated cooling process. This was evaluated with pipe diameters of 10mm, 15mm, 30mm, 35mm, and 40mm by single jet Tiger-Nut Juice impinging fluid, impingement gaps of 115mm, 125mm, 135mm, 145mm, and 155mm, initial surface temperatures from 450oC – 410oC and at sub-cooled temperatures from 150oC–110oC. The analysis reveals a faster cooling rate for both diameters at an impingement gap of 155mm. Diameter 10mm with 1.8oC/sec average rate, for impingement gap of 115mm, 1.8oC/sec for impingement gaps of 125mm, 135mm and 145mm and 1.9oC for 155mm. This optimal temperature-time profile of Tiger Nut Juice impingement cooling infers that a higher cooling rate is achieved using smaller pipe diameter D and higher impingement gap H. In addition, it showed evidence of less Leiden frost phenomenon; hence, extracted tiger nut juice fluid can perfectly serve as a substitute for water at smaller pipe diameters and higher impingement gaps. Also, it was inferred that it also cools at a bigger pipe diameter with a lower impingement gap.

Optimization Process of Double Spots Welding of High Strength Steel Using in the Automotive Industry

Hayder H. Khaleel; Ibtihal A. Mahmood; Fuad Khoshnaw

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 110-120
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134325.1236

Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) is one of the most important welding techniques used in the automotive industry because it is an economic process and is suitable for many materials. Many parameters affect the mechanical and microstructural properties of nugget formation and its strength, like welding current, electrode force, and welding time. Therefore, optimizing the RSW process to get the optimum welding parameters is necessary for automobile manufacturing companies. High-strength steel is widely used in the automotive industry because of its superior characteristics such as high strength-weight ratio, ductility, fatigue, and corrosion resistance. This paper presents an optimization process for RSW using the Taguchi method for high strength low alloy steel (HSLA) DOCOL 500 LA, considered a new steel grade. Two spots were used in this work.The mechanical and microstructural tests are achieved to get the maximum nugget strength, nugget diameter, different welding zones microstructures, microhardness values, and failure modes. The results showed that optimum welding parameters were welding current of 8800 Amp, welding time of 20 cycles, and electrode force of 1900 N. The failure mode for optimum conditions was a full pullout with tearing of the welded sheets because of high plastic deformation and absorbed energy. The maximum microhardness value is in the fusion zone, the heat-affected region, and finally, in the base material due to the nugget zone's rapid melting and solidification process.  

Determination of Draught Requirement of Single-furrow Mouldboard Plough in Sandy Loam Soil in Yola, Northeastern Nigeria

Kabri, H. U.

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 151-158
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133807.1206

The draught requirement of a single-furrow animal-drawn mouldboard plough implement was determined on sandy loam soils from June to July 2021 at Modibbo Adama University, Yola. The effect of speeds (0.65, 0.83, and 1.05 ms-1) and depths (8, 13, and 18 cm) upon the draught was investigated. Soil analysis, animal specification, and results of tillage experiments are reported. A pair of oxen weighing 538 kg was used as a power source.  A 1 x 3 x 3 factorial experimental design was arranged in a Randomized Complete Design (RCD) for the study on a test plot of 50 m long x 25 m wide and replicated three times. The highest mean draught values of 458.43 N and the lowest mean draught values of 456.03 N were obtained at a speed and depth combination of 1.05 ms-1 and 0.183 m and 0.65 ms-1 and 0.083 m, respectively, with a unit draught of 11.07kpa. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) between speed and depth had a significant effect at a 1 % level of probability (P≤0.01) on draught requirement. Linear regression equations showed an increase in draught with an increase in tillage depth and speed. The high coefficient of determination r2 values show that the plough is operated more economically at a mean speed of 0.83 m/s and a depth of 0.135 m. These regression equations can predict draught during the design of animal-drawn tillage implementation. Substantial energy savings can be obtained with proper animal-tillage implements combination.

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer Enhancement by Hybrid Nanofluid and Twisted Tape

noor F. A. Hamza; Sattar Aljabair

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 69-85
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.131909.1069

This paper presents an experimental and numerical study to investigate the heat transfer enhancement in a horizontal circular tube using hybrid nanofluid (CuO, Al₂O₃/ distilled water) and fitted with twisted tape (typical twisted tape, with twist ratios (TR=9.2). Under fully developed turbulent flow and uniform heat flux conditions, the studied hybrid nanofluid concentrations are (=0.6, 1.22, and 1.8% by volume). The experimental test rig includes all the required instruments to study the heat transfer enhancement. All the tests were carried out with a Reynolds number range of 3560-8320 and uniform heat flux (13217.5 W/m². The twisted tape, manufactured from polylactic acid (PLA) by 3-dimensional printer technology, was inserted inside the tube. In this numerical study, the finite volume method (CFD) procedure was employed to pattern the forced convection turbulent flow through the tube. For hybrid nanofluid with twisted, the maximum enhancement in the maximum thermal performance factor was 2.18 for φ = 1.8%, while for a tube (water with twisted) under the same conditions, it was (2.04). A high Nusselt number was obtained with a concentration of 1.8% and an enhancement in the heat transfer of about 6.70%) than water.

Thermal Performance of a Counter-Flow Double-Pass Solar Air Heater With The Steady and Pulsating Flow

Nassr F. Hussein; Sabah T. Ahmed; Ali L. Ekaid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 176-184
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.135475.1274

The present work studied the influence of pulsating flow as an active method on the thermal performance of a double-pass solar air heater with a tubular solar absorber. A ball valve has been used as a pulse generator mounted at the downstream flow of the solar air heater. The experiments were under indoor conditions with a constant heat flux of 1000 W/m2, and different air mass flow rates ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 kg/s. Moreover, the study covered three pulsation frequencies varied from 1 to 3 Hz. Based on the experimental outcomes, it can be observed that the heat transfer rate is enhanced by applying the pulsating flow, where it was found that the outlet temperature in the case of applying the pulsating flow rises by about 25.6 - 27% as compared with the steady flow case. Moreover, pulsating flow offers a higher effective thermal performance by about 15.2 % at the maximum air mass flow rate compared with the steady flow. In addition, the findings pointed out that varying the pulsation frequency from 1 to 3 Hz produces an enhancement in heat transfer rate and in solar heater effective efficiency, where it was found that when changing the frequency from 1 to 3, the increment of effective efficiency ranged from 3.8 to 6.9 % depending on the air mass flow value.

Modal Analysis of Specific Composite Sandwich Structures

Mustafa S. Al-Khazraji; Sadeq H. Bakhy; Muhsin J. Jweeg

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 13-22
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133585.1195

Composite sandwich structures are gaining attention due to their inherent properties, such as lightweight, low density, and high strength. The forced vibration response of these structures was studied experimentally to investigate the effects of external loads on these structures. In this work, four composite sandwich structures were manufactured using carbon fiber, glass fibers, and foam and tested on a specially designed vibration test rig by hitting the specimen with an impact hammer. The response was recorded by an accelerometer attached to the specimens. The accelerometer signal was amplified, and the input and output signals were transferred to LABVIEW via a data acquisition card and were processed in MATLAB. The impact hammer acts as an external excitation source, and the frequency response function was found for each specimen under various edge boundary conditions. Bode plots were plotted for each test, and the peak frequency and the phase difference were compared. It was found that composite sandwich specimens made of carbon fiber skins and carbon fiber honeycomb core showed a higher frequency response among all specimens (400 Hz). Furthermore, it was found that the foam core layer reduces the phase difference between the input and output signals from (360degrees) to (180degrees) compared with other honeycomb cores. Therefore, the procedure outlined in this research can be applied to other structures to investigate their vibration response. In addition, this work could be beneficial for the diagnosis of structure stability using a forced vibration response procedure.

Numerical Investigation of Thermal-Hydraulic Performance of Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger with Different Fin Shape Inserts

Ali M. Aljelawy; Amer M. Aldabbagh; Falah F. Hatem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 23-36
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132688.1137

The printed circuit heat exchanger is one of the most recent important heat exchangers, especially in the nuclear power plant and aerospace applications, due to its very compact geometry and small print foot. This paper presents a 3D numerical investigation of the thermo-hydraulic performance of PCHE with a new non-uniform channel design configuration. The new channel design consists of two different fins and shape inserts: the diamond and biconvex shapes. The influence of two design parameters on the heat exchanger performance was studied and optimized, the longitudinal and transverse pitch length (Pl) and (Pt). Air with constant properties as the working fluid with constant heat flux at the walls envelope. The Reynolds number varied from 200 to 2000. Different Pitch lengths were used (Pl=20, 30, 40, and 50) mm and (Pt=3, 4, and 5) mm. Three performance parameters were studied the Nusselt number, friction factor, and the overall performance evaluation factor. Results show that the thermal performance enhanced with decreasing the pitch lengths, and it was shown that this enhancement was found only at high Reynolds numbers above 1400. The higher enhancement factor was with NACA 0020 airfoil fins at pt=3 mm and pl=20mm of η=2.75 at Re=2000, while the worst performance was obtained with biconvex fins. The main reason behind the enhancement is the disruption of the boundary layer and the good mixing induced in the fluid flow.

Dynamic Response Analysis of the Rotor Using the Jeffcott Method and Performance Improvement Using Active Magnetic Bearing

Karrar B. Tuaib; Qasim A. Atiyah; Imad A. Abdulsahib

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 96-109
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133607.1196

The most common component of mechanical systems today is rotating machines. In these systems, vibration is caused by rotating components. As a result, to decrease the amplitude of vibrations created by rotating equipment, it’s required to understand the behavior of the system. In this work, the problem of vibrations in conventional bearing systems and the effect of adding active magnetic bearings to rotating machines to reduce the amplitude of vibrations are discussed. In this paper, the vibrations in the rotary bearing system were studied theoretically and analytically by using simulation programs to calculate the natural frequencies and parameters affecting the performance. In the theoretical part, the shaft of the rotating bearing was analyzed by the Jeffcott method depending on several parameters changed with the frequency value to observe the amplitude of the vibrations in the shaft. In an analytical aspect by simulation, a representative model of active magnetic bearings was built using the COMSOL 2020 program, and the effect of adding these bearings on capacitance, vibration reduction, and frequency behavior was examined. SolidWorks 2018 software was used to analyze the magnetic field and its distribution in the magnetic bearing coil. The results indicate that when magnetic active bearings were introduced to the rotating bearing shafts, the vibration amplitude was reduced by approximately 60%. From this work, it can be concluded that the system becomes more stable when the active magnetic bearing is added to the rotating bearing shaft, giving it a more stable and firm nature.

Study the Performance of a Novel Desiccant Heat Exchanger

Hind M. Taresh; Amar S. Abdul-Zahra; Ahmed A. M. Saleh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 45-59
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134120.1221

Conserving energy and reducing emissions has become a global consensus. However, most air conditioning systems are highly energy-consuming, affecting global warming and the ozone layer because they use chlorine and fluorine refrigerating fluids. Evaporative cooling systems are one of the most important environmentally friendly air conditioning systems with low energy consumption. However, their performance is negatively affected by the high humidity of the inlet air. One of the solutions to control the relative humidity of the inlet air is using desiccant material. In this paper, a silica gel-coated heat exchanger was designed and constructed as a dehumidifying unit. The effect of airflow rate, hot water flow rate, cold water flow rate, and regeneration temperature on the system's performance has been studied. It was found that increasing the hot water flow rate improves the removing moisture from the desiccant. However, increasing the hot water flow rate has a negative effect on the thermal performance of the heat exchanger. The effectiveness of the heat exchanger was 53% in the regeneration phase and 52% in the cooling phase for the outside air temperature of 40 ºC, W=20 g/kg, and an airflow rate of 0.48 m³/s. From the results shown above, it was noticed that the system could work efficiently in hot and high humidity climates and be used in Iraqi weather.

Design and Implementation of a Smart Greenhouse Automated and Conditioned by Solar Power System

Sura H. Hassan; Abdullateef A. Jadallah; Ghassan A. Bilal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 37-44
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131279.1024

Photosynthesis requires additional energy. Such energy can be obtained by building a greenhouse, which traps sunlight's heat. The primary challenge in greenhouse growing is stabilizing temperature swings. Adapting conventional heating and cooling systems can provide additional energy to the greenhouse. In the greenhouse, solar energy is a vital energy source that is directly connected to the power supply. The greenhouse control systems have been adapted and implemented to meet the demands of plant cultivation due to wireless automation, design, control, and monitoring services. This study provides an effective automation system for greenhouses. It lowers the power, leads to consumption, and allows for remote control and monitoring. They show that the control model monitors sensing data are an accurate tool for computing sensing and the self-management of output devices. It was also found that this technology has several positive attributes such as easy network management and motor controls, soil moisture, humidity, temperature, and sensor to solar panel voltage. It measures the four sensors included in the suggested design system. Each sensor measures changes in the environment inside the greenhouse. All sensors are accessible in varied ratios to run devices plugged for different operations because irrigation, refrigeration, and air conditioning always start when depletion occurs.

Bearings Health Monitoring Based on Frequency-Domain Vibration Signals Analysis

Saja M. Jawad; Alaa A. Jaber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 86-95
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.131581.1043

Rotating machine health monitoring is critical for system safety, cost savings, and increased reliability. The need for a simple and accurate fault diagnosis method has led to the development of various monitoring techniques. They incorporate vibration, motor’s current signature, and acoustic emission signals analysis in condition monitoring. So, based on using vibration signal analysis, a test rig was built for bearing fault identification. The test rig replicates and investigates various bearing problems, such as those found in the inner and outer races. An accelerometer, type ADXL335, was interfaced to a data acquisition device (DAQ USB-6215) for collecting vibration signals under various operating circumstances. In addition, a load cell was embedded with the test rig, interfaced with a digital panel meter, and used for recording the applied load on the bearings. The time-domain signal analysis technique was used after acquiring vibration signals at various bearing health states. Then, the time-domain signal was converted to the frequency domain using the fast Fourier transform, and the result was analyzed to investigate the generated fault frequencies. Finally, the obtained frequencies were compared with the theoretical values extracted from the theoretical equations, and the method proved its effectiveness in detecting the fault generated.

Experimental Study Convection Heat Transfer Inside the Triangular Duct Filled with Porous Media

Sabah R. Mahdi; Suhad A. Rasheed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 203-217
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.136144.1297

Convection heat transfer inside an empty triangular channel when filled with porous media heated proportionally with a constant heat flux (1300 W/m²) at the Reynolds number range (3165- 10910) with packed beds has been studied. The present work investigates porous media experimentally. The packed duct has a length (1 m) and (0.1 m) hydraulic diameter packed with porous material made from spherical glass particles of two different diameters (5 mm, and 10 mm). The value of porosity for the channel is (0.468,0.616 and), respectively. This research studies the effect of changing the Reynolds number and porosity on the enhanced heat transfer coefficient and local Nusselt number. The results indicated that using a porous structure enhanced the convection heat transfer coefficient significantly by (90.2%) and (92.1%) at porosity (0.616, 0.468), respectively, when compared with an empty duct. The results also revealed that the local Nusselt number decreased when the flow's axial position increased with increasing air velocity. The pressure on both ends of the test section increased as the air velocity rose and reduced as the size of the glass spheres increased. Therefore, the drag coefficient decreases as the modified Reynolds number increases with the diameter of glass spheres. The current research was compared with previous research, and the results were satisfactory. Correlational relationships were reached between the Nusselt number and the Reynolds number.

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of ZK60 Mg Alloy Processed by Cyclic Expansion-Extrusion (CEE) at Different Temperatures

Ahmed M. Marheb; Akeel D. Subhi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 12, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133572.1194

In this work, the cyclic expansion extrusion (CEE) process was applied to ZK60 Mg alloy. The correlation between the evolved microstructure and mechanical properties was investigated. The CEE process was performed at a constant ram speed (15 mm/min) and at different processing temperatures (190, 270, and 350 °C). Optical and scanning electron microscopes, X-ray diffraction instruments, Vickers hardness tester, and tensile testing machine were utilized to examine the influence of CEE processing temperature on the characteristics of ZK60 Mg alloy. The XRD analysis showed that two phases were presented in the matrix of ZK60 Mg alloy, namely α-Mg and MgZn2, in small amounts. The CEE process reduced the size of α-Mg grains due to dynamic recrystallization, especially at the processing temperature of 190 °C. A slight coarsening of the α-Mg grains was observed with increasing processing temperature to 270 and 350 °C. The hardness value ​​of ZK60 Mg alloy was enhanced by about 11 to 19% using the CEE process compared to the as-extruded sample. The processing temperature greatly affected the mechanical properties, where a significant improvement of about 24% yield strength, 9% ultimate tensile strength, and 38% elongation was observed using a processing temperature of 190 °C. The characterization of the tensile fracture surface of the tested samples indicated that the ductile-brittle fracture mode was responsible for the failure.

Characterization of the Efficiency of Photo-Catalytic Ultrafiltation PES Membrane Modified with Tungsten Oxide in the Removal of Tinzaparin Sodium

Reham R. Abdullah; Kadhum M. Shabeeb; Aseel B. Alzubaydi; Alberto Figoli; Alessandra Criscuoli; Enrico Drioli; Qusay Alsalhy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 12, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134070.1219

One of the polymeric membranes' main limitations is their susceptibility to fouling, lowering the membrane's performance with time. Therefore, incorporating nanomaterials in polymer matrices has attracted great attention in wastewater treatment applications. It's a promising approach for enhancing membrane hydrophilicity and performance.  Herein, ultrafiltration nanocomposite membranes were synthesized by applying the phase inversion method through immobilizing (0.1-0.4 wt.%) tungsten oxide (WO2.89) nanoparticles in a polyether sulfone (PES) matrix. Membrane's anti-fouling performance was evaluated against tinzaparin sodium. The data showed that the pure water flux improved with increasing nanoparticle loading, reaching its optimum value of 54.9 kg/m2 h at 0.4 wt.% WO2.89 nanoparticles compared to the neat membrane's 30.42 kg/m2 h. The results also demonstrated that the rejection efficiency and flux recovery ratio (FRR) against tinzaparin sodium was enhanced, by 44.89% and 12.69%, respectively, for the membranes modified with 0.4wt.% WO2.89 nanoparticles loading compared to the neat PES membrane. The data also showed that after exposing the nanocomposite membranes to UV light irradiation (λ=365 nm) and intensity (1200mW/cm2) for 1h, a further enhancement by 8.34% in FRR as compared to the membranes with the same percentage of nanoparticles loading without irradiation. It is concluded that the photocatalytic activity of WO2.89 nanoparticles in the decomposition of organic molecules on/close to the membrane surface was the impact that caused this improvement in membrane anti-fouling property

Improving Fatigue Corrosion Resistance of Turbine Blades Using Laser Processing

Zaman A. Abdulwahab; Sami I. Jafar; Sami A. Ajeel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 12, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134330.1235

The present paper investigates the nanomaterial coatings effect on turbine blades by laser processing. The present paper explores the impact of laser cladding parameters on the corrosion behavior of the resulting surface. Powders of Inconel 600 were deposited on the steel substrate. The surface can be thought of as the most important part of every engineering component. Unlike the rest of the component's volume, the surface is exposed to wear and becomes the place where most cracks form and corrosion initiates. Corrosion is one of the most harmful problems affecting turbine blades. In the current investigation, coating nanomaterials, namely Inconel 600, have been used to resist corrosion. The specimens of tests have been obtained from the part of the turbine blades in Al-Doura Station, located south of Baghdad. These specimens are separated into two groups: The 1st group is received specimens, and the 2nd group is with nanoparticle coating, including Inconel 600 coating applied by laser cladding. The procedure of cladding was implemented utilizing the following parameters :(11 j) pulse energy, (6 Ms.) pulse width, (12 Hz) pulse frequency, (132 W) laser average power, and (1.83 KW) laser peak power. The results show that the microstructure of steels after laser processing is greatly refined with equiaxed grains and highly homogeneous as compared with those of steels before laser treatment, resulting in a significant improvement in strength, toughness, and fatigue corrosion.

The Effect of Ceo2 Addition on Transformation Temperatures and Wear Resistance of Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloys

Dina F. Hammadi; Raad S. Ahmed Adnan; Mohammed A. Al-Sarraf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 12, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132840.1144

SMAs can switch from one crystallographic structure to another in response to temperature or stress stimuli. When SMAs are exposed to mechanical cyclic stress, they can absorb and discharge mechanical energy by experiencing a reversible hysteretic shape change. SMAs are widely used for sensing, actuation, impact absorption, and vibration damping. This work studied the effect of  CeO2 addition on the transformation temperature and wear resistance of Cu-Al-Ni SMAs. WhereCeO2 was added at different percent’s 0.5, 1, and 3 wt% to the base alloy, followed by casting and homogenization at 900oC. Some tests were carried out: Differential scanning calorimeter, Optical Microscope, Scanning Electron microscopy, Energy dispersion spectrometer, X-Ray Diffraction, and Wear and Hardness tests. OM and SEM tests reveal that both phases of martensite β and γ are found. Also, the additions of CeO2 show a visible effect on phase formation and transformation temperatures. It was observed that increasing of CeO2 particles in Cu-based SMAs owing to improve interfacial bonding between matrix and reinforcement and also observed that the variants become thicker with increasing in percent. Additions of different percentages of cerium oxide increase the hardness of Cu-Al-Ni SMAs. Due to the addition of CeO2 particles, the sample's wear rate decreases compared to pure SMAs.

Effect of Adding MgO on Microstructure of Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA) Composite for Medical Applications

Alaa S. Taeh; Farhad M. Othman; Alla A. Abdul-Hameed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 12, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134694.1245

Zirconia toughened alumina (Biolox delta) is a new-generation ceramic with four times the strength of alumina alone, used in artificial joints. The composite ZTA, consisting of 82 wt. %Al2O3, 17 wt. % ZrO2, 0.5 wt. % Cr2O3, and 0.5 wt. % SrO, was made using the sol-gel process, starting with salts. To investigate the effects of MgO on the ZTA microstructure, two concentrations (0.25 and 0.5 wt. %) of MgO were added to biolox during gelation to study the ZTA microstructure. Powders were sintered in the air for 2 hrs. at 1450 ºC. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) were used to characterize sintering powders. ZTA + xMgO structural characteristics differ from pure ZTA's.  According to XRD calculations, grainsize decreased from 41.82 nm to 31.88 and 26.83 nm with increasing MgO concentration, but the specific surface area (SSA) increased from 40.63 to 54.79 m2/gm while crystallization improved. SEM examination shows the composite has a homogeneous dispersion of shaped particles. The EDX test shows the composite's homogeneous element distribution. ZTA+ xMgO powders were more antibacterial than ZTA powders. MgO inhibits bacterial activity and grain formation in ZTA composite during sintering, which makes it a good choice for medical applications, mainly artificial joints.

A Numerical Study of Friction Stir Welding for AA5754 Sheets to Evaluate Temperature Profile and Plastic Strain

Mustafa M. Hadi; Mohanned M.H. AL-Khafaji; Akeel D. Subhi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 12, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134304.1237

A full-dimensions 3-D numerical model based on the Lagrangian approach has been employed to predict the peak temperature and the plastic strain distribution in the FSW of (AA5754) joints using ABAQUS software. The material’s model utilizes the classical plasticity model in addition to defining the thermophysical properties of the alloy using JMatPro software to increase the accuracy of the numerical results. The basic variables of FSW were three rotational speeds (930, 1460, and 1860 rpm) and three traverse speeds (35, 65, and 95 mm/min).  The influence of the rotational and traverse speed on temperature profile and plastic strain has been studied. The simulation results showed that increasing the rotational speed led to increasing the peak temperature, which concentrated under the tool’s bottom surface while increasing the traverse speed decreased the peak temperature recorded. The highest peak temperature was (497 oC) at a rotational speed of (1860 rpm) and a traverse speed of (35 mm/min). It was also found that the rotational speed increased the plastic strain starting from the tool’s neck and continuing along the pins’ position and gradually decreasing towards the bottom. In addition, a V-shape pattern has appeared in the temperature distribution across the workpiece’s cross-section, representing the heat loss during the FSW by the backplate due to heat conductance.

The Impacts of Calcium Ions Substitution in Hydroxyapatite with Neodymium and Zinc on Biological Properties and Osteosarcoma Cells

Suha Q. AL-Shahrabalee; Hussein A. Jaber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 12, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133915.1217

Hydroxyapatite (HA) is one of the important biomaterials in the medical field, especially in bone treatment, because of its biological properties close to human bone. A simple co-precipitation technique was used to integrate neodymium and zinc into HA by adding neodymium nitrate and zinc nitrate as a source of substituted elements during synthesis through the wet precipitation method with controlled temperature and pH. Finally, substituted HA was sintered at 800°C after completing the biomaterial preparation. The resulting Nd-Zn/HA was globe-like with nanoparticle size. The Ca+Nd+Zn/P ratio was equal to 1.63, which is relatively close to the molar ratio of bone. Also, the ability of Nd-Zn/HA to cause apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells was discovered. The anti-tumor actions are amplified when increasing the concentration of substituted HA. Therefore, Nd-Zn/HA is a potentially effective biomaterial in osteosarcoma treatment. Meanwhile, it has antibacterial and fungicidal properties against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans—one of the important properties required in biomaterials to protect the part that is being treated after the biomaterial is implanted inside the body. The inhibition zone of Nd-Zn/HA ranged between (20-31)mm, much higher than gentamicin and nystatin.

Investigating the Effect of Different Parameters on Physical Properties of Metakaolin-Based Geopolymers

Ahmed J. Abed AL-Jabar; Hanna A. Al-Kaisy; Sarmad I. Ibrahim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 12, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132691.1138

Recently, geopolymers have received widespread attention due to their ability to completely replace ordinary cement with better efficiency, lower cost, and less damage to the climatic environment. This paper aimed to prepare MK-based geopolymer cement at ambient temperature with different alkaline activators and processing parameters. XRD, PSA, DTA-TGA, SEM, and other techniques have characterized the prepared samples. ANOVA test was employed to identify the main effect of the processing parameters. Results showed that the incorporation of potassium ions has a negative effect on the physical properties of GP, in which the presence of such ions tends to decrease the density of GP. Furthermore, the apparent porosity and water absorption were increased. For Na and K, Na-activated GP, it was also concluded that the density of GP increases by increasing Si/Al ratios. Despite the Na-based GP processes having a larger density in compared to the K, Na-based ones. The results also suggested a strong effect of the W\MK ratio on physical properties, in which decreasing this ratio is necessary to achieve GP with better properties. The findings also revealed that a one-minute mixing period was sufficient for producing a homogeneous and dense GP paste.

The Effect of Infill Pattern on Tensile Strength of PLA Material in Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) Process

Maria F. Jasim; Tahseen F. Abbas; Abdullah F. Huayier

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 12, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131733.1054

Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) process often used to build geometrically complex prototypes and parts. It is becoming more popular since it improves products by eliminating the need for high-priced equipment. Materials, printing methods, and printing variables all impact the mechanical characteristics of printed items. The process parameters of FDM affect the parts' quality and functionality. This study examines the influence of different infill patterns on test specimens made of polylactic acid (PLA) tensile strength. Total of 10 different infill patterns (IPs): Grid, Lines, Triangles, Tri-Hexagon, Cubic, Gyroid, Zig-zag, Concentric, Octet, and Cubic subdivision were taken as process variables. Samples were printed using processing parameters (speed 60 mm/s, layer height 0.1 mm, infill density 80%, extruded at 200◦C). The ASTM D638 tensile test was used to determine the tensile strength based on this printing parameter. According to tensile test results, the infill pattern significantly affects the tensile strength. The results showed that the concentric infill pattern has a higher tensile strength of 32.174 MPa, whereas the triangles infill pattern has a lower tensile strength of 20.934 MPa.

Obstacle Avoidance and Path Planning of a Wheeled Mobile Robot Using Hybrid Algorithm

Tahseen F. Abaas; Alaa H. Shabeeb

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 12, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132929.1154

In the mobile robot workplace, the path planning problem is crucial. Robotic systems employ intelligence algorithms to plan the robot's path from one point to another. This paper proposes the fastest and optimal path planning of the wheeled mobile robot with collision avoidance to find the optimal route during wheeled mobile robot navigation from the start point to the target point. It is done using a modern meta-heuristic hybrid algorithm called IPSOGWO by combining Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (IPSO) with Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO). The principal idea is based on boosting the ability to exploit in PSO with the exploration ability in GWO to the better-automated alignment between local and global search capabilities towards a targeted, optimized solution. The proposed hybrid algorithm tackles two objectives: the protection of the path and the length of the path. During, Simulation tests of the route planning by the hybrid algorithm are compared with individual results PSO, IPSO, and GWO concepts about the minimum length of the path, execution time, and the minimum number of iterations required to achieve the best route. This work's effective proposed navigation algorithm was evaluated in a MATLAB environment. The simulation results indicated that the developed algorithm reduced the average path length and the average computation time, less than PSO by (1%, 1.7%), less than GWO by (1%, 1.9%), and less than IPSO by (0.05%, 0.4%), respectively. Furthermore, the superiority of the proposed algorithm was proved through comparisons with other famous path planning algorithms with different static environments.

Nanocatalyst for the Degradation of Plastic Waste to Produce Paints

Shams N. Almutalabi; Mohammed Alzuhairi; F. A. Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 12, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132459.1118

Recycling consumed commercial polymers is considered a highly important issue that chemists and engineers must take care of to develop the proper recycling techniques. The main objective of this study is to find a radical solution to the problems of plastic waste by recycling plastic waste (water bottles) and studying the effect of the produced Degraded Polyethylene Terephthalate (DPET) on the properties of paints. DEPT was added in six quantities to the paint mixture (1, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 14 grams). The paints were evaluated using various tests, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), viscosity, adhesion, brightness, color, ultraviolet reflectance, and accelerated weathering. Testing the paint mixtures showed that the samples were not affected by weather conditions. This indicates the improvement of the paint mixtures by adding quantities of DPET. This study concludes that the catalyst ratios used succeeded in cracking DPET and avoided the need for large quantities of the catalyst. The use of  DPET in various material applications reduces the cost due to the low cost of DPET production. The use of PET in sustainable applications conferred a radical solution to plastic waste problems worldwide. In this work, mixing plastic waste products, after their treatment, in the preparation of paint mixtures successfully contributed to improving the required specifications.

Investigation Nano-coating for the Corrosion Protection of Petroleum storage tanks Steel

Zainab Z. Ali; Baha S. Mahdi; Ameen D. Thamer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 12, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.131942.1074

This work studies the protection from corrosion in the inner surface of petroleum storage tanks by applying nano-coating on the AISI1018 steel type used in these tanks. BNi-2 alloy, used as coating layer, was deposited using the DC sputtering technique to obtain protection layers of nano-coating. The cyclic potential dynamic polarization technique is used to study and evaluate the resistant metal to localize corrosion, for example, pitting and crevice corrosion. The samples were evaluated in a 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution using the polarization method to determine the corrosion rate. The input parameters of deposition included ion current 16 mA, vacuum 10-1 mbar, time of deposition was 60 minutes, and the distance between target and substrate was 2.5 cm. The surface roughness of the uncoated specimens was (0.1466 µm), and after coating, it decreased to (0.0933µm). The most important factor that affects the corrosion of the coated steel surface is the surface topography of steel before coating, as it is known that the spattering process coats the facing surface to target better than the inclined surface topography. Therefore, some micro scratches non-coated well worked as nucleation for corrosion as detected in stereo microscope images for coated and uncoated surfaces. By calculating the corrosion rate from cyclic potential dynamic polarization for coated and uncoated workpieces, pitting and crevice corrosion improved approximately ten times compared to the uncoated AISI1018 steel surface.

An Investigation on The Effect of Carbon Nanoparticles on The Properties of Carbon Brushes

Ahmed A. Alasady; M. I. Mohammad; Suleyman Basturk Basturk

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 12, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.135387.1270

The demand for carbon brushes with specific properties and improvements in production economics in recent years has led to increased interest in metal-graphite composites. Metal matrix composites are considered excellent materials to obtain properties superior to those of the constituent phases and meet the specific requirements of material application. In the present study, we suggested a new composite material by utilizing nanomaterials to improve the properties of metal-graphite composite material usually used as carbon brushes. This has been achieved by adding different percentages of 0.1-0.5wt % of carbon nanotubes, carbon nanospheres, or both to the metal matrix composite. The samples were prepared by powder metallurgy technique. The XRD results gave a sharp line and indicated a high crystalline structure and little amorphous, which improved the conductivity performance of the composite produced within the structure of this work. The density measurement chart results showed an increase in the amounts of the carbon nano additives leading to a decrease in the density of the sample. The investigation of nano additives on hardness showed that increases in the additive led to reduced hardness. On the other hand, the resistivity values have reduced gradually when there is an increase in the amounts of the carbon nano additives, especially on the CNT, which gives better results than CNS, which we obtained the resistivity value =(0.32 Ωcm), Comparing with commercial-grade containing free of nano additives (1.3Ω cm).

Evaluation of PCL Electrospun Scaffolds Concentration on Metformin Hydrochloride Release Ratio

Saja A. Moosa; Akram R. Jabur; Emad S. Al-Hassani; Ahmed M. Al-Shammari

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 12, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131990.1079

The study investigates the effect of polycaprolactone (PCL) concentration on the metformin hydrochloride (MH) release ratio of electrospun nanofiber scaffolds. Blend and emulsion electrospinning are used to produce the scaffolds. The performance of nanofibrous scaffolds was evaluated by morphology (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, FESEM), chemical (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, FTIR), thermal (Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC), wettability, porosity, mechanical tests, and in vitro drug release. The average fiber diameter ranged from (189.29-2893.93 nm) according to the FESEM results, and it increased with PCL concentration. The average fiber diameter of the electrospun scaffold, prepared by the blend method (259.64±6.1 nm), is lower than that of the electrospun scaffold produced by the emulsion method (487.45±22.53 nm). Melting points of all drug-loaded scaffolds were identical to those of pure PCL polymer. Compared with blend electrospun nanofibers, emulsion electrospun nanofibers showed a marked increase in hydrophilicity. The tensile strength indicated an improvement in the mechanical properties with a decrease in the average fiber diameter. Moreover, the results show that the release of Metformin hydrochloride decreases with the concentration of polycaprolactone. Total MH release from (5% w/v) PCL-MH fibrous scaffolds for three-week was 71.11 % and 93.91 % from the emulsion and blend methods, respectively. The drug release ratio is lower in emulsion electrospinning than in blend because the drug is encapsulated by polymer and surfactant, which improves control and long-term drug delivery system DDS.

Mechanical Characteristics and Self-Monitoring Technique of Smart Cementitious Mixtures with Carbon Fiber and Graphite Powder as Hybrid Functional Additives

Raid D. Abdullah; Ali Al-Dahawi; Hussein H. Zghair

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1537-1547
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134097.1220

In this paper, the self-sensing properties of cementitious composites under compressive loads were investigated by utilizing hybrid functional fillers, which are responsible for creating an electrical network that is used to build the self-sensing capability within the traditional cement-based mixtures. Most of the previous works depict the self-sensing capability with the aid of one type of functional fillers or fibers. The present paper attempts to utilize two types of functional fillers, representing a gap filling within the subject. Four hybrid proportions of Graphite (G) (wt.%) and carbon fibers (CF) (vol.%) were introduced. These are (0.5, 1.0), (1.0, 0.75), (1.5, 0.50) and (2.0, 0.25) respectively. In addition to carbon-based materials, polypropylene, polyolefin, and steel fibers are used as reinforcing fibers. One type of fiber was utilized in each manufactured mixture with a constant rate of 2% by volume of the mixture. A plain mixture without functional fillers has also been manufactured. The samples were non-destructively tested by an ultrasonic device before a uniaxial compression test was performed. To verify the self-sensing properties of the manufactured samples, the electrical resistance of the samples was recorded during load application each second. The self-sensing behavior was better for mixtures containing high dosages of graphite with respect to the fractional change in electrical resistivity (FCER). Steel and polyolefin fibers showed good results in terms of compressive strength behavior. However, polypropylene fibers showed the lowest compression strength among all types of reinforcing fibers used.

The permeation and Separation Characteristics of Polymeric Membranes Incorporated with Nanoparticles for Dye Removal and Interaction Mechanisms between Polymer and Nanoparticles: A Mini Review

Dalya D. Al-Araji; Faris H. Al-Ani; Qusay F. Alsalhy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1399-1411
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132572.1129

Dyes are an essential group of organic pollutants with a long history of harming aquatic life and humans. Prior to disposal, polluted dye wastewater must be adequately treated to prevent adverse impacts on persons and the environment. Although there are several techniques for dye removal, most of them share a similar drawback: they generate secondary pollution to the environment. Membrane separation is highlighted in this article because it is one of the most efficient dye removal techniques available nowadays due to its high removal capacity, ease of operation, and clean water generation. Polymeric membranes are frequently used in membrane-based separations because of their greater flexibility, ease of pore formation process, and lower cost than other membrane materials. Although polymeric membranes are preferable materials for membrane production, they are usually hydrophobic and, hence, sensitive to fouling. Therefore, much research has been done to modify the polymeric membrane. More recently, metal nanoparticles (NPs) have been introduced to the polymer matrix to minimize fouling potential and enhance membrane performance. This study describes several polymeric membranes utilized in dye separation that have been modified using nanomaterial. Also, the study illustrates how adding these components affects the membranes' performance in rejecting the dye.Additionally, it highlights the importance of membrane-nanomaterial interactions and the effect of these materials' additions on membrane performance over time.

Eco-Sustainable Bridging of Housing Deficit – A Case Study of Nigeria

Olumide A. Towoju; Timothy Adeyi; Kayode Ekun; Omogbolade Adepitan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1487-1491
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133758.1204

Keeping the average global temperature rise below the 1.5oC value over the pre-industrial era requires all hands to be on deck. The energy sector, transportation sector, and the agricultural/land use segment are significant contributors to greenhouse gas emissions responsible for global warming. While there is an ongoing campaign for tree planting to reduce atmospheric CO2 volumes, it is imperative to note that the population explosion in some climes is pushing up the demands for land. The housing deficit in Nigeria is more than twenty million units. Building units are required to bridge the deficit; hence, an attendant forest cover loss. The study aims to propose an eco-sustainable means of bridging the shortfall. Sticking to the practice of a building unit per plot will lead to a CO2 absorption potential loss of about 1.11 billion tonnes over twenty years. However, building more units per plot will be a respite. Ten building units per plot can push down the figures to 0.1115 billion tonnes over the same period and was the best for the considered scenarios. The study showed that the loss of CO2 absorption potential from forest cover loss could be minimized by building more housing units per plot of land.

Assessment of the Effect of Nono-clay on Recycled Asphalt Mixtures Resistance to Moisture

Mays A Jaafar; Hasan H. Joni; Hussein H. Karim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1441-1447
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133022.1164

Introducing nanotechnology to the pavement industry witnessed a great interest due to the proven benefits of nanotechnology in various scientific fields. However, the reduction in the binder's characteristics might be disadvantageous to the durability of the recycled mixture, making it more susceptible to external factors such as moisture. Therefore, using nanotechnology is expected here to treat this issue. The goal of the current paper is to report on the influence of the nano-clay montmorillonite (MMT) powder (MMT k10) on the resistance to moisture in the hot recycled mixtures or the Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement mixtures (RAP mixtures). In this work, different proportions of rejuvenated RAP were employed. These proportions are 30, 40, and 50% as a percent of the overall weight of the mix. The percentages were mixed with a nano-modified neat binder with  (0, 1, 3, and 5)% nono-clay MMT as a proportion of the bitumen’s weight. Two types of mixtures are prepared and used in this paper: nano-modified RAP mixtures and unmodified RAP mixtures. On both types of mixtures, the compressive strength test, the index of retained strength (IRS), the indirect tensile strength tests (ITS), and the tensile strength ratio (TSR) were carried out to compare and evaluate the moisture resistance of rejuvenated RAP mixtures. The experimental test results indicated that using 5 percent nono-clay in regenerated RAP mixes provides better performance than not using it.  where it increased moisture damage resistance by5.53% for IRS value and 3.66% for TSR for 50 percent RAP mixes.

Effect of Glass Wastes on Basic Characteristics of Controlled Low-Strength Materials

Saif S. Abdulmunem; Shatha S. Hasan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1455-1464
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132930.1155

The harnessing of glass waste, which is slow to decompose and has high recycling costs, is in the interest of supporting and stimulating a balanced construction pattern that is interdependent on the living environment. Consumable food and drink bottles are one of these forms of waste that can be calibrated to meet desired specifications. Controlled low-strength materials with low and deliberate strength for future excavation have highly desirable rheological properties, active hardening, and zero or rare separation of materials can be maintained with waste glass substitution. In this study, an experimental evaluation was commenced to estimate the practicality of waste glass (fine and coarse powder) by replacing fly ash and natural sand with it to control low-strength materials. A sum of seven slurry blends was intended by employing several ratios (10%, 30%, and 50%) of fine and coarser waste glass. Some characteristics of plasticity and hardness were observed, such as fine glass decreased flowability. In contrast, coarser glass decreased dramatically, exceeding the minimum limit of 20%, which necessitated the use of superplasticizer in a proportion that corresponds to the increase in the replacement. Unit weight slightly increased with fine glass substitution, but in the Coarser substitution, a steady decrease occurred. The compressive strength of 28 days in fine glass replacement is less than the reference mixture, but it exceeded it at 90 days. A mixture incorporating coarse waste glass was higher at 28 days and developed at 90 days.

Modifying the Properties of Open-Graded Friction Course by Adding Cellulose Fiber

Ahmed J. Muhammed; Zaynab I. Qasim; Rasha H. Al-Rubaee

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1365-1375
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133420.1181

In recent years, Open Graded Friction Course OGFC is becoming more common in some countries. It is applied to improve surface frictional resistance, minimize hydroplaning, reduce water spray, improve night visibility, and lower pavement noise levels. These functions are carried out primarily by removing water from the pavement surface during a period of rain. Also, it has many disadvantages which as poor resistance to permanent deformation, low fatigue strength, high stripping, and moisture susceptibility. The paper aims to investigate the probability of using Cellulose Fiber (CF) as a modifier to improve the properties of OGFC asphalt mixture. In this research, one type of asphalt grade (40-50) and one gradation (19 mm Maximum Aggregate Size MAS) were used. Three percentages of CF (2%, 4%, and 6%) were added to asphalt cement to obtain the modified mixtures. Optimum asphalt content was selected by evaluating the following criteria: air voids content, asphalt drain down, abrasion resistance, and permeability. Several laboratory tests such as Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS), moisture susceptibility, Marshall stability, and flow were evaluated for modified samples, and their results were compared to the original open-graded asphalt mixture. The outcomes indicated that cellulose fiber greatly enhanced the mechanical properties of OGFC mixtures, increasing moisture damage resistance by 19.4%. Furthermore, Marshall stability improved by 38.92 % as the abrasion loss is decreased by 15.85% with adding of CF for aged samples.

Measurement of the Lateral Earth Pressure Coefficient of Clayey Soils by Modified Oedometer Test

Kumail R. Alkhafaji; Mohammed Y. Fattah; Makki K. Al-Recaby

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1376-1384
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.131675.1046

The coefficient of lateral earth pressure at rest (K0) explains the connection between the effective vertical and lateral stresses. Geotechnical engineers have studied K0 for many years for its being a key element in the designs and analysis of various geotechnical problems such as slope stability, piles, and earth retaining structures. Moreover, K0 has played a critical phase in any numerical study of the soil-water combined geotechnical boundary value issues requiring parametric stress-strain time formulations During the previous few decades. A modified apparatus consisting of a standard Oedometer equipped with Force Sensitive Resistance (FSR) is used to investigate the value of lateral pressure () due to the vertical stress. The Oedometer test is carried out on three samples with different organic contents, with the K0 values obtained from each sample; empirical equations were also used to estimate K0 values for comparison purposes. From the analysis of the results, it can be stated that the K0 value is inversely proportional to the organic matter percent in the soil. It varies from 0.6125 in soil with 25.1% organic percent to 0.76 at a percent of 9.8%. The Force Sensitive Resistance (FSR) technique's performance is practical enough for estimating lateral earth pressure at rest (K0) of normally consolidated organic soil with many advantages; it is far less time-consuming and has a low operating cost than the traditional K0 estimate methods. Furthermore, K0 decreases with the increase of organic content.

Effects of Curing Temperature and Chemical Admixture Type on Fresh Properties and Compressive Strength of Ultra High-performance Concrete

Khaldon K. Aswed; Maan S. Hassan; Hussein Al-Quraishi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1448-1454
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132300.1103

The types of post-setting curing and high range water reducing (HRWR) admixture used in Ultra-High-Performance Concrete (UHPC) mixtures play significant roles in determining their rheological and mechanical properties. This study compares the performance of three types of HRWR admixtures commercially available when added to UHPC mixtures under three different curing regimes. Mixtures made with the different superplasticizers were evaluated for their flow, 45mins flow retention, and setting time as fresh mix properties. Compressive strength was also tested for each mixture after 3, 7, and 28 days of curing at the investigated various curing regimes. Sika Viscocrete 180GS produced the highest mixture flow and flow retention levels with a 241 mm flow and 93.7% flow retention. Sika Viscocrete 168-1 produced the best results of setting time with 3 hours as compared to 12 hours with Sika Viscocrete 180GS. Using Hyperplast PC-202, the required 150 MPa compressive strength was secured as early as 3 days of curing with a 48hrs-90ºC curing regime. Using the same HRWR admixture, compressive strength values slightly lower than 150 MPa were reached after 7-28 days when the 72hrs-60ºC regime was adopted. The last curing regime was recommended for producing architectural UHPC units to minimize the delayed formation of ettringite.

Analyzing Drivers’ Speed Behavior on Various Roads in Baghdad City

Aaisha Jasim; Rasha H. Al-Rubaee

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1529-1536
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131931.1073

This study investigates the driver behavior of a certain number of drivers using a questionnaire method. The questionnaire contains a part of drivers' demographics, including age, gender, and the type of transportation most used by the drivers. It was divided into three parts. Each part deals with a specific type of road in Baghdad City: multi-lane, two-lane, and local. The questions were about the number of times they drove the vehicle on each type of road, the speed at which they drove the vehicle and did not cause accidents, the distance traveled during the last week on each type of road, and the number of times the speed limit was exceeded. The most prominent reasons for increasing the speed of drivers were also indicated, and solutions were suggested to reduce the speed of drivers. The results show that the driver's age was considered an important factor in the driver’s behavior. It was found that the older the driver, the more committed he was to the proposed speed limits for each type of road. In addition, spreading public awareness about speed reduction to reduce violations and accidents is vital.

Hydrodynamic Model-Based Evaluation of Sediment Transport Capacity for the Makhool-Samarra Reach of Tigris River

Ala H. Nama; Ali S. Abbas; Jaafar S. Maatooq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1573-1588
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.135747.1282

This paper implemented an HEC-RAS-based steady two-dimensional hydrodynamic model to evaluate the hydraulic characteristics and Sediment Transport Capacity (STC) of the Makhool-Samarra Reach of the Tigris River, where this part is not already investigated. This model was prepared with the aid of topographical surveys, hydraulic measurements, and laboratory tests, as well as recorded data. The main findings show that the flow velocities within most of the studied reach are considered high compared to the local and worldwide flow velocity ranges in natural rivers. Also, the Toffaleti sediment transport function with the Van Rijn fall velocity and the effective depth-to-width computation methods are the most compatible and suitable methods for computing the Sediment Transport Potential (STP) in the studied reach. With the maximum flow, the computed STP was less than the average (5.7×106 tons/day) in 45% of the reach length, where the maximum STP is  8.7×106 tons/day. However, with the minimum flow, the STP intermittently fluctuates below the average (0.2×106 tons/day) in 48% of the reach length, where the minimum STP is 0.14×106 tons/day. Generally, these STPs are little more than the Tigris River in Mosul and much higher than that in Baghdad. Also, these STPs are considered high on a global scale, especially during high flow. Medium gravel is the larger grain gradation class that can be transported. It constitutes less than 0.00005 % of the STP. Furthermore, the STC computations clearly show that the suspended sediment is the dominant part of the STC and the bed material constitutes less than 0.002% of the STC of the total load. However, most of the STC concerns the clay and very fine silt.

Integrated Approach for Land Surface Temperature Assessment in Different Topography of Iraq

zainab K. Jabal; Thair S. Khayyun; Imzahim A. Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1465-1486
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134581.1241

Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a critical parameter for water resources and hydrology investigation. Weather ground stations provide a continuous dataset on the LST. However, some stations rely on discrete events data, which shows limited capabilities to monitor diurnal and annual changes in LST. Remote Sensing technology provided much valid information by using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to cover LST variations in Iraq. This study aims to analyze LST variation based on MOD11C3 Data with weather ground measurements stations for the different topography periods between 2000-2020. Different statistical parameters were used to validate LST results, including RSME; NSE; R2, and Parson Correlation. The results indicate agreement between MODIS and ground measurement stations during the winter season. The values ranged: RSME (close to zero); NSE (0 to 1); R 2(between 0.5 and 1), and Parson Correlation (between 0.51 to 1).In spring, the values ranged: R 2(between 0.5 and 1) and Parson Correlation (between 0.51 to 1). As the temperature rises during seasonal changes, the congruence in the four statistical indicators begins to decline dramatically. However, Baghdad, Basra, and Mosul stations still appear in good agreement, which is the validity of the data issued by MOD11C3. The finding presented in this research shows that the results of the LST by MOD11C3 are in good agreement and acceptable despite in various topographies of the ground stations.

Accuracy Assessment of Establishing 3D Real Scale Model in Close-Range Photogrammetry with Digital Camera

Ali H. Hadi; Abbas Z. Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1492-1509
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132233.1097

Three-dimensional (3D) real scale models delivered from digital photogrammetric techniques have rapidly increased to meet the requirements of many applications in different fields of daily life. This paper deals with the establishment of a 3D real scale model from a block of images (18 images) that were captured by using Canon EOS 500D digital camera to cover a test field area consisting of 90  artificial target points, 25 of them are ground control points (GCPs) while the remains are checkpoints (CPs). The analytical photogrammetric processes including the calculation of interior orientation parameters (IOPs) of the camera during the camera calibration process, exterior orientation parameters (EOPs) of the camera in each capturing, and the object space (ground) coordinates of the model are calculated simultaneously based on collinearity equation using bundle block adjustment method (BBA). Assessment and validation of the accuracy of the results is an important task in this study that was implemented to determine and analyze the errors of 3D coordinates through linear regression analysis (LRA). Root mean square error (RMSE) is the statistical parameter that was used in the statistical analysis of results. The standard error is another statistical parameter which also used to evaluate the accuracy of locations and rotation angles (EOPs) of cameras. The total RMSE (RMSE)xyz of GCPs is ± 2.530 mm while the total RMSE (RMSExyz) of CPs is ± 2.740 mm. The overall accuracy of the work is 5.000 mm.

Potential Impact of Global Warming on Climate and Streamflow of Adhaim River Basin, Iraq

Fouad H. Saeed; Mahmoud S. Al-Khafaji; Furat Al-Faraj

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1510-1521
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133474.1188

Global warming induces to increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and plays a crucial role in determining the future trend in climatology and hydrology of a watershed. This paper aims to investigate the implications of global warming on future climate and its consequents on streamflow of the Adhaim River Basin (ARB). For this purpose, the Long Ashton Research Station-Weather Generator (LARS-WG) and Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)-Based models were implemented. The climate and hydrologic records for the period 1990-2019 were used as a Reference Period (RP) and projected to 2080 under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5) and five Global Climate Models (GCMs). The results show that the region of ARB tends to become hotter and drier with an increase in mean temperature by 1.2, 2.9, and 4.6 °C under the considered RCPs, respectively. However, precipitation tends to decrease from 366 mm/y in RP to 320.2, 302, and 300.5 mm/y by 2080 under the considered RCPs. Consequently, the streamflow will decrease to about 28, 26, and 24 m3/s by 2080 under the considered RCPs, respectively, compared with 28.96 m3/s in RP. Therefore, adaptation strategies are highly recommended to alleviate the negative impacts of climate change, and the implications of climate change on groundwater, water demand, and adaptation plans should be investigated in future studies.

An Experimental and Theoretical Studies Wings Piles at Different Sandy Soil Densities

taha K. Mahdi; Mohammed A. Al-Neami; Falah H. Raheel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1422-1431
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132336.1104

Increasing the cross-sectional area of the piles or adding wings to the piles are two strategies for increasing the bearing capacity of the piles to resist lateral stresses. Small and full-scale finite element models were used to investigate the effect of adding the wings on the laterally loaded pile bearing capacity in this study. Four embedded ratios (4, 6, 8, and 10) were used with various wing dimensions and numbers. The results showed that adding wings to the pile increases the resistance to lateral loads and reduces the lateral displacement significantly. +To achieve the highest lateral resistance, the wings should be fixed parallel to the lateral load applied to the pile and close to the pile head. The ultimate lateral applied load is proportional to the rise in relative density. The lateral pile capacity was increased by 16.5%, 18.4%, and 33% in dense, medium, and loose sand, respectively, at the same length to diameter ratio (L/D). Increasing wing length improves lateral capacity significantly. At a failure, the lateral pile capacity was 18% and 8.5 % for Lw, equal to 112 mm and 56 mm, respectively. Another study's purpose was to determine how increasing the number of wings affected pile resistance. The lateral pile capacity at failure was increased by 9.8 % for two wings, 18.4 % for three wings, and 18 % for four wings.

Effect of Date Palm Derived Biochar on Soil’s Bulk Density, pH, and Nitrogen Content

Aola H. F. Tahir; Faris H. Al-Ani; AbdulHameed M. J. Al Obaidy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1358-1364
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.132003.1082

The use of biochar as a soil amendment has been the focus of many studies. It is believed to improve soil characteristics and increase crop yields. Still, a diverse range of feedstocks needs to be researched and converted to biochar for environmental purposes.To achieve sustainable biochar, it is favorable to be derived from residues available locally, and particularly interesting are those that have been turned to biochar near the application area. This study investigates the effects of locally date palm-derived biochars produced at four different temperatures (250, 350, 450, and 550oC) for 60 minutes on soil physicochemical properties, mainly; pH, bulk density, and total nitrogen availability. The biochar application ratios were 5% and 10% by weight to each soil sample. The soil was gathered from a local farm near Al-Kargoulia, textured as clay loam, and had a total nitrogen content of 25 mg/kg. From mixing through incubation, the experiment lasted 30 days. Biochars produced at (250-350oC) have a minor impact on soil characteristics, whereas biochar produced at (450-550oC) had a higher effect on soil properties. Bulk density was decreased due to biochar’s high porosity (up to 90%), while pH increased from 7.23 to 8.5. In contrast, nitrogen was affected highly and increased to 32.33 mg/kg.

Sustainable High-Performance Concrete Reinforced with Hybrid Steel Waste Fibers

Zainab A. Jabbar; Wassan I. Khalil

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1412-1421
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131833.1063

This research aims to study the benefit of using fibers made from waste materials in concrete and evaluate the ability to use these fibers as a substitute for commercial fibers. Different aspect ratios of alternative fibers formed from cut steel tied wire waste were utilized. This material is selected because of its low price and wide availability. Two concrete mixes with 15% waste crushed clay brick coarse aggregate reinforced with different volume fractions of 1.0 and 1.5% and an aspect ratio of 40 were prepared. Also, three concrete mixes reinforced with a hybrid aspect ratio of 40 and 65 of tied wire waste steel fibers (TWWSF) with different volume fractions of 1.0% and 1.5% were prepared. The compressive, splitting tensile, flexural strengths, and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV)  of all prepared concrete mixes were tested. The results illustrate that the inclusion of tied wire waste steel fibers significantly enhances the strength of concrete with 15% waste crushed clay brick coarse aggregate, and high-performance concrete with compressive strength of up to 85 MPa can be produced. The enhancement in compressive, splitting, and flexural strengths were 29%, 42.8%, and 38%, respectively, for concrete reinforced with a fiber aspect ratio of 40 and volume fraction of 1.5%. In comparison, for the same volume fraction, the percentage was 22%, 48%, and 44%, respectively, for equal content of hybrid aspect ratio of 40 and 65.

Analytical Solution for the Static Bending Elastic Analysis of Thick Rectangular Plate Structures Using 3-D Plate Theory

Festus C. Onyeka; Chidobere D. Nwa-David; Thompsom E. Edozie

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1548-1559
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134687.1244

In the current work, an analytical solution for static bending analysis of the thick rectangular plate structure was obtained using three-dimensional plate theory. First, the energy equation was formulated from the static elastic principles and transformed into a compatibility equation through general variation to get the slope and deflection relationship. The solution of the compatibility equation gave rise to the exact polynomial deflection function. In contrast, the coefficient of deflection and shear deformation of the plate was obtained from the governing equation through the direct variation method. These solutions were used to obtain the characteristic expression for analyzing the displacement and stresses of a rectangular plate. This formula was used for the solution of the bending problem of rectangular plate support conditions of two clamped edges, one free edge, and a simply-supported edge (CCFS). The result of the deflection and stresses decreases as the span-thickness ratio increases. More so, the aspect ratio effect of the shear stress of isotropic plates is investigated and discussed after a comparative analysis between the present work and previous studies. The result shows that the present study differs with RPT) of assumed deflection by 2.7%, whereas exact 2-D RPT by 1.9%. This shows the efficacy of the exact 3-D plate theory for rectangular plate analysis under CCFS support and loading condition.

The Performance of Helical Pile under Cyclic Load Using 3D-Finite Element Analysis

ahmed S. shakir; Nahla M. Salim; Husam H. Baqir

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1522-1528
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.131271.1027

Helical piles are a kind of foundation that can withstand compression, tension, and lateral stresses. However, this kind of pile was utilized extensively globally for almost 25 years. Its behavior, particularly in Iraq, is uncertain and frightening. The current research used the finite element technique to analyze this kind of pile. The helical pile geometry was suggested to be modeled using the finite element method using the computer software Plaxis 3D The soil used is medium sandy soil. Additionally, parametric analyses were conducted. The primary parametric research examines the impact of helix number, helix spacing, helix diameter, and helix configuration under cyclic load. The main results are more helices in a pile, the lower the amplitude of settlement (in the direction of z) compared to a pile without helices. As a result, the amplitude of settlement in the case of two helices decreased by 81.6 %, while the amplitude of settlement in the case of three-helix decreased by 77.74 %. In the case of three helices, the higher spacing between the helices, the lower the value of the amplitude of settlement (in the direction of z). The effect of the number of helices in the hardening soil model is more than the effect of the number of helices in the Mohr-Coulomb. As a final result, increasing the number of helices in a pile has a more significant effect in reducing the amplitude of settlement than increasing the between the helices.

Ecotourist and Picnic Area Assessment Using AHP Analytical Tools in Sulaimani– Tourism Region, Iraq

Awa A Ahmad; Ako R. Hama; Imzahim A. Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1560-1572
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.135165.1263

Renovation of the naturally existing area for ecotourist and investments that attracting site-visitors, picnickers and tourists for Iraq, Kurdistan Region, Sulaimani need to promote a reliable decision-making technique so as to raise the level of the tourist-based economy. In this study, the most available public well known and recognized tourist and picnic area by the people and associated governmental directories were studied and assessed for their tourism reliability and capacity. The study area of this research covered tourist area and they were forty-three (43) locations and all the related data collected, analyzed and categorized as main and sub-main criterions. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) has been used for assessment of that area which was ranked accordingly from the highest to lowest capacity and efficiency’s reliability of tourism. The opinion of experts from tourism agencies, related tourism officials and people from the local area also taken into consideration and translated and used in the AHP assessment tool. Weight factors of the main and sub-main criterions were founded and analyses for their inconsistency. The main criterions and their pairwise weights as per AHP assessment were climate, available green area, root distance, easy of transportation, essential requirements, entertainment tools, provided security and healthcare, respectively. 

Influence of Adding Plant Fly Ash on The Geotechnical Properties and Pollution of Sanitary Landfill Soil

abdalrahman A. Salim; Zainab B. Mohammed; Mohamed Y. Fattah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1385-1398
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132687.1136

This paper investigates the impact of the plant fly ash (dry tree leaves) addition on the geotechnical properties of the landfill soil, where an engineering laboratory landfill simulating a real landfill was manufactured. Two percentages of plant fly ash (10% and 15%) were used to reduce or prevent the penetration of heavy metals resulting from the decomposition of landfill waste into the soil and conducting laboratory tests such as the Atterberg test, specific gravity test, compaction test, permeability test, SEM test, and heavy metals analysis. The results of laboratory tests indicate a decrease in the plastic limit and the liquid limit with the addition of plant fly ash, as well as a decrease in the specific gravity and a decrease in dry unit weight with an increase in the need for water content when adding plant fly ash. In contrast, the permeability increased with the addition of plant fly ash. In the most important laboratory test, which is the chemical analysis of soil metals, the soil improved with plant fly ash gave results indicating a lower level of metals pollution at depths of (10 cm, 20 cm, and 30 cm) of soil layer compared to natural soil. The analysis was conducted on 7 basic pollutants (cadmium, copper, iron, Manganese, Zinc, Chromium, and lead), where the percentage of pollutants decreased in improved soil compared to natural soil under the same conditions by (50%, 74%, 62%, 68%, 60%, 68%, and 55%) respectively.

Dynamic Response of Deepwater Pile Foundation Bridge Piers under Current-wave and Earthquake Excitation

Riyadh Alsultani; Ibtisam R. I Karim; Saleh I. Khassaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1589-1604
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.135776.1285

Pile foundation bridges are structures extending in the middle of the sea, so they are subject to currents, waves, and earthquake forces. This article presents a hybrid simulation that was used with input excitations of different current velocities, wave properties, and earthquake amplitudes to assess the non-linear dynamic behavior of pile foundation bridge piers. Based on the interface between MATLAB and ABAQUS software, the general formulations of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) under combined current-wave and earthquake loads are derived. Hydrodynamic and earthquake loading is consistently introduced by creating synthetic time histories of combined current-wave actions and spatially variable ground motion. The behavior of the dynamic model of a deepwater pile foundation bridge for the Songhua River in northeast China was adopted as an example of the study. The accuracy of the created model was verified using prior experimental and analytical computations. It is demonstrated how both linear and nonlinear dynamic behavior performs at various water depths under coupled current-wave-earthquake loading conditions. Revealing interesting aspects, particularly in terms of relative displacement, acceleration, shear, and moment response are shown. The results showed that the hybrid model is an efficient of simulating accurate predictions of the hydrodynamic pressure during earthquake actions for structures in coastal areas.

Enhancement of the Rutting Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures at Different High Temperatures Using Waste Polyethylene Polymer

Hasan H. Joni; Ali H. AL-Rubaie

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1432-1440
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131179.1008

The temperature and stress caused by the load can be cited as two main parameters leading to breakage in asphalt pavement, especially rutting (permanent deformation). So, to reduce the problems of rutting of roads, several actions have been taken, including improving pavement quality and the structure design methods. The increase in the attention of respective engineers in the last few years to modify and improve the asphalt performance through providing different types of additives and replacing the raw materials of asphalt mixture with recycled materials to improve the environment and reduce the cost of modified pavement mixture. This study discussed the use of low-density waste polyethylene as an asphalt modifier in percentages of (2, 4, and 6) % by the weight of asphalt and their impact on the performance of asphalt mixtures at high temperatures. This study showed that using plastic waste (low-density polyethylene) as a bitumen modifier improved the performance of asphalt mixtures at different high temperatures. This was achieved by reducing the rut depth by (80.5) % and (82.3) % at temperatures of 50 C and 60 C, respectively, using low-density polyethylene waste at an optimum value of about 4% by weight of asphalt in addition to enhancing the Marshall stability by using this percentage of polymer.

A Numerical Analysis on Pullout Capacity of Batter Pile Groups in Sandy Soil

Mais S. Al-Tememy; Mohammed A. Al-Neami; Mohammed F. Asswad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1352-1357
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131818.1062

Batter piles or raker piles are the piles driven in the soil at an inclination with the vertical to resist inclined forces or large lateral loads. Battered piles are widely utilized to support offshore buildings, towers, and bridges since these structures are risky due to the exposure to overturning moments resulting from winds, waves, and ship impact. This paper used a three-dimensional finite element analysis using PLAXIS 3D software to study the effect of several variables that affect the behavior of batter piles in a group under pullout loads. The study is conducted on a steel pipe pile model embedded in a dry sandy soil with three different relative densities (loose, medium, and dense sand) at different inclination angles and three embedment ratios L/D of 25, 37.5, and 50, respectively. The finite element model was carried out on a pile group of 2×1 with different configurations. The numerical results indicated that for all pile configurations, the pullout capacity of the batter pile group increased when the embedded ratio and relative density increased, and the maximum value was attained at a 20° batter angle. Furthermore, batter pile groups with BB (group with two battered piles) configuration of (-20°, +20°) gave a high resistance to the pullout load compared to other configurations of the pile group. In addition, pile Groups with battered piles marked the resistance to the pullout load more than pile groups that contain only the vertical piles.

A Survey on Load Balancing, Routing, and Congestion in SDN

Amthal K. Mousa; Mohammed N. Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 10, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132886.1150

High traffic could result in load imbalance or network congestion, which degrades the network’s performance and efficiency. Thus, it is crucial to adopt efficient routing and load balancing models to face these challenging issues. Additionally, when investigating a new approach, it is essential to consider the most important metrics to evaluate this potential approach precisely. This paper presents an intensive analysis of recently available SDN-based load balancing and routing techniques. Furthermore, the features and issues of each technique are stated. Moreover, the most important metrics that should be evaluated are statically analyzed. Also, a brief survey of available network congestion solutions is shown. Additionally, taxonomies of available load balancing, routing techniques, and congestion solutions are presented. Finally, we shed light on the trends, promising techniques, and future directions’ suggestions that could be utilized further in research. Investigating SDN-based research published by well-known academic publishers in the last six years shows that enhancing network performance and AI-based approaches are the highest investigated topics with 28% and 27%, respectively, of the total investigated issues. Other topics took lower percentages. As far as we know, this study is the first work that jointly surveys and categorizes all existing approaches in the field of decreasing delay and congestion in SDN-based networks

Bio-Treatment Technologies of Produced Water: A Review

Rana A. Azeez; Firas K. Al-Zuhairi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 9, Pages 1216-1230
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.131480.1040

Petroleum is a vital source of energy for most human activities. The growth of the oil and gas sector is associated with releasing a significant amount of produced water (PW) from onshore and offshore fields. Thus, undesirable toxic pollutants in produced water have become a major concern for those concerned with environmental issues. Therefore, interest in recycling and beneficial reuse of pollutants has increased due to large amounts of PW. In general, various physical and chemical technologies and bio-treatments for PW or combined between them are applied. Bio-treatment is preferred due to its efficiency and eco-friendly compared with other PW treatments. To clarify the prospective role of PW bio-treatments, this review highlights the main bio-treatment technologies in aerobic and anaerobic conditions to reduce salinity, organic components, and toxicity from PW. Also, challenges of environmental factors for PW and future research directions are included. Activated sludge is an essential part of aerobic bio-treatments of polluted water as inoculum rich in microbial cells that can degrade pollutants. Membrane bioreactors (MBR), fluidized bed bioreactors (FBBs), aerated biological filter (BAF), and aeration lagoons are also reviewed. Moreover, bio-treatments are extended to include anaerobic conditions. Furthermore, bio-treatment techniques can treat organic compounds of wastewater, especially with low oil concentrations and poor solubility that cannot be treated with conventional treatments. 

Use of TiO2 in Photocatalysis for Air Purification and Wastewater Treatment: A Review

Seba S. Mohammed; Zainab Y. Shnain; Mohammad F. Abid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 9, Pages 1131-1143
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131177.1015

This study reviews recent research on the synthesis and application of titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based photocatalysts for environmental applications. The principles of non-homogenous photo-catalysis include utilizing a solid semiconductor, such as titanium dioxide Nano or macro, to form a stable suspension (heterogeneous phase) at the impact of irradiation to elevate a reaction at the surface interface of the different phases in the system. Recently, titanium dioxide has been considered the better semiconductor in non-homogenous photoinduced treatment. TiO2-based photocatalysts have broad applications for industrial processes because of their exceptional physicochemical properties. Nevertheless, having a narrow band near the ultraviolet region limits its applications within visible radiation. As a result of this, there have been considerable research efforts to improve the visible light tendency of TiO2 through modifications of its optical and electronic properties. Several strategies, such as coupling TiO2 tightly and incorporating other metallic components during synthesis, have increased the bandgap of TiO2 for visible light applications. Moreover, an overview of nanotechnology that could enhance the properties of TiO2-based catalysts in an environmentally friendly way to decompose pollutants is also presented. The various TiO2-based photocatalysts have wide applications in degrading recalcitrant pollutants in the air, water, and wastewater treatment under visible light.

Recent Development in Hydrodynamic and Heat Transfer Characteristics in the Three-phase Fluidized-bed System

Omar S. Mahdy; Amer A. Abdulrahmn; Jamal M. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 9, Pages 1179-1204
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132506.1125

Gas–liquid-solid fluidized beds are broadly utilized in the petrochemical, pharmaceutical, refining, food, biotechnology, and environmental industries. Due to complex phenomena, such as the particle-particle, liquid-particle, particle-bubble interactions, complex hydrodynamics, and heat transfer of three-phase (gas-liquid-solid) fluidized beds, they are incompletely understood. The ability to accurately predict the essential characteristics of the fluidized-bed system, such as hydrodynamics, individual phase mixing, and heat transfer parameters, is necessary for its successful design and operation. This paper investigates the pressure drop, minimum fluidization velocity, phase holdup, heat-transfer coefficient of a fluidized bed reactor, heat transfer studies, CFD simulation, and the effect of these parameters on the extent of fluidization. Many variables (fluid flow rate, particle density and size, fluid inlet, and bed height) affect the fluidizing quality and performance of the fluidization process. The hydrodynamics parameters, mixing of phases, and the behavior of heat transfer with various modes of fluidization were investigated to predict hydrodynamics parameters. Several publications have demonstrated the utility of (CFD) in explaining the hydrodynamics, heat, and mass transfer of fluidized beds. Principles of measurement, details of the experimental configurations, and the applied techniques by various researchers are also presented. Feng's model was statistically validated using experimental data that was both time-averaged and time-dependent. Furthermore, this model successfully predicted the instantaneous flow structures, which should provide strategies for the best design, scale-up, and operation in fluidized bed columns. The divergence between the simulated and observed values can be reduced by better understanding the fluidized bed's nature.

Desulfurization of Real Diesel Fuel onto Mesoporous Silica MCM-41 Implementing Batch Adsorption Process: Equilibrium, Kinetics, and Thermodynamic Studies

Ammar T. Kadhum; Talib M. Albayati

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 9, Pages 1144-1157
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132385.1110

In the current work, sulfur was removed from actual diesel fuel containing 1.2 wt.% sulfur from the Al-Dura Oil Refinery (Iraq), which was studied using adsorption desulfurization with the spherical mesoporous silica MCM-41. This study investigated the effects of different operating conditions, including the dose of MCM-41 (0.04-0.2 gm), time (60-180 min), and temperature (30-70°C). The optimal working conditions were determined to be 0.4 gm MCM-41, 180 min, and 70°C. After exploring the isotherm models of Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin, Temkin models with a correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9996) were selected to best represent the stable data. The kinetics of sulfur components on MCM-41 were studied using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and intra-particle diffusion. A pseudo-first-order adsorption kinetic model with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9867 can accurately represent the adsorption process. Gibbs free energy (ΔGo), enthalpy (ΔHo), and entropy (ΔSo) were calculated as thermodynamic parameters. The adsorption of total sulfur-containing compounds onto mesoporous silica was spontaneous, endothermic, and increased the irregularity of the sulfur compounds on the surface of the adsorbent. The total sulfur content of actual diesel fuel was reduced from 1.2% to 0.84%, corresponding to a desulfurization efficiency of 29.72%. Consequently, the findings of this study might be used as a starting point for future research.

Produced Water Deoxygenation via Nitrogen Purging Scheme– Parametric Study – Part 2

Salam K. Al Dawery; Wameath S. AbdulMajeed; Saada Al Shukaili; Chandramouli Thotireddy; Ibrahim Al Amri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 9, Pages 1260-1274
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134758.1248

In this following up paper, we present our findings by examining a pilot scale gasification column and applying nitrogen purging for samples of produced water grafted with different polyacrylamide concentrations (100 – 500 ppm). Upon applying a semi-batch, counter-current scheme for a series of experiments on packed gas-lift column, zero ppm level of dissolved oxygen (DO) was reached within less than 1 minute of nitrogen purging from the start time applied for solutions with viscosity less than 10 mPa.s and using the inline measuring scheme. However, zero ppm DO level was not reachable when purging produced water (PW) samples grafted with fresh polyacrylamide with a viscosity higher than 10 mPa.s. Nonetheless, the residues of DO were detected by offline measuring after examining the higher viscosity samples in the shallow limit (less than 0.4 ppm DO) and reached zero ppm when applying the inline measuring scheme. Two operation mode schemes, circulation, and once-through, were applied. Upon investigating the once-through contact scheme, the adopted nitrogen purging method was effective in reaching zero ppm level in less than 2 minutes, which is an excellent result compared with other well-known treatment techniques.

Experimental investigation on heat transfer in a gas-solid fluidized bed with a bundle of heat exchanging tubes

Zahraa W. Hasan; Jamal Ali; Abbas Sultan; Laith S. Sabri; Maryam Tariq; Hussein Ghalib; Muthanna Al-Dahhan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 9, Pages 1105-1116
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132101.1094

A fluidized bed reactor is commonly used for highly exothermic reactions for different chemical industrial processes. However, inefficient removal of the generated heat due to the exothermic reaction can seriously influence reactor performance. Hence, quantifying and understanding the heat transfer phenomena in this reactor is essential to enhance the performance of the reactor and consequently the chemical process. To achieve a better quantification and understanding of the heat transport in this reactor, an advanced heat transfer technique has been used in this study to quantify the impact of the presence of the cooling tubes on the local heat transfer coefficient under different operating conditions for this reactor. It has been found that the local heat transfer coefficient in the fluidized bed reactor equipped with a bundle of vertical tubes increases significantly as superficial gas velocity increases at the wall region, while different behavior was noticed at the center of the reactor. Moreover, the results show that the local heat transfer significantly decreases at the reactor's core region for all studied superficial gas velocities. Furthermore, the new tube arrangement offers a uniform local heat transfer profile for all studied operating conditions. The obtained new high-quality experimental data for the local heat transfer coefficient in a fluidized bed reactor equipped with a bundle of tubes can be used for validation CFD simulations or mathematical models, facilitating the design, scale up, and operation of this reactor.

Produced Water Deoxygenation: Investigation of Nitrogen Purging scheme– Parametric Study – Part1

Salam Al Dawery; Wameath AbdulMajeed; Saada Al Shukaili; Chandramouli Thotireddy; Ibrahim Al Amri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 9, Pages 1090-1104
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133677.1200

Produced water (PW) is water that comes out of the well with the crude oil during crude oil production. The quality of produced water varies significantly based on the geochemistry of the producing formation, the type of hydrocarbon produced, and the characteristics of the producing well. A well-known obstacle hindering the re-use of the produced water, in different sectors, is the high content of dissolved oxygen (DO) as it can cause corrosion and polymer degradation. In this study, we report the experimental investigations for de-oxygenating samples of PW collected from Omani oil fields via a gas lift unpacked and packed column. Two types of packing (polyethylene rushing rings and spherical glass balls) were used. Upon treating the PW samples grafted with different concentration of polyacrylamide; 100-500 ppm, through different purging techniques at various N2 throughputs, a considerable reduction in the content of the dissolved oxygen (from saturation level to less than 1 ppm) was detected in the first duration (3 minutes). Upon examining purging durations up to 300 minutes, the DO removal efficiency was slightly improved; however, residues of DO (approaching 0.5 ppm) was left unremoved which indicates the necessity for elaborating another approach for treating the shallow DO levels.

Hydroisomerization of n-Heptane in a Fixed-Bed Reactor Using a Synthesized Bimetallic Type-HY Zeolite Catalyst

Younus H. Khalaf; Bashir Y. Sherhan; Zaidoon M. Shakour

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 9, Pages 1158-1170
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132491.1124

The synthesis of NaY-zeolite was performed hydrothermally. The preparation of the bifunctional catalysts was achieved by loading NH4Y-zeolite with a cheap Zr metal, as a second loading metal, with tiny amounts of Pt to compose a Pt-Zr/Y-zeolite catalyst. Different characterization methods (i.e., XRD, SEM, EDX, BET, and AFM) were used to investigate the catalyst properties. The catalytic performance was studied by performing the hydroisomerization of n-heptane in a gas phase at a temperature of 275°C and atmospheric pressure in a fixed-bed reactor. The GC-FID results of the products confirmed the positive role of Zr in enhancing the catalytic features, as reflected by the increase in the isomerized products and the decrease in the unwanted by-products. Incorporating 1.0wt%Zr with 1.0wt% of Pt significantly improved the activity and selectivity and increased the yield of branched alkanes. This was achieved because the addition of zirconium provided an extraordinary Lewis acidity to the zeolite-framework structure and simultaneously took advantage of the electronic and catalytic properties of Zr and Pt metals to enhance its novel catalytic features. This reduced the amount of Pt metal and halved the cost of the catalyst. In addition, the bimetallic catalyst (HY-zeolite loaded with 1wt%Pt & 1wt%Zr) achieved values of 74.2, 78.8, and 58.5mol% for conversion, selectivity, and yield, respectively. The conversion was improved to a level close to 2wt% Pt/HY-zeolite catalyst, while selectivity was not significantly decreased from that of 2wt% Zr/HY-zeolite catalyst, reaching a yield level of isomers close to that of 2wt% Pt/HY-zeolite catalysts.

Improved Water-Based Mud Rheological Properties and Shale-Inhibition Behavior by Using Aluminum Oxide and Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

Hasan A. Abbood; Ibtehal K. Shakir

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 9, Pages 1171-1178
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134176.1226

Nanotechnology can be used to develop drilling fluid additives that can improve the drilling fluid's properties. Using two types of nanoparticle (NP) additives in water-based drilling fluids have been studied in this paper. Three major drilling mud systems, namely potassium chloride (KCl) as a basic mud, KCl/aluminum oxide (Al2O3) NPs, and KCl/iron (Fe2O3) NPs, were prepared and studied for enhancement of rheological properties and shale inhibition. It was found that the drilling mud contained NPs in concentrations of 0.25, 0. 5, 0.75, and 1 g. Al2O3 and Fe2O3 NPs added to KCl/polymer mud systems resulted in a 50% and 30% change in shale volume, respectively. The results demonstrated that incorporating NPs into the KCL mud system enhanced shale inhibition. Adding NPs to the KCL-WBM increased yield point, plastic viscosity, and gel strength. The COF of KCL-polymer was reduced by 48% and 34% when added Al2O3 and Fe2O3 NPs at 0.5 and 0.75g, respectively. When Al2O3 and Fe2O3 NPs were used, particularly at 1g, the amount of mud filtration decreased from 13.1ml to 8.8 ml and 8.4 ml, respectively. Overall, it was found that adding Al2O3 and Fe2O3 NPs to the KCl-WBM can improve rheological, swelling, and filtration properties as well as lubrication.

New Developments in Inhibition of the Sweet Environment in a Variety of Corrosive Media: A Review

Wasan F. Hameed; Khalid H. Rashid; Anees A. Khadom

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 9, Pages 1117-1130
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132127.1093

This paper aims to look at how pipeline steel and crude oil storage tanks resist corrosion in aqueous carbon dioxide (CO2) environments. To this aim, we have studied different inhibitors, particularly the heterocyclic inhibitor, which is used to prevent mild steel corrosion in various situations. On mild steel, the corrosion-prevention mechanism of heterocyclic inhibitors is also investigated. CO2 corrosion is the most frequent and dreaded type of corrosion in the oil and gas industry, and corrosion inhibitors are the most effective way to fight CO2 corrosion in mild steel. Nonetheless, continual exposure to pollutants and corrosion causes such as sulfur and chromate on pipeline surfaces is unavoidable. Because of their toxicity, commercial corrosion inhibitors are being used less frequently to protect the environment. As a result of the advent of "green" chemistry and fruit waste, both of which have been demonstrated to be efficient corrosion inhibitors, plant extracts have become popular. This research aims to compile a list of carbon dioxide corrosion inhibitors that have been proved to protect against this type of attack. The material on this page is relevant to the gas and oil industries, which rely on steel pipelines and crude oil tanks to transport oil and gas products. This study will also help develop better CO2 corrosion inhibitors for the gas and oil industries.

Remove Liquid Radioactive Wastes Utilizing Nanofiltration, Ultrafiltration, and Microfiltration Membranes

Alanood A. Alsarayreh; Taisir K. Abbas; Saleh O. Alaswad; Sabad e-Gul; A D. Bajoga

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 9, Pages 1231-1259
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134025.1218

Radioactive waste is generated from fuel cycle processes in nuclear reactors and nuclear power plants (NPPs) in electrical power production, radioisotope manufacturing in nuclear research centers, and medical, industrial, and agricultural applications. Also, natural chain-linked radioisotopes (NORM) are generated from processing and burning fossil fuels and producing oil and natural gas. Therefore, a planned and integrated radioactive waste management strategy must be adopted to protect human health and the environment from the dangers of this waste through published research on a comprehensive radioactive waste management strategy and the testing and dissemination of several treatment options. The main objective is to draw the scientific community's attention to the possibility of using pressure-driven membrane separation in treating radioactive wastewater compared to conventional methods. This short review addresses developments in the treatment and removal of radioactive effluents (LRWs) by pressure-driven membrane methods and improvements in routine treatment of dissolved radioactive ions by chemical treatment of the feed solution followed by membrane separation. Also, recent advances in treating radioactive waste use nanoparticles (NPs) incorporated in polymeric membranes.

Hydrodynamic Properties Investigation of Ebullated Bed Reactor Using Non-Newtonian Liquid

Zahraa S. Hassan; Asawer A. Al Wasiti; Zainb Y. Shnain; Peter Philib

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 9, Pages 1205-1215
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132400.1113

The importance of using EBR has been renewed recently due to the sharp increase in heavy feedstocks sent to refineries and the hydrocracking process. Most of these feedstocks have a non-Newtonian behavior. The performance of this type of reactor using non-Newtonian liquid is complicated and has not been covered well yet. Hence, the present work is devoted to elucidating the effect of the non-Newtonian behavior of fluid on the hydrodynamic properties of a three-phase (gas-liquid-solid) reactor under operating conditions of different values ​​of gas velocity (2, 4, 6) cm/sec, liquid velocity (0.9, 1.39, 1.8, 2.3) cm/sec, and recycle ratio (1.5, 2, 2.5). The study observed the effect of non-Newtonian behavior using polymethyl Cellulose (PMC) at different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4) wt%. The pressure gradient method was used to elucidate the minimum liquid fluidization velocity and to estimate hold up, while the imaging method was used to measure the bubble's size. The results showed that the higher the gas velocity, the lower the minimum liquid fluidization velocity. As the intensity of the non-Newtonian behavior increased, gas velocity showed the opposite effect. The results also showed that increasing the velocity of liquid and gas and the intensity of the non-Newtonian increase the gas hold-up. The bubbles characteristics, represented by bubble size results, show that small bubbles appear at low gas velocities, and these bubbles collapse as gas and liquid velocities increase as well as liquid viscosity.

The Evaluation of Time-Dependent Initialization Vector Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm for Image Encryption

Hayder T. Assafli; Ivan A. Hashim; Ahmed A. Naser

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 8, Pages 150-159
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131397.1032

The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) has become an attractive encryption method for its high security and fast implementation. The encryption algorithm is approved as a standard to be used in widely used communication and data processing units However, the advance in technology and the introduction of quantum computers made the encryption scheme vulnerable to attack. Different attack procedures are continuously being developed for attacking end decrypted important and sensitive data. This paper evaluated an enhanced Advanced Encryption System operating in Cipher Block Chaining mode that suggests a promising solution for resisting future attacks. The approach depends on a time-dependent initialization vector that produces the initialization vector block depending on the epoch time without sharing any encryption key. The evaluation process includes correlation analysis, global and local Shannon entropy analysis, chi-square analysis, histogram analysis, and differential analysis. The results showed that the enhanced encryption scheme is reliable and can resist most cyber-attacks without exposing any encrypted data to the public. The results were compared with previously published and tested algorithms and found that it satisfies and exceeds the minimum requirement. So, the encryption method can be implemented safely in future communication channels or used in the file encryption process. . .

A Review of Control Technique Applied in Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF)

Ayad M. Hadi; Ekhlas M. Thjeel; Ali K. Nahar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 8, Pages 1035-1044
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i8.2116

In recent years, electronic transformers and electronic devices (nonlinear loads) have increased. These loads are the source of harmonics (non-sinusoidal and distorted waves) and the interactive force that affects the performance of the power system network. Also, it badly affects the power factor and electrical energy on the scales of efficiency and quality. For this reason, a system called “Active Power Filters” has been adopted. It provides an effective alternative to traditional LC passive power filters. It can improve network performance by treating and reducing harmonics, improving power factor and quality, avoiding resonance between the filter and the network, and reducing reactive power. This paper presents a study on the shunt active power filters device and how to connect it to the distribution network and A review of the bathing control strategies in the methods of calculating current and power, methods of controlling the PWM device, the most prominent techniques for improving the PID control system, and the most prominent algorithms applied in that to improve the safety performance of the  Shunt  Active Power Filter (SAPF) on the one hand and to demonstrate the ability of different systems to compensate for THD on the other hand. APF performance fluctuates from one control strategy to another. It reduced (THD) between 0.9% and 13% in several control techniques applied with PWM. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the techniques applied to control the performance of the "Shunt Active Power Filter" to reduce THD

High gain transformer-less inverter based-on capacitor clamping multi-phase boost converter

Oday saad; Jasim Farhoud Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 8, Pages 1071-1081
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.131337.1028

ABSTRACT
The boosting converters integrated with inverters are widespread use in many applications under transformerless inverter titles, including powered vehicles, PV systems, fuel cells systems and so on. Reliability, quality, maintainability, and reduction in size are important requirements in the energy conversion process. The multi-phase boost converter can be adopted as a good solution with high power applications. The multi-phase boost enhanced by clamping capacitor structure is providing low ripple, high gain and evident improvement in the efficiency when compared to the conventional converters.
This paper investigates the transformerless inverter based on a capacitor clamping multi-phase boost converter. High gain proposed architectures are being designed to step-up voltage. The converter features a high voltage gain offers additional solutions based on the capacitor clamping structure. The proposed architectures are being designed to optimize the gaining in popularity as they are increasing the voltage gain and the efficiency and mitigate the switching frequency effect.
The investigation of validation performance was introduced through the steady-state analysis and operation. The operation modes and mathematical analysis are presented. To validate the performance in terms of input and output ripple and values, the converters were tested using MATLAB / SIMULINK. The results supported the mathematical analysis. The voltage gains increased, reduce of ripple in input current and the output voltage is significantly detected. The switches stresses at the converter side are One-third of the output voltage.

Build and Implement Radiation Control using IoT in Parabolic Trough Solar Collector (PTSC)

Sarah Bassem; Samer J. Ismael; Jalal M. Jalil

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 8, Pages 1062-1070
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i8.2240

Connecting the devices to the internet based on the internet of things IoT increases the capability of monitoring and measuring, and controlling essential variables. In this study, the radiation intensity was controlled via the internet of things IoT for PTSC to study the collector's behavior.  The light control circuit was designed, built, and implemented. The circuit mainly consists of a power supply, Arduino, relay, and potentiometer. Radiation was successfully monitored using a sensor and displayed through a smartphone via Wi-Fi, and the intensity of radiation light controls the PCM status. A data logging system was applied using a micro SD in a smartphone card and Arduino Node-MCU as a microcontroller. The experimental results show the relationship between solar radiation and resistance change. Inversely, the maximum radiation found from this work was 780 W/m2 with 74 k Ω resistance, and the minimum radiation was 300 W/m2 with 170 k Ω resistance. The output power changes directly through solar radiation, which means the power output with maximum solar radiation will be 3018 W. Using IoT Technology reduces efforts of long-time monitoring during the experiment (many hours).

An Enhanced Interface Selectivity Technique to Improve the QoS for the Multi-homed Node

Haider W. Oleiwi; Nagham Saeed; Heba L. Al-Taie; Doaa Mhawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 8, Pages 1006-1013
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133066.1165

The user’s handoff is still an arguable issue that many mobile communication systems face, especially with the exploded growth of users and internet-based applications. There is a critical need for adequate quality of service (QoS) to meet the stringent requirements. This paper aims to study the overall performance and feasibility of several QoS mechanisms with the single-homed and multi-homed networks/nodes fluctuating resource availability. It investigates the adaptability of multi-interfaced multi-homed techniques to enhance the essential governing parameters, i.e., throughput, end-to-end latency, processing time, and jitter. Moreover, the paper introduces an interface selectivity technique for the multi-homed node to adopt the optimal interface, which offers the best services to explore the enhancements of the overall network performance. The overall results show how the introduced mechanism managed to keep the communication going on the multi-homed node. Furthermore, the results show that site multi-homing provides a better overall end-to-end latency over host multi-homing as it supports the entire network.

A Compact High Isolation Four Elements MIMO Antenna System for 5G Mobile Devices

Muhannad Yousif Muhsin; Jawad K Ali; Ali Salim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 8, Pages 1055-1061
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131103.1004

A Compact high isolation Multi Input Multi Output Antenna system working on 3.5 GHz (3400 - 3600) MHz is presented for the 5G mobile terminals. Four-antenna elements are employed to construct the proposed MIMO antenna system. These antennas are located over two slim side-edges frame of a mobile device to meet the present trend requirements of slim and full-screen smartphone devices. A modified Hilbert fractal monopole antenna and an I-shaped feeding line construct the antenna element’s front part, while an L-shaped shorted to the system’s ground plane are used to the antenna element’s back part. The overall monopole antenna element’s size printed on the mobile frame’s side edge is (9.72 mm × 5.99 mm) so the desirable antenna miniaturization is achieved. Based on the spatial diversity and self-isolated techniques, high isolation (better than 16.3 dB) is attained by the proposed four-element MIMO antenna system. To assess the proposed antenna element’s performance, the scattering parameters, antenna gains, antenna efficiencies, and radiation pattern characteristics have been evaluated. Besides, the MEGs and ECCs are investigated to appreciate the proposed system’s MIMO performance. Desired antenna and MIMO performances are achieved by the proposed four-element MIMO antenna system so it can be a good candidate for the future 5G mobile handsets.

Power Quality Examination for (250KW) PV Grid-tied Connected at Various Irradiance Levels

Ahmed A. Jasim; Dahri Y. Mahmood; Oday A. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 8, Pages 1014-1022
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i8.1831

Although using a PV grid-tide system has many advantages, connecting the PV to the grid creates a new challenge at the power quality level. The PV grid-tide plant (250 kW), implemented at the Iraqi ministry of electricity building, was taken as a case steady to examine the power quality issue at various irradiance levels. The plant was described in detail and built using MATLAB2018b/Simulink. The developed system was examined at various irradiance levels. The results showed that an increased irradiance level leads to an enhancement in the power quality. The total harmonic distortion (THD) decreases with the increase of irradiance. Such behavior has a good impact on the power quality, where the (THD) is considered a crucial parameter in the power quality issue and increased irradiance level, leading to increased injected power to the grid. Up to the date of writing this study, the power quality effect of the installed (250 kW) PV grid-tied system on Iraqi grid utility was not previously studied, whether for the studied system or another PV grid-tied system installed in Iraq.

Numerical and Theoretical Analysis of a Spur Gear Using Composite and Conventional Materials

Jwan K. Mohammed; Dlair o. Ramadan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 7, Pages 996-1005
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133641.1198

A spur gear is one of the most common forms of precision cylindrical gear. In the industry, reducing the weight of gears while keeping their useful properties has become an even more pressing challenge. As a result, the investigators have made many attempts to reduce the weight of the gears. Despite these efforts, the problem still requires more research. This study presented a spur gear's modeling and finite element analysis using different materials. A three-dimensional spur gear was designed, modeled, and simulated using ANSYS software. Five different materials, including two conventional materials (stainless steel and copper alloy) and three different composite materials, including 50% carbon fibers reinforced in epoxy resin, 1.5% filler containing acetal, i.e., Graphene Reinforced Acetal,  and glass-filled polyamide. Composites were fabricated by varying the graphene quantity in Acetal nanocomposites. The spur gear stress was calculated theoretically using the Hertzian equation, and FEM was analyzed using ANSYS 14.0 under limited loading conditions and rotational speed. Although the obtained results showed that both methods were comparable, there was a significant difference between the two methods when 50% carbon fibers reinforced in epoxy resin matrix were used, which is Hertzian analysis was 250.13 MPa. In contrast, this result was reduced up to 152.13 MPa in FEM. The study concluded that among the different presented materials, 50% carbon fibers reinforced in epoxy resin matrix were the optimal material for spur gear fabrication due to their high strength and low density. Hence, the spur gear material can be replaced by 50% carbon fibers reinforced in the epoxy resin matrix.

Study Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation upon Emissions and Performance by Using European Diesel and Iraqi diesel

Lina Jamal; Adel M. Saleh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 7, Pages 970-978
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131273.1021

This study investigated the effect of exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR) on performance and exhaust emissions in a single-cylinder, air-cooled, and direct-injection diesel engine. The Iraqi diesel fuel (D100) and European diesel fuel (ED100) were utilized at different speeds from (2100 to 3300 in intervals of 300) using the recycling of exhaust gas by a ratio (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. The study showed that European diesel fuel positively impacts engine performance and emissions. Compared to Iraqi diesel fuel, European decreased diesel fuel the brake-specific fuel consumption by (10.96%), increased brake thermal efficiency by (8.67%), decreased exhaust gas temperature by (9.99%), and (NOX, UHC, and decreased (CO) emissions by (7.94%, 10.07%, and 36.98%) respectively. When using the EGR ratio, the highest percentage that can be used is (20%). If this percentage exceeds this, it will cause a flame loss because the recycled gases are inert. Furthermore, the results indicate that brake-specific fuel consumption increases by (15.395%) and brake thermal efficiency decreases by (13.44%) with increased EGR ratio. In contrast, exhausting gas temperature and NOX emissions decreases by (4.01% and 14.57%) respectively. Finaly, the UHC and CO emissions increased with the increase of EGR ratio.

Numerical Investigation of a Window Solar Air Collector with Moveable Absorber Plates

Norhan I. Dawood; Jalal M. Jalil; Majida K. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 7, Pages 942-950
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i7.2270

Window solar air collector is an imperative instrument for heating residential buildings in cold regions. This paper presents a numerical investigation of the thermal performance of a window solar air collector with seven moveable absorber plates. With glass on the front and back sides of the collector. By the use of FORTRAN 90; The three-dimensional steady-state turbulent forced convection method was used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. The seven plates opened and closed at different angles in unison manually by a specific mechanical mechanism. The effect of changing the plate angles has been tested, alongside the effect of airflow rates and the intensity of solar radiation. Numerical results illustrate that air temperature difference is higher at vertical plates position (angle 0) compared to that at angle 90. In contrast, flexibility between sunlight penetrating the room and hot air from the collector will be gained when the plates are set on angle 90. Results indicate that the thermal performance was improved by 67% when the plates were set at angle 0. Maximum thermal efficiency for angle 0 was 72% at a mass flow rate of 0.0298 kg/s. However, maximum thermal efficiency was 51% at mass flow rate 0.0298 for angle 90°.

Experimental Study on The Effect of Aspect Ratio on Flexural Behavior of Aluminum Sandwich Composite

Ganesh Radhakrishnan; Al Haitham Al Hattali; Al Muntasser Al Yahyai; Al Muntasser Al Riyami; Al Muatasim Al Hadhrami

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 7, Pages 990-995
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134317.1234

Sandwich composites are one such kind of light-weight composites developed for structural and vehicle body buildings etc. Due to their remarkable features such as high specific strength, high toughness and resistance to inter laminar shear strength. In this study, commercially available aluminium sandwich composite (ASC) laminate was considered for investigating its flexural behavior and buckling behavior as it was mostly used for various structural applications. Flexural analysis was done for different aspect ratios in order to analyze the influence of cross section of the specimen and support span on the flexural capability of the sandwich beam. The composite specimens prepared for flexural test consist of length 150 mm and widths 15, 12 and 10 mm. The flexural test was done for support span of 90, 110 and 130 mm respectively. The performance measures of flexural test are maximum bending load, deflection, flexural stiffness and inter-laminar shear stress. The flexural analysis revealed the fact that the aspect ratio appreciably affected the flexural capacity of the sandwich composite laminates. Maximum flexural capacity with bending load around 3.5 to 4 kN and flexural stiffness around 2.5 to 4.7 kN/mm respectively was observed for the sandwich specuimen for the aspect ratios L/t = 30 and b/t = 5. Being a anisotropic structure, the flexural behavior of this sandwich composite exposed as a combination of bending and shear failure. The soft core material and ductile skin face sheets resulted in a combined failure against flexural load in static condition.

Potential and Development of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Systems and Technologies: A Review

Mohammed Habib; Abdullateef A. Jadallah; Ahmed A. Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 7, Pages 979-989
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132452.1117

Wind energy has a potency of playing a vital role in the future of energy demand providing and environment freshening in many areas of the world. Utilizing wind turbine systems has become a competitive recourse among other renewable energy sources in terms of cost-effectiveness and the transition toward renewable energy usage. Researchers and developers are constantly dedicated to innovating to improve the technology of designing wind turbine systems. Wind energy depends mainly on the wind velocity and the area that swept them, increasing the wetted area. This is done by either upscaling the area of the wind rotor or constructing multi-wind turbines according to the type of designs that fit modern innovative systems. Though large wind turbine units do not fit with all sites, especially in cities, these turbines may be installed offshore and onshore. This paper aims to explore the relevant works technologies related to the wind energy potential, developments, design improvements, and multi-rotor horizontal axis wind turbine systems (HAWTs). This was achieved based on favorable characteristics such as economic viability and clean energy resources. Hence, these aspects reduce the environmental impacts and improve technological advantages and profitability. The results of this paper provide a recognizable system's facts and platforms that can be easily utilized. Wind Energy has the potency of hybridization with other renewable energy resources, which play an important role in urban planning, smart cities, and Buildings integration.

Study of the Effect of Working Fluids on The Thermal Performance of A Horizontal Heat Pipe with Stainless Steel Wick

ALI K. soud; Qusay J. Abdul Ghafoor

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 7, Pages 959-969
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.131137.1014

The present work aims to study the effects of working fluids on the thermal performance of the heat pipe with a wick and in a horizontal position. The experiments were conducted using a copper heat pipe with a 20.8 mm inner diameter, and the length of the evaporator, condenser, and the adiabatic regions were 300 mm, 350 mm, and 300 mm, respectively. The working fluids selected were water, Methanol, ethanol, and different binary mixtures (50: 50) %, (30: 70) %, (70: 30) % mixing ratios. The filling ratio was 50% of the evaporator volume for all working fluids, and the heat input values were 20, 30, 40, and 50 W. The results show that the heat pipe charged with Methanol has a thermal resistance of (0.85166oC/W), the lowest thermal resistance value. The lowest thermal resistance of using mixtures is (0.785 oC/W) for (50 % methanol: 50% ethanol). Both are achieved at 50 W heat input. Also, at 50 W heat input, the highest value of heat transfer coefficient when using water as a working fluid is (510.386 W/m2. oC), and for using a mixture (70 % water: 30% methanol) is (556.78 W/m2. oC).

Economic Operation of Low Voltage Smart Micro-grid with Integration of Renewable Energy

Kadhim M. Jabber; Mohammed K. AL-Saadi; Ameer Jaddoa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 7, Pages 951-958
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.131063.1000

This paper develops a unit commitment multi-period energy management system to minimize a low voltage microgrid's total operation and emission cost. The optimization problem is formulated in the mixed-integer quadratic program. The environment cost and battery degradation cost are taken into consideration in the proposed optimization approach. The unit commitment strategy is employed to minimize the total cost. A set of constraints are considered in the proposed optimization approach. The proposed energy management system is applied to the low voltage distribution grid, including different distributed generators, such as diesel engines, fuel cells, and microturbines. The microgrid also contains storage batteries, renewable energy resources, wind turbines, and photovoltaic panels. The results reveal that the storage battery charging and discharging operations are controlled to reduce the operation and emission cost even considering the battery degradation cost.

Synthesis ZnO heterostructured nanophotocatalyst simulated solar light irradiation for removal contaminate Carbamazepine in aqueous solution

Eman Hussein Rdewi; Ahmed M.H. Abdulkadhim Al-Ghaban; Khalid K. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 6, Pages 901-910
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131136.1007

In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) were produced in aqueous media to photodegrade harmful carbamazepine compounds (CBZ) in aqueous solution under simulated solar-light using the sol-gel technique with zinc chloride and NaOH as precursors. X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR analysis, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS) were used to analyze the ZnO NPs powder. According to the XRD results, ZnO nanoparticles showed a hexagonal symmetry shape with 13 nm particle size value. The absorption bands of ZnO nanoparticles were identified using FT-IR spectra peaking. The ZnO nanoparticles produced in this work are spherical, as seen in the SEM picture, with a band gap of about 3.6 eV. The prepared Zinc Oxide nanoheterostructured photocatalyst utilized excellent performance in reducing Carbamazepine compound with an efficiency of 90%. This study took into account pH solution, catalyst loading, kinetic studies, TOC removal, regeneration, and reusability. The synthesized ZnO successfully removed the Carbamazepine medicine at pH=4. With an R-square of 0.99855, the produced photocatalyst fits well into the pseudo second order model. The ZnO heterostructured nanophotocatalyst retained its outstanding performance after numerous cycles of usage. For these observations, the Zinc Oxide heterostructured photocatalyst for Carbamazepine reduction is a promising photocatalyst.

Structural Characterization of (Mg(1-x)pbxO)-NPs by Modified Pechini Method

Israa A. Najem; Fadhil Abd Rasin; Shaker J. Edrees

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 6, Pages 11-20
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i6.2147

The structural characterization was discussed in the present paper of the pure MgO nanoparticles and the doped (Mg(1-x)pbxO) nanoparticles specimens, where (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.03). The modified Pechini method was used to prepare all the specimens. From (DTA), the convenient temperature of decomposition from Mg(OH)2 to MgO was above 375°C. The structure investigation (XRD) revealed that all the specimens have identical space groups and index well to cubic structures. The obtained crystallite size by Scherrer''s equation was increased with increasing the fraction of doping except for (Mg0.97Pb0.03O) due to the formation of PbO oxide. The molecular vibration by FTIR demonstrated that all the pure and doped specimens have the same framework. As the incorporation of Pb2+ ions increases, the bands get broader, and the intensities increase in the ranging 800-400 cm-1 due to vibrations of O-Mg and O-Pb bands, respectively.

Study the Growth of Apatite Layer on Biodegradable Glass as Bioactive Scaffolds

Zainab I. Dhary; Alaa A. Atiyah; Saad B. H. Farid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 6, Pages 892-900
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131678.1048

Bioglass offers a variety of uses for tissue engineering due to its good biocompatibility and chemical composition, similar to a mineral portion of the body. The synthesis of bioglass 13-93 scaffold was achieved by salt leaching technique, and potassium chloride (KCl) was used as porogen with particle sizes of (200-250) μm. Then, sintering to 750 ◦C for around 1 hour was performed. The resultant materials were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). They were immersed in a solution of simulated body fluids (SBF) for 7 and 14 days, respectively. Initially, calcium phosphate was created. After 7 and 14 days, the surface comprised of developed crystalline apatite. The bioactivity of scaffolds that were created and examined. The FTIR, SEM, and XRD experiments were done before and after immersion of the sample in SBF. The results showed that the scaffolds contained open and interconnected pores with porosities ranging between (75-78%). The maximum value of compressive strength of the prepared scaffold was about 5.6MPa. Based on the obtained results, the glass scaffolds can be considered promising for bone defects and replacement applications

Effect of Voltage on Electrode Wear Rate (EWR) in the Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) for Stainless Steel AISI 444

Shukry H. Aghdeab; Anwer Q. Abdulnabi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 6, Pages 21-30
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i6.2144

Electrical Discharge Machining process (EDM) is a nontraditional metal removal technique that uses thermal energy to erode the workpiece without generating any physical forces of cutting between the tool and the machining part. It is used to cutting of hard and electrical conductivity materials and product intricate shapes of products. The aim of this work is to study the effect of changing voltage values on electrode wear rate (EWR). The machining parameters includes voltage (V), peak current (Ip), pulse duration (Ton) and finally, pulse interval (Toff). The results show that the EWR was increase with rising in voltage, peak current and pulse duration values but when the pulse interval value rises, the electrode wear rate reduce. The best (EWR) value was (0.093507) mm3/min that obtained at voltage (140) V, Ip (12) A, Ton (400) µs and  Toff (12) µs.

Influence of Machining Parameters on Surface Roughness in Chemical Machining of Silicon Carbide (SiC)

Naeem A. Abdulhusein; Abbas F. Ibrahim; Abdullah F. Huayier

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 6, Pages 879-884
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i6.1879

This study discussed the influence of chemical machining parameters such as (machining time, type of etchant, etching temperature, and concentration of the solution) on the surface roughness of ceramic material (silicon carbide) as a workpiece in the chemical machining (CHM) process. To achieve the best value for surface roughness. In this research, four levels of factors affecting the chemical etching process were used, the values of etching temperature (60, 80, 100, and 120) °C, the etchant concentration (50, 60, 70, and 80) %, and machining time (30, 50, 70, and 90) min, and two etchant type (HBr, HCl). Experiments proved the best value of surface roughness is obtained (2.933) µm experimentally and (2.958) µm at a predictable program when using hydrochloric acid (HCl) at a temperature (80) °C, time (50) min, and etchant concentration (50) %. The coefficient determination (R-sq) to predict the surface roughness is ((93.7).

Improvement of Metal Forging Processes by Stresses and Temperatures Analysis

Adnan I. Mohammeda; Ibrahim K. Ahmed; Munir A. Allow

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 6, Pages 869-878
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i6.2169

The mechanical components are produced by various fabrication methods, although forged products have excellent mechanical characteristics at a minimal cost. The stress and temperature analysis process in the closed die hot forging contributed to finding failure regions in these dies through simulations in the FE program. This enables the process to be improved and reduced time and mineral losses. A simplified model was used to represent the forming process, with a temperature of (1150-950 °C) was simulated using MSC Simufact software. The forge fastener head product is formed with a horizontal mechanical press of 800 tones. In this research, the workpiece material used Ck45 alloy steel, 56NiCrMoV 7 tool material. The results illustrate the maximum equivalent stresses values, and the maximum value was 739.70 MPa / 240.64 on lower die and product at a heating temperature of 950 °C, respectively. The local plastic deformation would be expected at places where the maximum stress is generated and exceeds the yield strength of the die material.

Studying the Effect of un Coated and Multilayer Coated Tools on Cutting Temperature in Turning Operation

Farhan kamil; Maan A. Tawfiq; Salah K. Jawad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 6, Pages 911-917
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i6.2265

The present work studies three variables (cutting velocity, feed rate, and cut depth) on hard turning cutting temperature of uncoated and multilayer-coated carbide (TiN, TiN/TiCN, TiN /Al2O3/ TiCN) inserts are used in AISI 1045 alloy steel. The tool's temperature was measured simultaneously, measuring the temperature of the tool-chip interface using infrared radiation (IR) pyrometer in this investigation.  This study investigated the performance of four distinct coated and uncoated PVD and CVD tools during turning operations. Four cutting speeds (56, 88, 112, 141) m/min, four feed rates (0.065, 0.08, 0.16, 0.228) mm/rev.,  in the experiments, a constant cutting depth of (1) mm was used.  The results also show that Coarse cutting tools have a lower tool temperature than uncoated ones. In comparison to uncoated and other coated tools, the three-layer (TiN/ Al2O3/ TiCN) coating is especially effective in a range of (32% to 39%) than uncoated inserts at various cutting velocity and constant feed rates, with varying feed rates and consistent cutting velocity and lower by approximately( 34% to 40%) than uncoated inserts.

Properties of Welded Copper Tubes Fabricated Via Friction crush Welding

Abduljabar Joma; Akeel D. Subhi; Fadhil A. Hashim A. Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 6, Pages 840-847
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i6.2292

The welding process is one of the fabrication processes in which tubes can be performed for structural purposes and transport liquids or gases. This study is focused on the manufacturing, characterization, and evaluation of mechanical properties of welded tubes made from oxygen-free copper (C1020) sheets using friction crush welding. The welded tubes were produced using different tool rotation speeds (1500, 1600, and 1700 rpm) and feed rates (130, 140, and 150 mm/min). The flanged edge height of 2.5 mm and 0.5 mm gap between the ends of the copper sheet was used. All examinations on welded tubes were achieved using different instruments such as optical microscopy, SEM, hardness, and tensile testers. The microstructure study showed good weld quality and good material flow between the two ends of the copper sheet in the weld zone. Moreover, the weld zone was not defective. The lowest hardness was identified in the crush zone due to the coarseness of the copper grains. The highest tensile strength of 105 MPa was obtained at the tool rotation speed of 1500 rpm and 130 mm/min feed rate. The results also showed that ductile fracture is the main source of failure.

Electrostatic Deposition of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)/Titanium Carbide Coatings on Austenitic 316L Stainless Steel Implant

Ghofran Dhafer; Mohanad N. Al-Shroofy; Hanaa A. Al-Kaisy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 6, Pages 918-925
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.131478.1038

316L stainless steel alloys are extensively used in orthopedic applications for the fixations and substitutions of defective bone tissues in the human body because of their excellent combination of mechanical and biological behavior. However, just like other metallic implants, they tend to release some toxic ions that may lead to serious health issues. Therefore, this study attempts to increase the alloy's resistance against corrosion while maintaining its good mechanical properties by applying a modified coating layer of PMMA-based composites titanium carbide as reinforcement material using dry electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) under constant conditions (25 kV, 15-20 cm distance, compressed air of 15 psi, and spraying angle about 45.0o for 3 0sec). The titanium carbide was added with ratios of (5, 10, 15, 20) wt. % respectively. The coatings’ surface morphology and phases were studied using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Also, the biological behavior of the composite coated samples was studied by investigating their corrosion and wetting attributes. The results revealed that homogenous, uniform, crack-free coating layers and high surface wettability were obtained. Indicating the suability of PMMA/TiC for biomedical applications due to the alloy's improved corrosion resistance and biocompatibility.

Preparation of CuO/ZnO Nano-Particles Using Sol-Gel Technique and Studying the Characterization

Doaa A. Yassen; Farhad M. Othman; Alaa A. Abdul Hamead

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 6, Pages 862-868
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i6.2104

Copper oxide (CuO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are two of the most promising oxides under development right now. The sol-gel technique was used to make Nano composite particles NCPs of ZnO-CuO. The copper (II) nitrate rehydrate 0.1M and zinc nitrate hex hydrate 0.1M liquids were mixed in a 1:1 ratio, and the gel was formed at 80 °C, then dried and calcined for various times 500 °C (3, 5, and 7 hours). Particle size analyzer (PZA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and apparent density were used to characterize the CuO/MgO particles. The x-ray diffraction results showed that the phases of the composite particles were pure. FESEM scans, on the other hand, revealed nanoparticles incorporated in the ZnO-CuO matrix with particle sizes ranging from 60.76 to 145.1 nm. The density of the aforesaid samples was 0.1382, 0.1418, and 0.1469 g/cm3 in that order, increasing as the calcined duration increased. This promotes crystal formation, and CuO/MgO has strong catalytic activity for advanced applications.

Effect of Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) Parameters on Materials Removal Rate for Low Carbon Steel

Ameer J. Nader; Saad K. Shather

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 6, Pages 885-891
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i6.2123

Abrasive water jet (AWJ) is one of the most advanced and valuable non-traditional machining processes because of its massive advantages of removing metal from hard and soft metals. This paper has studied the effect of jet pressure, feed rate, and standoff distance on material removal rate throughout abrasive water jet cutting of carbon steel metal workpieces. The material removal rate was assessed using a precision balance device by performing sixteen experiments to identify the ratio of weight loss to total cutting time. The Taguchi method was introduced to implement the experiments and indicate the most influential process parameters on material removal rate. The experimental results showed that feed rate and pressure jet had the most effect on material removal rate. The best material removal rate value was 3.71 g/min at jet pressure 300 MPa, feed rate 30 mm/min, and standoff distance 4mm.

Identifying Risk Factors Influencing Traffic Accidents for Baghdad Expressways

Hasan H. Joni; Mustafa H. Jasim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 802-809
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131184.1011

In this paper, the SPSS program (version 25) and Binary Logistic Regression Model were used to implement and identify the risk factors that affect traffic accidents on Baghdad highways. Due to the increase in the number of traffic accidents that led to injuries and deaths in Iraq during the past years and the lack of specialized studies in traffic accidents, especially on highways, this required the preparation of a study to know the causes of accidents and to explore the factors that have a relative impact on (the severity of the accident). Four highways in the capital, Baghdad, were chosen in this study, major and vital in terms of the number of drivers who use them daily, which are (Mohamed Al-Qasim Expressway, Army Canal Expressway, Salah Al-Din Street (Expressway), and Baghdad International Airport Street (Expressway)). Three hundred and forty-nine traffic accident forms were collected from the traffic directorates on both sides of Al-Karkh and Al-Rusafa for the years from 2006 to 2019. After the analysis by Binary Logistic Regression, the results showed that (contributing factors, road condition, cause of an accident like (parking on highway, loss of control, lack of attention, sudden stopping and lack of attention), vehicle body type, speed). Resulting from the BLR model.

Numerical Simulation of the Effect of Repeated Load and Temperature on the Behavior of Asphalt Layers

Hind Akram; Miami Hilal; Mohammed Fattah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 769-778
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131187.1012

Roads and highways are used by different vehicle types, and the heavy vehicles among them can be considered the most critical in loading, which causes failure in the pavement structure and increases rehabilitation and maintenance costs. In this study, the composite effects for wheel loads and temperature were considered in the finite element analysis using Abaqus 6.14. The asphalt layer was modeled as an elastic material, while the base and subbase layers were modeled as an elastoplastic material following the Mohr-Coulomb model. Also, the impact of wheel loads on flexible pavement settlement and the main output of analyzing pavement structure are almost represented by the vertical stresses and the surface deformation, which are considered the critical response point. A single unit truck was tried with two thicknesses of the asphalt layer, 14 cm, and 25 cm, with two different temperatures. Since base and subbase layer thicknesses remained constant, it does not affect the displacement variation. However, it was found that the increase of asphalt layer thickness from 0.14 m to 0.25 m leads to a decrease in the vertical displacement of about 0.59% and becomes 0.77% when the temperature increases to 50℃.

Investigation of the Bearing Capacity and Collapsibility of Gypseous Soil Using Geotextile Reinforcement

Qasim A. Al-Obaidi; Makki K. Mohsen; Ayad O. Asker

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 792-801
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131076.1002

This study aims to increase the bearing capacity of the soil by using geosynthetics in a single, double, or triple distribution pattern. The gypseous soil samples were brought from a site near Sawa Lake in Al-Muthanna Governorate with a gypsum content of about (37%), the Soil-Model apparatus of dimensions (60 × 60 × 50) cm with the proposed square footing of dimensions (10 × 10) cm are used in the experimental program of this study. To achieve this goal, a series of (48) different model tests were used on gypseous soil subjected to vertical stress in both dry and wet (saturation) conditions. Depending on the results of load-settlement curves relationships, the ultimate bearing capacity of dry and wet gypseous soil models was determined using the Two Tangent Intersection technique. The results also showed that the number of geotextile layers and the relative density of the gypseous soil samples significantly impact the improvement of the bearing capacity of gypseous soil models. Furthermore, the results showed that the improvement ratio in bearing capacity (BCR%) for gypseous soil models tested after being reinforced with geotextile layer for dry and wet (saturation)  at relative density (RD) of 30% and  60%  in single, double and triple distribution pattern. The percentage of the improvement in the wet case was higher than in the dry case. It was 143 % in the wet case when using triple-layer geotextile at different depths of reinforcement, while it was 96 % in the dry case.

Managing the Excess Floodwaters in the Lake Hemrin Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques

Hussain Muhamed; Mustafa N. Hamoodi; Abd Alrazzak T. Ziboon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 779-791
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131195.1017

Lake Hemrin is located in the middle east of Iraq, about 50 km from the Iraqi-Iranian border. The lake is the main fish source and provides water for nearby farms. However, due to various socio-economic and environmental management issues, the Hemrin system is a difficult water resources challenge. Moreover, Lake Hemrin receives floodwaters annually over its storage capacity; therefore, there is a risk of flooding in the areas downstream of the lake. To this end, this research developed optimization solutions to design flood escape paths in the area using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Genetic Algorithm (GA). Among three initial proposals, i.e., Adhaim River, Wadi Naft, and Salahdin, the developed models optimized each of the proposals and suggested that Wadi Naft would require only 3.88 km3 of cut and fill volume compared to Adhaim River of 34.33 km3. However, the latter would serve more people and agricultural lands. GA and AHP techniques to optimize flood escape paths have shown that these models can discover shorter pathways requiring less cut and fill costs while retaining other flood escape features. The proposed optimal flood escape path can substantially influence the construction of flood-prevention strategies in the area.

Finite Element Simulation of Repeated Loading Test of Asphalt Concrete

Noor S. Hatem; Miami M. Hilal; Mohammed Y. Fattah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 661-667
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i5.2128

In this paper, the Abaqus 6.14 version program was used to carry out a three-dimensional finite element analysis to predict the rut in the asphalt laboratory model. In a previous study, a cylinder model of asphalt was tested under the influence of traffic loads and temperature. The test was simulated using the finite element method considering the boundary conditions, load steps, and temperature. The cohesive zone model (CZM) approach was used in the Abaqus program to analyze the spread of the rutting in the model to simulate the fracture and improve the sample structure and the materials used. The Abacus program analysis showed satisfactory results when compared with the experimental results. The numerical and experimental displacement results indicate that the program can simulate the rut that occurs in the model. Using a temperature of 55 ° C showed that the effect of the temperature was not noticeable. XFEM-CZM coupled model provides a suitable numerical tool to represent the rutting tests.

Effect of domestic dry sewage sludge on concrete compressive strength

Alaa R. Al-Obaidi; Riyad H. Al-Anbari; maan S. hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 832-839
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131284.1022

The possibility of saving and sustaining natural materials by reusing waste is one of the most important goals researchers seek to achieve and prove its effectiveness and positive impact on the environment. In this study, domestic wastewater sludge was utilized in concrete production as partial cement changing with different ratios (0, 5, 10, and 15) % with dry sludge. The study showed that the compressive strength test showed that the partial replacement of cement by dry sludge caused reduction increased directly with the increase of sludge ratio compared with concrete reference specimens. The study found that dry sludge can be used up to 15% as a replacement in concrete sidewalks and roads because these applications use horizontal construction, which does not require the same high strength resistance as vertical construction. In addition, it was also found that using up to 10% dry sludge content in concrete may positively impact reducing sludge levels in the environment and the cost of cement production without a significant effect on the compressive and flexural strength of concrete. The study aimed to encourage government agencies and the business sector to employ excess quantities of domestic sludge in the construction industry, as well as to investigate the influence of partial replacement of cement with dry sludge on the compressive strength of concrete.

Effect of Wire-Mesh Type on Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Beams

Basil S. Al-Shathr; Haider A. Abdulhameed; mohammed M. Mahdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 759-768
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131159.1009

Structural strengthening is a method of application to raise the load-ability capacity of building structures to meet the building's need to carry additional and unexpected loads that were not accounted for in the main design. In this study, Ferro-cement was used for strengthening concrete beams. Three locally available wire mesh types were used with an ordinary cement mortar to strengthen reinforced concrete beams under flexural loading. The results show that using a Ferro-cement layer with wire mesh of 15 mm size square opening has the best effect on increasing reinforced concrete beams' bearing capacity and deflection more than when using the other two types of meshes. The first crack and failure load increases were 72 and 79%, respectively. In contrast, the deflection increased 70 and 51% at the first crack and failure load.

Modeling Critical Gap of Al Turkmani Roundabout in Baghdad City

Laith Q. Shadhan; Zainab A. Alkaissi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 722-731
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i5.1628

Interest in how roundabouts can most effectively be used continues to increase to achieve goals of safety, efficiency, along with other benefits. This research presents the most important element of the operational performance of roundabout traffic intersections in Baghdad city on capacity analysis. The obtained results for critical headway time are (3.35 sec) and (2.8 sec) for the Main west and East approaches. Also, the critical gap value for the West and East approach is less than the range of (NCHRP 572), possibly attributed to the congested traffic volume in  Al Turkman roundabout with aggressive driver behavior. Calculating in the west and East approaches peak period (1:00-2:00) pm to describe the rejected and accepted gaps with ranges from (1.00 – 5.00) sec, the main aim of this research is to model the critical headway by analyzing the data in trial and error technique to determine the shape of the data through Probability density function and Cumulative Density Function, and the Mathematical function that represented, exponential distribution functions for critical gaps with different shape functions scale (1,1.5) for accepted and rejected gaps are better fittings to the empirical distribution, and there is no significant difference. Comparing the observed field data and the theoretical data for the validation process of Rejected and Accepted Gaps are done. A good fit is obtained, and a scatterplot for observed and theoretical data has been drawn for the West and East approaches at peak period (1:00-2:00) pm.

Mechanical Performance of Blended Fly Ash-based Geopolymer Concrete with GGBS and Metakaolin

Ali A. Ali; Tareq S. Al-Attar; Waleed A. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 819-831
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132647.1135

One of the most user-friendly alternatives to ordinary concrete is geopolymer concrete(GPC), which achieves the same result. GPC is a unique substance made by activating source materials with a high concentration of silica and alumina. As a result, geopolymer binders use less raw resources and emit less carbon dioxide. For these reasons, most academics are focusing on these sorts of resins to develop eco-friendly housing. This article reports on an experimental investigation that examined the Mechanical Performance of Blended Fly Ash based Geopolymer concrete at 7,28 and 360 days made with two different activator solution molarities and varying R (SiO2/Al2O3) ratios. Positive findings were seen at a larger percentage of GGBS (36%) with a concentration of a sodium hydroxide solution of 10 M and an R ratio of 2.75, compared with other proportions. The test findings indicate that increasing the concentration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution and R enhances the compressive strength and decreases water absorption of geopolymer concrete.

The Effect of Scrap Tires Recycled Steel Fibers on Some Hardened Properties of Green SCC

Nadeem Salam; Wasan I. Khalil

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 810-818
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132605.1133

The purpose of this study is to investigate some hardened properties of green self-compacting concrete (GSCC) with 15% volumetric replacements of crushed clay brick waste as coarse aggregate and reinforced with scrap tires recycled steel fibers (STRSF) with 0, 0.25, 0.5and 0.75%volume fraction and 40 as an aspect ratio. Also, a combination of two STRSF aspect ratios of 40 and 60 was used in GSCC as hybrid fiber reinforcement (0.25 and 0.25%, 0.5 and 0.25%, 0.25 and 0.5% of aspect ratios 40 and 65, respectively). Scrap tires recycled steel fibers had been used to improve the properties of the green self-compacting concrete containing crushed clay brick waste aggregate. Dry density, water absorption, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) were among the properties of SCC that had been investigated. To achieve the purpose of this study, seven concrete mixes were prepared.SCC density, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, and UPV are all increased with the increase of recycled steel fibers content in self-compacted concrete. Including different volume fractions and aspect ratios of scrap tire recycled steel fibers increased the compressive strength between 2.54% to 23%. The splitting tensile strength was about 5.6% to 13.9%, and the flexural strength increased from 1.6% to 14.8%. All GSCC mixes reinforced with STRSF show good performance according to the classification limits of SCC with high compressive strength, so these mixes are applicable for different weather conditions and construction projects.

Push–out Test of Timber Concrete Composite Construction

Ihab S. Saleh; Nabeel A. Jasim; Anis A. Mohhamed Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 668-676
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i2.2175

In this study, push – out test specimen is proposed to explore the behavior of shear connectors in timber–concrete composite beams. Since there are no standard shapes and dimensions for determining the strength of connectors, push–out specimens such as those used for steel-concrete composite beams are suggested to study the behavior of connectors in timber concrete composite beams. Four specimens are tested. Two of these specimens are with one connector per side. The other two are with two connectors per side. The load and slip are recorded during testing. The results show that the ultimate load per connector ranges from 24.9 kN to 29.4 kN, with an average value of 26.9 kN. An equation is proposed to determine the ultimate load of the connector. Good agreement is achieved between the theoretical and experimental results. An average value of 0.98 is obtained for theoretical to experimental results.

3D Numerical modeling of Soft soil Improved by Rigid Inclusions Supported an Embankment

MESSIOUD Salah; NEGHMOUCHE Yassamina

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 636-648
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.132023.1083

Abstract
A three-dimensional finite element model suggested to determine the settlements and stresses of an embankment placed on soft soil reinforced by rigid inclusions. To make it simple the layers of soil and the embankment are supposed to be horizontal in a semi-infinite medium and the base of the soft soil is supposed to be rigid (bedrock). The interacting elements of the model are supposed to be elastic. The determination of the behavior of the soil-inclusions-embankment system was realized according to the construction phases of the embankment layers. The settlements and stresses were calculated according to construction phases of the embankment layers. At the end of each calculation phase, the stress field and the displacement field are extracted. The values are then introduced into the model the beginning of the next phase. The obtained results are presented in terms of the (settlement) vertical displacements and vertical stresses for the elementary cell and the global model respectively. This study allows the observation of three-dimensional interactions; the mechanisms of load transfer and the interaction between the different zones of the embankment. The numerical calculations are much lower than those measured in situ. A verification calculation on the stresses transmitted by the rigid inclusion shows that only 90% of the total load is applied with the numerical calculation.

Environmental Investigation of Bahar Al-Najaf Region Using Sentinel-2 Images

Mustafa H. Al-Helaly; Imzahim A. Alwan; Amjed N. AL-Hameedawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 732-742
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i5.2245

This study aims to shed light on the indicators of environmental change and environmental impact assessment during the past five years in a representative area of the western part of Iraq (BAHAR-ALNAJAF). This is to understand the leading causes that led to the environmental changes from (2016 to 2020) due to the change in land cover in the study area. The paper refers to an environmental study for the study area using satellite data within the software environment (ArcGIS) and the application of remote sensing from two aspects: Ecological indices retrieval and the monitoring environment for land cover. Remote sensing and GIS software have been utilized to categorize (Sentinel-2) imagery into seven land use and land cover (LULC) classes: cropland land, orchards land, wetland, sandy area land, mixed barren land, built-up land, and water bodies. Supervised classification and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), and Normalized Difference Salinity Index (NDSI) were approved and utilized respectively to retrieve its class boundary. From a practical point of view, it was found that there is a rise in water levels in the Bahar Al-Najaf; this rising has led to the flooding of many built-up and vegetated lands. As a result, flooded land areas increased in 2020 to about 50% more than in 2016. Consequently, the built-up growth regions in the study area were very slow to change during the study period (2016-2020). The vegetation cover for 2020 is 56% higher than in 2016 because of the abundance of water and agricultural policy of this year.

SWOT-Based Assessment of the Maintenance Management of the Wastewater Treatment Plants in Iraq

Reem Tareq Al-Attar; Faris H. Al-Ani; Mahmoud Saleh Al-Khafaji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 677-694
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i5.2146

In Iraq, due to WWTPs being old and outdated, an evaluation of the maintenance management is needed to highlight the points of weaknesses and strengths of the plants. In this paper, the strength, weakness, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis model is designed with the Delphi Technique and Liker-scale and applied to the old Rustumiya project in Iraq (ORP). The design and application of this model are based on the design, operation and maintenance drawings and reports, and field visits to the ORP. In addition, three rounds of the questionnaire were sent to more than 80 experts varied in qualification and experience, considering the SWOT elements of the methods, materials, and human resources issues. The weight, relative importance, and implementation of each item in each SWOT element and the SWOT elements and issues were computed. The results showed that in the internal elements, the degree of importance of the weakness has a higher value of importance than the strength. In the external elements, the opportunities are considered more important. For the four issues, methods have the lowest weight while the materials have the highest. This alerts the major development required in this sector for a new plan for selecting and preparing maintenance materials. However, human resources come after the materials in terms of importance. The developed SWOT analysis model is beneficial for evaluating WWTPs with simplified and realistic results. Further, it can evaluate other projects like irrigation projects and water treatment plants.

Assessment of Future Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources of Khabour River Catchment, North Of Iraq

Lena Haitham; Mustafa Al-Mukhtar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 695-709
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i5.1925

In arid and semi-arid areas, assessing the potential impact of climate change on water availability is of critical importance for achieving better management of future water resources. Iraq as one example of those areas is expected to experience more stress on water due to the climatological characteristics and to the rapid population growth in addition to the policy of the riparian upstream countries. Therefore, the present study aims to quantify the impacts of climate change on the Khabour River catchment north of Iraq, which is one of the riparian catchments between Iraq and Turkey. The HEC-HMS model was firstly calibrated and validated against daily streamflow data measured for the period 01Jan2004-30Jun2009 near the catchment outlet at Zakho station. Thereafter, the future climate changes data from the HadGEM2_ES model was fed into the calibrated HEC-HMS model to quantify the future water resources availability. The impacts of climate change on the water under four possible scenarios of RCPs (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6, and RCP8.5) of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations for three future slice periods (2021-2030), (2041-2050), and (2061-2070); was assessed in attribution to that from the period (2000-2009). Results show that the implemented HEC-HMS model was superior in modeling the streamflow data. NSE, R² and RMSE value was 0.871, 0.89 and 26.7, respectively, for calibration and 0.936, 0.9364 and 18.0, respectively for validation. The results also suggest that annual river runoff will likely decrease under all scenarios of RCPs and time stages of the future period.

Structural Behavior of Ultra-High-Performance Concrete Beams Under Flexural and Shear Action: A Review

Adil M. Jabbar; Mohammed J. Hamood; Dhiyaa H. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 743-758
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131102.1003

Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) has a higher tensile strength than conventional concrete by about 6-times, besides a compressive strength greater than 150 MPa. It also exhibits linear and non-linear behavior on loading because of strain hardening and strain softening in compression and tension. Therefore, the effect of these mechanical properties can reflect in the beam behavior produced by UHPC. This paper deals with the methods and approaches adopted by some guidelines and recommendations that transact with the analysis and design of UHPC beams. The prevalent style of the methods is based on the equilibrium of the beam's section for the induced forces above the neutral axis, which represents the compression forces in concrete, and below the neutral axis, which designates the tensile forces in longitudinal rebars and that one in concrete. Since the tensile strength of UHPC is relatively high and cannot be ignored; therefore, it is considered in the analysis and design approach. The flexural capacity depends on the induced moment due to these forces. The structural analysis of UHPC depends on the stress-strain relationship in compression and tension. The linear portion of compression relation continues to about 80% of the compressive strength; therefore, it is considered in the analysis and design process.

Effect of Partial Saturation on Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Skirted Foundations

Mahmood R. Mahmood; Saad F. A. Al-Wakel; Muthana S. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 710-721
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i5.2259

Skirted foundations are one of the solutions proposed to increase the bearing capacity of the soil. They assist in increasing the load and depth of failure in weak ground or soils with low shear resistance and reducing the foundation settlement if a soil improvement method cannot be applied or the cost of implementing deep foundations increases. This study examined and investigated the extent of soil bearing of skirted foundations on sandy soils and studied the effect of soil saturation cases and three cases of water content reduction to measure the matric suction value of unsaturated soil. A physical model was created to simulate the strip foundation and compare these cases (dry-fully saturated-partially saturated). It was found that the soil load carrying capacity in the case of unsaturated soil is the highest, where matric suction is at a depth of 450 mm, followed by the dry case and then the saturated case as it represents the weakest state of the soil.

Development of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) Models for Manually Operated Rain Gauge Catchment: A Case Study of Port Harcourt Metropolis Using 50years Rainfall Data

Francis J. Ogbozige

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 627-635
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131839.1064

Hydraulic structures such as surface drainages and culverts are usually constructed in urban areas with the intention of draining runoff into nearby streams and rivers in order to avoid flooding. However, most of these structures frequently fail to serve the intended use due to the occurrence of high intensity rainfall accompanied with long duration, which produce runoff discharge higher than their designed capacities. This is common in many developing countries as drainages and culverts are most times constructed without considering hydrological analysis of the catchment. Hence, this research considered Port Harcourt city as a case study by utilizing 50years rainfall data to develop rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves that will be used for subsequent design of drainages and culverts within the city and its environs. The IDF curves were developed using Gumbel, Pearson type III and Log-Pearson type III distributions at return periods of 2, 5, 10, 25 and 50years. However, the durations considered were 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 300, 360 and 420minutes. Results showed that the IDF equations developed for the three frequency distributions highly correlate with the observed intensities since there goodness of fit (R2) ranges from 0.9766 – 0.9865. Also, it was noted that there was no significant difference (p < 0.01) between the predicted rainfall intensities from all the IDF equations and the observed intensities. Notwithstanding, the IDF equation developed for Gumbel distribution was recommended to be given higher priority since it has the highest R2 value.

Air-lift Reactor's Characterization via Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD): Review

Marwa M. Jasim; Thamer J. Mohammed; Laith S. Sabri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 484-497
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i3.2261

Airlift reactors are seen as the most promising reactor for many valuable productions such as algae culturing. However, this kind of reactor still needs more information and data to understand its phenomena due to limited studies. Also, to reduce the time and offers obtained with sufficient reactor design, capable of achieving high productivities, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) could play an important role in optimizing the reactor design by analyzing the interaction of hydro-dynamics. This review presents the literature review on the recent CFD work for such a reactor that addressed the fluid dynamics parameters, such as bubble dynamics. Earlier researches find more reports utilizing uniform bubble diameter in CFD simulations. However, the latest research in the CFD modeling of multi-phase flow reactors showed that the description of the bubble has significant effects on the performance of the simulation. As a result, systematic research into the impact of bubble diameter on the simulation results of the CFD was performed. Finally, we present and discuss the CFD modeling approaches, a Governing equation such as Eulerian-Eulerian (E-E), and closure such as the drag force.

A Review of the Natural Gas Purification from Acid Gases by Membrane

Dheyaa Jasim; Thamer J. Mohammed; Mohammad F. Abid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 441-450
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i3.1983

This study aims to shed light on natural gas as an important and promising energy source. This energy source is the fastest-growing source in the world due to the increasing global demand. In this paper, the rates of growth in global demand for natural gas according to the latest reports since 1984, as well as the gas specifications required for transport and storage, acid gases, including absorption, desorption, Cryogenic and separation by membranes, are discussed with the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Focusing are presented. In addition to the primary treatment processes that take place on the gas, the most important of which is the removal of acid gases. Processes for removing on the membrane separation process as the most promising process in this field and reviewing all the research that is discussed in details of this process.

The Use of Inexpensive Sorbents to Remove Dyes from Wastewater - A Review

Firas Ahmed; Adnan A. Abdul Razak; May A. Muslim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 498-515
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i3.2281

Dyes are utilized in various industrial applications, and some businesses' effluents include hazardous dyes. Humans, aquatic creatures, and the environment are all harmed by dyes. As a result, adequately treated dyes that manage wastewater must be before being discharged into nearby bodies of water. Adsorption has proven to be high and cost-effective in removing dyes from wastewater. The sorbent material for dye removal from industrial effluent is activated carbon, but its high cost limits massive-scale utilization. The use of cost-effective adsorbents for wastewater discharge dye elimination is discussed and analyzed in this paper. This review underlines and displays a preview of these IASs, including natural, industrial, and made-up materiality/wastes and their utilization in removing dyes. Experiments have shown that various inexpensive non-traditional adsorbents lead to effective dye removal. Accordingly, studies dealing with the search for effective and affordable sources from current resources are becoming increasingly crucial for eliminating dye. The excess desire for functional and affordable processing modes and adsorption significance has led to inexpensive alternative sorbents (IASs). The isotherm analysis and adsorption kinetics indicate that Langmuir / Freundlich, besides the pseudo-second-order model, is the most used pattern for convenient empirical adsorption datum. Low-cost by-products from the agricultural, residential, and industrial sectors have been identified as viable wastewater treatment alternatives. They make it possible to remove contaminants from wastewater while also contributing to waste minimization, recovery, and reuse. This review revealed that some IASs, have ratable adsorption capabilities and rapid kinetics, besides having vastly available.

Curcumin Loaded onto Magnetic Mesoporous Material MCM-41 for Controlled and Released in Drug Delivery System

Nidhal A. Atiyah; Mohammed A. Atiya; Talib M. Albayati

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 472-483
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i3.2174

In this work, the mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) of type MCM-41 were manufactured and modified with Fe3O4 to load curcumin (CUR) CUR@Fe3O4/MCM-41 as an efficient carrier in drug delivery systems. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms were used to characterize the three samples: pure MCM-41, Fe3O4/MCM-41, & CUR@Fe3O4/MCM-41. Adsorption processes tests were carried out to determine the impact of various variables on the CUR load efficiency. These variables were the carrier dosage, pH, contact time, and initial CUR concentration. The maximal drug loading efficiencies (DL %) were 15.78 % and 22.98 %, respectively. According to the data, The Freundlich isotherm had a stronger correlation coefficient R2= 0.999 for MCM-41, while the Langmuir isotherm had a greater R2 of 0.9666 for Fe3O4/MCM-41. A pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits well with R2=0.9827 for MCM-41 and 0.9994 for Fe3O4/MCM-41. Phosphate Buffer Solution (PBS) with a pH of 7.4 was utilized to study CUR release behavior. According to the research, the maximum release for MCM-41 and Fe3O4/MCM-41 might be 74.1 % and 25.19 % after 72 h, respectively. Various kinetic release models were used, including First-order, Korsmeyer-Peppas, Hixson and Crowell, Higuchi, and Weibull. After 72h, the drug release data were fit using a Weibull kinetic model with an R2 of 0.944 and 0.764 for MCM-41 and Fe3O4/MCM-41, respectively.

Electromechanical Design and Manufacturing of Dynamic Buckling Test Rig Under Various Temperature Conditions

Shaymaa M. Mshattat; Hussain J.M Al-Alkawi; Ahmed H. Reja

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 233-240
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2276

A column is a structural member that bears an axial compressive load and is more likely to fail due to buckling compared to material strength. Some of these columns work at a high temperature and this temperature affects the behavior of buckling. Therefore, the designer must take this factor (temperature) into consideration. For the purpose of studying the effect of different temperatures on the phenomenon of buckling under compression dynamic loads to evaluate the state of failure for different types of columns, the thermal buckling test device has been designed and manufactured. Using this rig, practical tests can be conducted on solid and hollow columns of different metals and diameters, and thus the safe critical load for the column can be predicted. This device was successful in evaluating the life of the columns made of aluminum alloy (6061-T6) when the buckling interacts with heat. The current study found that rising the temperature increases the failure under the buckling phenomenon.

Manufacturing and Calibration of Conical Springs Lateral Stiffness Meter

Muhammad S. Tahir; Shakir S. Hassan; Jumaa S. Chiad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 76-81
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2201

The spring is an important mechanical part of which widely used in many industrial applications. There is an urgent need to know its stiffness property before use in any application. Since the stiffness varies according to the method of using the spring in this research, it is suggested to calculate the lateral stiffness of spring by the moment effect. the device meter of the lateral stiffness of conical springs has been designed and manufactured working principle applying a torque to the head of the spring and calculating the angle of inclination. This research includes an experimental aspect (tensile test of steel wires, manufacture of the device lateral hardness meter, manufacture of four conical springs from steel wire inspected with diameters of 3.4, 3.8, 4, and 5 mm, and testing the springs with the manufactured device). As for the simulation aspect, it comprises calculating the lateral stiffness by numerical analysis using the solid work program. After extracting the hardness values practically by the device and comparing them with simulation values, the device proved its efficiency for small diameters after the experimental results have been compared with the results of the simulation, as the error rate increased with the increase in the diameter of the spring wire, so the highest acceptable error that could be reached by the device was 5% for the diameter 4.36 mm and zero error at the diameter 1.2 mm.

The Effect of Secondary Slow on Droplets Behavior in Gas-Liquid Mixing Process Downstream of a Curved Duct

Abdulsattar J. Mohammed; Akeel A. Nazzal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 195-206
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2152

Experimental and numerical investigations are carried out on water injection in a humidification process of air traveling steadily through the curved part with a constant cross-section. A principal aim is to study the flow behavior through the curved duct and the generation of secondary flow. The effect of bend angle on the development of secondary flow and flow structure intensities and enhancement of the heat and mass transfer downstream the curved duct. Moreover, the influence of the mixing process between liquid and gas in an air humidification process was examined. Experiments were performed with an average air velocity range from (2.5 to 5 m/s) while keeping the water injection rate of (19 kg/h) through (50) cm square wind tunnel includes three bend angles of (45º, 90ºand 135º) along with three sets of nozzle tilt angles of (-45º, 0º and 45º) to the axial flow direction. The study also implies a numerical analysis using ANSYS FLUENT 2019 R3 with the turbulent model of RNG using (k-ε). Experimental results showed that the optimum operating condition (greater extent of cooling and humiliation) was obtained with a bend angle of 135º at axial water injection, i.e., 0º nozzle tilt angle at the lowest air velocity of 2.5 m/s. This could be attributed to the strong identical vortices developed and better droplet distribution across the duct, and more time available for heat exchange between water droplets and the air stream. The maximum reduction in treated air temperature was 28 %, with 219% in the relative humidity of the air stream. This condition gave corresponding cooling effectiveness of 58%.      

Effect of Temperature and Humidity Factors on Water Production Using Solar Energy with Smart Controlling

Ghusoon A. Aboud; Hashim A. Hussein; Ali H. Numan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 241-248
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2282

The aim of the current work is to study the effect of temperature and humidity factors on the production of water from humid air using clean energy, as we have noticed that both factors have an effective impact on the atmospheric air and on the amount of water that was obtained, which is useful in areas that do not have electric power sources or fresh water, and solar energy is used as the main source of energy in open areas. The motivation is to evaluate the performance of the system in light of different air flow rates and in different locations in Iraq depending on the experimental data obtained and the parameters related to the proposed system. We have noticed that high temperatures lead to the increase in evaporation and then to an increase in the percentage of water in the air, and the humidity factor is better in the range between (25 to 65) %, and when the relative humidity reaches 100%, the water vapor begins to condense to form dew, and the temperature is called the dew point when this occurs. Therefore, the water harvesting device was designed as a solution to reduce moisture considering it a source of drinking water, keeping in mind the main contribution which is to use solar energy, with a low cost, a work efficiency of up to 60%, and most importantly smart controlling.

A Modified Kalman Filter-Based Mobile Robot Position Measurement using an Accelerometer and Wheels Encoder

Ali Madhloom; Firas A. Raheem; Azad R. Kareem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 267-274
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2082

Position measurement is an essential process of mobile robot navigation. In this research, a Kalman Filter is applied to locating a mobile robot furnisher with an encoder and accelerometer. The accelerometer updates its position off-hand. It has an acceptable short period of stability. However, this stability will be decreased over time. The odometry model is utilized to measure the mobile robot's position and heading angle using encoders equipped with the wheels of the mobile robot. Moreover, the odometry model's errors exist because of the wheel rotating speed's integrative nature and non-systematic errors. In this work, the mobile robot position estimation in closed environments was studied. In order to obtain the optimal estimation, a Kalman filter was used to estimate mobile robots' position and velocity, where the Kalman filter has been designed for better assessment of the mobile robot position. The suggested configuration collects accelerometer and odometry reading to assure more delicate position knowledge than standalone odometry or accelerometer. The proposed method's position error has an acceptable level that is less than (0.2 m) for both easy and difficult paths.

Solving Mixed-Model Assembly Lines Using a Hybrid of Ant Colony Optimization and Greedy Algorithm

Huthaifa Al-Khazraji; Sohaib Khlil; Zina Alabacy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 172-180
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2153

The assembly line balancing problem deals with the assignment of tasks to work stations. Mixed-model assembly line problem is a type of assembly line balancing problem at which two or more models of the same product are assembled sequentially at the same line. To achieve optimality and efficiency of solving this problem, tasks at each work station have to be well balanced satisfying all constraints. This paper deals with the mixed-model assembly line balancing problem (MALBP) in which the objective is to minimize the cycle time for a given number of work stations. The problem is solved by using a hybrid of an ant colony optimization and a greedy algorithm (Ant-Greedy). MATLAB Software is used to perform the proposed method. Then, the proposed method is applied to a real case problem found in the literature for the assembly line of automatic changeover in the Electronic Industries Company in Iraq. The results of the proposed method are compared with the performance of the Merging Shortest and Longest Operation (MMSLO) method. The comparison shows that the Ant-Greedy optimization method is more efficient, where the efficiency increased from 93.53% for MMSLO method to 97.26% for the Ant-Greedy method.

A-Review for the Cooling Techniques of PV/T Solar Air Collectors

Wisam H. Saleh; Abdullateef A. Jadallah; Ahlam L. Shuraiji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 129-136
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2139

A solar thermal collector is one of the most popular applications of solar energy. It is a photovoltaic (PV) cell system with a thermal collector system, this system is utilized in the production of electrical energy and many applications. The system is able to produce electrical energy directly from the sunlight using the photoelectric effect. Meanwhile, it also extracts heat from the PV and heats the fluid (airflow) inside the collector. In this review, the solar PV system and solar thermal collectors are discussed. Usually, solar collectors are exposed to damage and their efficiency decreases when the temperature rises. Need constant cooling. In addition, the methods utilized to cool the solar collector are presented, including cooling with air, water, and others methods. It has been shown that the water-based cooling system was at a rate of 48%, while the air-based cooling system was at a rate of 26%, and that cooling by other methods was at a rate of 26%. These methods were applied to the enhancement of the photovoltaic cell efficiency under different conditions. The study revealed the important role being played with the application of solar energy.

Evaluating the Adhesive Properties of Four Types of Conventional Adhesives

Muhanad H. Mosa; Mohsin N. Hamzah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 120-128
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2137

The development of manufacturing technology led to the appearance of various products that need effective types of adhesives with good strength and durability in different types of joints. Accordingly, the issue is how to choose the appropriate adhesive for the specific application relying on the properties of adhesive besides, the work conditions. This work deals with the experimental testing of four types of an adhesives that have been prepared to test by the two types of joints to comprehend the behavior of adhesives then choose the most effective and optimum type. The Butt and single lap joint tests were achieved according to the ASTM standard D2095–96 and D-1002-99 respectively. The adhesives that were used were epoxy Resins, MS Hybrid Polymers, Polyvinylester, and R.T.V Silicon Rubber, also, used a steel material as adherents. The study concluded important points about these adhesives and the recommendation suggested essential points to select satiable adhesive.

Flow Improvement and Viscosity Reduction for Crude Oil Pipelines Transportation Using Dilution and Electrical Field

Noor I. Jalal; Raheek I. Ibrahim; Manal K. Oudah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 66-75
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2192

One of the great challenges in pipeline transportation of heavy crude oil is the effect of viscosity on flow rate. By using viscosity reduction techniques, crude oil flow ability can be enhanced. However, the dual effect of dilution and electric fields on crude oil flow ability is still not well addressed. The main goal of this study is to reduce viscosity and improve the flow rate of heavy crude oil through pipelines using dual techniques of electrical field and dilution. The optimization technique was used to investigate the interaction effects of experimental variables on the objective function. As compared to crude oil treated solely by dilution or electrical field, the dual treatment could result in more substantial reductions in viscosity. In this experiment, at first, the dilution's impact is studied. Acetone was used as a diluent in different concentrations. The great viscosity reduction is about 21.98% when adding 20 wt. % of acetone. Secondly, when the effect of the electric field has been studied, a reduction in viscosity of about 35.6% was observed when 36.67(v/cm) is applied. Lastly, the effect of combined treatment (dilution and electric field) has been investigated according to factorial design. The optimum viscosity reduction is about 61.856% at 11 wt. % acetone and 36.67 (v/cm) of the electric field.

Modeling and Simulation of Telescopic Hydraulic for Elevating Purposes

Istabraq H. Abed Al-Hady; Farag M. Mohammed; Jamal A.K. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 226-232
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2253

The hydraulic cylinder is widely used in industry as the load lifting structures. A telescopic hydraulic cylinder is a special design of a cylinder with a series of gradually smaller diameter tubes overlapping each other. Three-stage telescopic cylinder performance analysis is performed with the help of the Finite Element Method. Also, MATLAB Simulink is used to create a complete design of the dynamic model of the telescopic cylinder. The analysis results of characteristic curves for telescopic cylinder position, velocity, and acceleration show the simulation model's accuracy and plausibility. This package will provide a basic reference for analyzing and designing the hydraulic cylinders with any number of stages. Simulation results show that a sudden change of pressure upon phase change will lead to multi-phase vibration.

Experimental Investigation of Artificial Cavities Effect of Single-Phase Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Single Microchannel

Qahtan A. Al-Nakeeb; Ekhlas M. Fayyadh; Moayed R. Hasan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 109-119
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2122

In this paper, an experimental study has been conducted to investigate the influence of artificial cavities (artificial nucleation sites, ANS) in a single microchannel on the characteristics of flow and heat transfer at a single-phase flow. The experiments were performed with deionized water as a working fluid at 30OC inlet temperature with a range (108.6-2372) of Reynolds numbers. Three models of the straight microchannel (model-1, model-2, and model-3) were manufactured of brass having a rectangular shape with a hydraulic diameter of (0.42 mm). Model-1 has a smooth surface, while model-2 has artificial cavities with a number of 40 ANS located on the base of the microchannel; along a line adjacent to one of the sidewalls. Also, the artificial cavities of model-3 exist at the base of the microchannel; along a line that is nearest to each sidewall for the microchannel. The number of ANS at each sidewall is 40 (i.e. the overall number of artificial nucleations is 80). The results manifested the enhancement of heat transfer by the presence of ANS for model-2 and model-3 as compared to model-1 by 15.53% and 16.67%, respectively. Also, the results proved that the fanning friction factor correlation for laminar and turbulent flow can predict very well the results (MAE=6.6-7.2%) and (MAE=4.1-7.7%), respectively. Also, the Nusselt number increases with increasing Reynolds number. However, the conventional correlation that predicted the experimental results is lower than the correlations (MAE=30.1%, 13.2% and 12.6%) for Model-1, -2 and -3, respectively.

Effect of the Waste Rubber Tires Aggregate on Some Properties of Normal Concrete

Abdul Rah; Ahmed Ali; Nahedh Mahmood; Mohammed M. Kadhum

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 275-281
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2166

Waste rubber tires are considered to have substantial environmental and economic impacts, and they are non-biodegradable.  This study aims to get rid of waste tires as much as possible and study their benefits and effects on concrete using (chips and crumbs) as an aggregate substitution to fine and coarse aggregates together in making concrete (CRC) and at different percentages of (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25) % by volume. This use can reduce the risk and effect of waste tires. The tests reported a reduction in workability, compressive, and flexural values with the increase in the substitution rate of rubber. Still, other properties such as density and thermal conductivity improved. The registered highest decrease was 2013 kg/cm³ to density and 0.56 (W/m.k) to thermal conductivity with replacement of 50% from waste rubber tiers as an aggregate. The workability registered the highest decrease of 35 mm, compressive strength was 18.5 MPa, and flexural was 3.35 MPa. However, the failure of the (CRC) samples test was not as brittle and abrupt as in the control sample (NSC) in the flexural test.

Development the Mechanical Properties of the Acrylic Resin (PMMA) by Added Different Types of Nanoparticles, Used for Medical Applications

Sura H. Ahmed; Waffa M. Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 166-171
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2017

This research is studying the effect of reinforcement the acrylic resin (PMMA) by two types of nanoparticles, which included: Walnut shell (WSP) and Talc particles (TP) that practical sizes are (40.8 and 29.2 nm) in individually form, and utilize at three various concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3wt.%), to improve in the mechanical properties of composite materials. The results showed that the Tensile and Hardness shore D properties became better with increasing the concentration of nanoparticles. The highest value of (tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and elongation at break) was (28 MPa. 1.28 GPa and 2.35%) for (PMMA: 0.3% WSP) composite specimens. And the highest value of hardness shore D was (77) for (PMMA: 0.3% WSP) composite specimen.

Control of PV Panel System Temperature Using PID Cuckoo Search

Fadi M. Khaleel; Ibtisam A. Hasan; Mohammed J. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 249-256
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2307

In this study, the PV panel behavior as a nonlinear system had been studied well. The main contribution of this work was cooling the PV panel temperature to get the optimal power using a PID-CSA controller which was never employed previously in this application. In the beginning, the system has been modeled using three artificial neural network methods which are NARX, NAR and nonlinear input output based on MSE. Then, the PID controller with the intelligent cuckoo search algorithm technique had been studied to accustom PID controller parameters () based on MSE, ASE and IAE. The results exhibited that the best modeling method was NARX with 0.2255 MSE. On the other hand, all the controlling methods were effective and showed an excellent ability to control the system; however, the best method was based on MSE with an error equal to 2.578.

Design and Implementation of Remote Real-Time Monitor System for Prosthetic Limbs

Hussein A. Mansoure; Hadeel N. Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 60-65
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2187

Persons with Lower-limb amputations experience movement restrictions resulting in worsening their life quality. Wearable sensors are often utilized to evaluate spatial and temporal qualities and kinetic parameters that provide the mechanism to create interactive monitoring of the amputee prosthesis system. Gait events and detection of the gait phase of amputee movement are essential to control the prosthetic devices of lower limbs.  This paper presents real-time monitoring to individuals with lower limb amputation by using a medical wireless sensor. However,  the proposed system used four medical sensor nodes (such as gait, temperature, the pressure of blood, blood oxygenation (SpO2) )for transmitted medical data by the   RFB 24  to the sink node to collected data and upload by   ESP32  to the Local cloud ( Raspberry pi 4)   by using   Wi-Fi network, then design the web application for enable the doctor monitor the patient (lower-limb amputation (LLA))  and provide the reporter to on each patient,  where local cloud provides the data to the web application. The conduction of this work is using one sink node to four nodes (patient) to reduce the data rate and the energy consumption. In this work, one IP to four medical sensor nodes lowers the data rate to 60%, and the energy consumption by the sensing nodes is lowered by 20% that using one IP instead of using five IP reduce the size of the transmitted packet.

Blind Assistive System based on Real Time Object Recognition using Machine learning

Mais R. Kadhim; Bushra K. Oleiwi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 159-165
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.1933

Healthy people carry out their daily lives normally, but the visually impaired and the blind face difficulties in practicing their daily activities safely because they are ignorant of the organisms surrounding them.  Smart systems come as solutions to help this segment of people in a way that enables them to practice their daily activities safely as possible.  Blind assistive system using deep learning based You Only Look Once algorithm (YOLO) and Open CV library for detecting and recognizing objects in images and video streams quickly. This work implemented using python. The results gave a satisfactory performance in detecting and recognizing objects in the environment. The results obtained are the identification of the objects that the Yolo algorithm was trained on, where the persons, chairs, oven, pizza, mugs, bags, seats, etc. were identified.

Experimental Exergetic And Energetic Analysis of Different (PV) Array Configurations

Dalya A. Omer; Mahmoud M. Mahdi; Ahlam L. Shuraiji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 82-89
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2052

It is well known that photovoltaic (PV) can be connected in parallel, series, and parallel series. In this study, four PV panels are connected in four different ways, i.e., 4panels parallel (4p), 3panels parallel*1panel series (3p*1s), 2panels parallel*2panels parallel (2p*2p) connected in series, and 2panels series *2panels series (2s*2s) connected in parallel, to determine the best PV panels configuration for supplying DC power to the Variable Speed Compressor (VSC) with the highest average exergy efficiency and minimum exergy losses under sunny daylight hours. Experimental data is used to calculate the exergy efficiency of the mentioned configurations. The best results are delivered by (2p*2p) configuration with average exergy efficiency of 43.77% and exergy efficiency of 88.05%. Whereas the percentage of improvement for the average exergy efficiency of this configuration compared with the (2s*2s), (4p), and (3p*1s) are (55.93%), (63.69%) and (78.9%) respectively.

Design and Implementation of an Electromechanical Brake System

Haider N. Faisal; Farag M. Mohammed; Jamal A. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 31-39
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2150

Nowadays, hydraulic brakes are already being replaced by electromechanical brakes (EMB) to improve quick-response brakes, efficient fuel consumption, environmentally sound, simple maintenance, and enhanced safety design. It is suggested that the electromechanical brake will be one of the most important brake systems in the future. This study focuses on designing and implementing an electromechanical brake based on a brushless DC (BLDC) motor and position controller to generate and control the required braking force at a variable friction coefficient between disc and pad. A feedback controller equipped with a measuring sensor is usually utilized to control this type of brake. Thus, three controllers for current, speed, and position were implemented in successive loops to control the motor movement. This system has current, speed, and force sensors. Due to implementation difficulties and cost issues of braking, the clamping sensor should be replaced with a position sensor with some modification where a position controller has been designed and implemented. The results showed that the clamping force of the brake system can follow the target accurately and it has good performance. Also, it is shown that this system can adjust the brake force more accurately and quickly compared with the traditional.

Thermal Performance of an Evacuated-Tube Solar Collector Using Nanofluids and an Electrical Curtain Controlled by an Artificial Intelligence Technique

Hussam J. Rashid; Khalid F. Sultan; Hosham S. Anead

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 8-19
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2021

This paper studies the improvement of an evacuated tube solar collectors(ETSCs) performance in two way. The first is by adding a finned electronic curtain in front of the solar collector. While the second is by using a nanofluid instead of pure water. The purpose of the curtain is to increase the amount of solar radiation reflected toward the collector. The curtain is distinguished by its self-ability to track the sun's rays automatically. The electronic curtain is also closed to shade the tubes depending on the movement of the electronic curtain's fins and the nanofluid's temperatures. MATLAB algorithm has been used to design the Simulink model and control the system using Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The results showed that the system performance improved using TiO2(50nm)+PW) as a working fluid without the curtain are (3.906%,5.34%, and7.407%), while the rate of improvement in the case of distilled water only was 2.34%and3.81%. Finally, by adding the finned electronic curtain to the system and use of TiO2(50nm)+PW) as a working fluid, the efficiency increased by 7.03%,9.16%, and 11.89%. The results showed that the performance of evacuated tubes solar collectors increased by using a nanofluid and the finned electronic curtain.

A Comparative Experimental Study Analysis of Solar Based Thermoelectric Refrigerator Using Different Hot Side Heat Sink

Nora F. Numan; Mahmmoud M. Mahdi; Majida K. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 90-98
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2058

The heat sink influences heat dissipation at the hot junction of the Peltier module and, hence, affects the performance of the thermoelectric refrigerator. The present work compares the performance of solar-powered thermoelectric refrigerator units with capacity (30 Liter) for two cases by employing two different heat sink types. In case (I) The Peltier module (12706) is connected with a heat sink type of Hot wall air-cooled (HWAC). In case (II) the Same Peltier is connected with a heat sink type of hot wall air-cooled with a heat exchanger (HWACHE). The exergy analysis method can help to determine the exergy losses and exergy efficiency of the thermoelectrical refrigerator unit. Despite the change of the (COP) of the thermoelectrical refrigerator throughout the day. The average value of it in two cases was approximately (0.3). Furthermore, the exergy efficiency varied from a minimum value of (0.3%) to a maximum value (0.8%)in case (I). While it varies from the minimum value of (0.4%)to a maximum value of (1%) in case(II). Whereas the average exergy efficiency was 0.5% and 0.62% in case (I) and case (II) respectively This means that there is a percentage improvement in the average exergy efficiency of 19.4% in case (II) compared to the case (I).

Corn Oil Performance’s A Bio Cooling Fluid in Electric Distribution Transformer

Ahmed A. Khudhair; Mohammed H. Jabal; Samar J. Ismail

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 20-30
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2031

Biodegradable (Vegetable) fluids are considered as environmentally friendly fluids and possess an abundant benefit, they are wildly available by means of renewable sources compared to different kinds of mineral-oil.  Given the occurrence of environmental pollution and health problems from mineral oils.  This paper investigates the effect of utilizing the corn oil for the cooling performing features of distribution electric transformer, and making a comparison with the cooling performance of the electric transformer whith cooling by the commercial mineral fluid. This investigation is done by using the four- ball machine and electric transformers. Each experiment that was executed complies with ASTM D4172-B under different electrical loads (200-1600W). Depending on the outcomes of the four-ball machine and electric transformer, it has been noticed that the corn oil has the adequate cooling behavior compared to the commercial cooling fluid. It maintains the insulation housing between the coils, and maintains the coils when overloaded at peak time.

Experimental and Numerical Flexural Properties of Sandwich Structure with Functionally Graded Porous Materials

Emad Njim; Sadeq H. Bakhi; Muhannad Al-Waily

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 137-147
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2184

Functionally graded porous materials (FGPMs) are porous structures with a porosity gradient distributed over the entire volume. They have many applications in the aerospace, marine, biomedical, automotive, and shipbuilding industries. High strength to weight and excellent energy absorption is the most important features that make these structures unique. In this paper, the flexural properties of simply-supported sandwich beams with functionally graded porous core under flexural load were evaluated experimentally and numerically based on various parameters. A three-point bending test for 3D printed sandwich specimens with porous metal core bonded with aluminum face sheets using various porosity parameters and core heights has been performed to measure the peak load and maximum deflection and explore the sandwich structure's strength. To validate the accuracy of the experimental solution, a finite element analysis (FEA) is carried out using ANSYS 2021 R1 software. Tests and FEM show that the sandwich beam behavior is closely related to porosity, power-law index, and FG porous metal core thicknesses. Experimental results indicated that at a porosity ratio of 10 %, FG core height 10 mm the maximum bending load was 573 N and maximum deflection 13.8 mm respectively. By increasing porosity to become 30% using the same geometrical parameters, the bending load was reduced by 15.4 % while the deflection exhibited a 1.4 % increase. The Numerical results for the three-point bending are compared with experimental measurements, showing a fair agreement with a maximum discrepancy of 15%.

Optimization of Design Parameters for Manufacturing a Radial Active Magnetic Bearing with 12-Poles

Mohamed N. Hamad; Muhannad Z. Khalifa; Jamal A. K. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 207-216
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2202

This research aims to design an Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) after performing an optimization process via reducing the number of poles and by reducing air gap, Dia. Yoke, and Z-length (deep of model). To increase the performance of a radial Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB), all particular equations of design based on the Genetic Algorithm method by using ANSYS Maxwell (Version 17.1) program of electro-magnetic have been studied. Manufacturing an active magnetic bearing standing for two counts, each one containing 12 poles instead of 16, led to a significant improvement in the performance. Some conclusions were obtained, including the complications in the control system will be reduced when they are linked in AMB. The complexities of the control system are inversely proportional to the number of poles and the model covered in this study is made of a material with good engineering and magnetic characteristics steel 37-2.

Improvement of Surface Roughness in Single Point Incremental Forming Process by the Implementation of Controlled Vibration

Reham A. Nema; Mauwafak A. Tawfik; Muthanna H. Sadoon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 217-225
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2244

Vibration implementation that assists metal forming has many advantages, such as enhancement of surface equality, reducing the forming force and decreasing the stresses. The technology of single-point incremental forming with all the above-mentioned advantages has been performed with the vibration. This paper focuses on the average surface roughness (Ra) improvement of the final product by using the vibration. The average roughness was found to be affected by vibration of the sheet metal. The combination of vibration produced a better surface quality of the forming shape by using an active damper to control the vibration.  For determining the damping ratio, which gives the necessary roughness, an artificial neural network (ANN) was created based on experimental results. A feed forward neural network with Liebenberg–Marquardt back propagation algorithm was utilized for building the artificial neural network model (3-n-1). Confirmation runs were conducted for verifying the agreement between the predicted results of ANN with those of the experimental outcomes. As a result, the product surface quality is increased where the surface roughness was reduced by (18%) from the surface roughness without vibration. The best reduction rate was in the axial forming force at (100 Hz) frequency, where the reduction rate was about (11.64%) from the force without vibration.

The Combining Effect of Inclination Angle, Aspect Ratio and Thermal Loading on the Dynamic Response of Clamped-Clamped Pipe Conveying Fluid

Jabbar H. Mohmmed; Mauwafak A. Tawfik; Qasim A. Atiyah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 40-48
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2159

The investigation of the vibration of pipes containing flowing fluid is very essential to obtain an understanding of their dynamic behavior and prevent their catastrophic failure due to fatigue. Pipelines are subjected to environmental static and dynamic loading including self-weight, restoring, and Carioles forces. This research aims to investigate the vibrations of pipeline structures for examining their structural integrity under these conditions. A linear Euler-Bernoulli beam model is used to analyze the dynamic response of flexible, inclined, and fixed ends pipe conveying fluid made of polypropylene random-copolymer. Closed-form expression for dynamic response is presented by using combining of finite Fourier sine and Laplace transforms method. The influences of the inclination angle, thermal load, and aspect ratio (ratio of outside diameter to the length of pipe) on the dynamical behavior of the pipe–fluid system are studied. The obtained results attest to the importance of considering combining effects of the inclination angle, thermal load, and aspect ratio in analyzing and designing pipe conveying fluid. It is observed that the dynamic deflection can be significantly increased by increasing temperature, aspect ratio, and fluid velocity, while it reduced by increasing the inclination angle with the horizontal axis in the range of (0-90).

Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Adding Butanone to Gasoline in SI Engine Emissions and Performance

Abed Al-Khadhim M. Hassan; Sadeq A. Jassam

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 148-158
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2207

This research is performed to study and investigate the influence of adding some ketone compounds on performance, emissions, and heat balance of spark ignition engine. The compound used in this study is butanone (C4H8O). The importance of the research lies in increasing the octane number by adding specific percentages of butanone and showing its impact on improving the combustion process, performance and reducing pollutants. This ketone has been added to the basic fuel (gasoline) with three concentration ranges (3, 6 and 9%), respectively.  All experimental tests were carried out on gasoline engine type (Nissan QG18DE), four cylinders, and 4-stroke. The acquired results showed that adding of ketones affects the physical properties of gasoline, where the density changed from (710 kg/m3) for net gasoline to (724 kg/m3) for butanone at an adding ratio of (9%). The octane number also increased for all types of ketones compared with pure fuel, and it will be improved from (86) for pure gasoline to (93.1) for butanone at an adding ratio of (9%). While the calorific value will be decreased from (43000 kJ/kg) for gasoline to (41665.44) for butanone at an adding ratio of (9%). The addition of ketones improves the emissions characteristic of the engine. The best reductions of (UHC, CO2, CO and NOx) were (47.51, 24.9, 27.35 and 35.91%), respectively recorded by butanone addition at a ratio of (9%). In the case of performance, the best increments of brake power, brake thermal efficiency and volumetric efficiency were (14.5, 7, 14.94 and 11.64%), respectively, which is achieved by adding (9%) of butanone.

Preparation of Metakaolin Based Geopolymer Foam Using a Combination of Na and K Types of Alkali Activators

mohammed S. Radhi; Ahmed M. Al-Ghaban; Imad A. Disher

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 282-289
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2188

In this research, the ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was mixed with metakaolin, activator, hydrogen peroxide, and olive oil to synthesize hybrid geopolymer foam. The obtained results indicated internal heat release throughout OPC hydration in the combination. OPC was employed as a calcium source in geopolymers (Geopolymer-Portland cement (HGPF)) to explore the curing process of geopolymers at ambient temperature. The functionality of geopolymer components and (HGPF) mixture, the elemental composition, and proportion analyses have been compared. A principal aim of this research focuses on developing geopolymer foam and conducting many tests such as physical tests related to the surface area and pores size and compression of the foam to investigate the capacity of applying this foam in different applications that require good strength. Furthermore, microstructure tests using SEM and XRD techniques have been conducted to examine surface structure components. Overall, the findings presented in this research show that the materials selected to develop the geopolymer foam were compatible with each other giving high porosity with acceptable compression via optimizing the processing parameters by RSM.

The Effect of Process Parameters on the Compression Property of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Produced by 3D Printer

Sabreen A. Oudah; Hind B. Al-Attraqchi; Nassir A. Nassir

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 189-194
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2118

Additive manufacturing (AM) by Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) provides an innovative manufacturing method for complex geometry components. 3D printers have become easily accessible to the public. The technology used by these 3D printers is Fused Deposition Modelling. The majority of these 3D printers mainly use acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) to fabricate 3D objects. This study aims to investigate the influence of some printing parameters like infill pattern (Tri-Hexagon, Zig - Zag, and Gyroid), infill density (25%, 50%, and 75%), and layer thickness (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mm) on the compressive strength of ABS materials. The design of the experiment was achieved by Taguchi method. A total of nine specimens were fabricated with different processing parameters using a commercial FDM 3D printer and then were tested according to the ASTM D695 standard. Findings presented in this research showed that the compressive strength of printed parts depends on the printing parameters employed. Analysis of variance revealed that the infill density is the most sensitive parameter among the three parameters examined. The optimal printing parameters were (0.3 mm 75 %, Gyroid) for improving compression strength according to signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio analysis. Experiment number (9) showed the highest compression strength with a value of 44.64 MPa.

Heat Transfer in Electronic Systems Printed Circuit Board: A Review

Mustafa E. Kadum; Ahmed A. Imran; Sattar Aljabair

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 99-108
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2113

Thermal regulation has now become a staple in the design of electronic devices. As a result of technological advances in the electronic industry, component miniaturization and thermal system management are becoming more and more important. Due to the high demand for device performance and the need for better thermal management, this paper present a detailed theoretical review of heat transfer by conventional methods in electronic devices and equipment such as air cooling, water cooling, etc. to provide an ideal framework for a practical application in electronic cooling. With reference to the possibility of investing unconventional ways to reduce the energy consumed in the cooling process and preserving the environment through the possibility of replacing solid circuit boards with flexible circuits and studying their properties in improving heat transfer and deformation of P.C.B using the interaction of fluid structure under thermal and flow effects.

Design of a Sliding Mode Controller for a Prosthetic Human Hand’s Finger

Hussein Sh. Majeed; Saleem K. Kadhim; Alaa A. Jaber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 257-266
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.1943

In this research paper, the modeling and control of a tendon-driven, instead of joint motors, the prosthetic finger that mimics the actual human index finger were deliberated. Firstly, the dynamic model of the prosthetic finger is developed based on a 3-degree of freedom (DOF) articulated robot structure and utilizing the Lagrange equation. Then, the classical sliding mode control (CSMC) strategy was implemented to control the finger motion. To overcome the cons of CSMC, such as the chattering problem, an adaptive sliding mode controller (ASMC) was developed.  MATLAB Simuphalange was used to perform the simulation after the necessary equations were derived. The results showed that the ASMC was superior to the CSMC in depressing the chattering and fast response.

Effect of Machining Parameters on Surface Roughness and Metal Removal Rate for AISI 310 L Stainless Steel in WEDM

Muayad M. Ali; Abbas F. Ibrahim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 181-188
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2060

Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is a non-traditional machining process that is widely used in the machining of conductive materials. This paper presents the investigation on surface roughness and metal removal rate of stainless steel using the wire-cut EDM process. Process input parameters wire feed (WF), wire tension (WT), servo voltage (SV), pulse on time (TON) and pulse off time (Tuff), and the output parameters surface roughness and metal removal rate. The work piece material was used stainless steel 310 L, zinc-coated brass wire of 0.25mm diameter used as a tool and distilled water is used as dielectric fluid. ANOVA used to measure and evaluate the relative importance of different factors. Experiments are designed and analyzed using the factorial design approach. The experimental results revealed that the most important machining parameter of the pulse of time has the most influence on the metal removal rate and the surface roughness. The maximum best metal removal rate is (0.052277 g/min). When the values are somewhat medium range, they are the best and the wire does not break at this range. Wire feed (7m/min), wire tension (7 kef), servo voltage (30 V), TON (30 sic), Tuff (30 sic). The expected values and measured values are well-matched as observed by additional confirmation experiments.

Elevated Temperature Corrosion of Mechanical Properties and Fatigue Life of 7025 Aluminum Alloy

Mohammed H. Alwan; Hussain J. Al-Alkawi; Ghada A. Aziz

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.1587

Aluminum alloys are widely used in aircraft industry where good corrosion resistance, light weight and high strength are the primary requirements.
In the present study, attempts have been made to extend the application of mechanical and fatigue properties of AA7025 in laboratory with corrosive environment of media and combined corrosive at elevated temperature (ET) 150⁰C. The experimental results and analysis of corrosion and corrosion - elevated temperature mechanical and fatigue behavior of the samples showed that the 3.5%NaCl corrosive media and corrosion - elevated temperature (ET) greatly decrease the properties mentioned. The Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) and Yield stress YS of AA 7025 reduced by 5.3% and 14.83% respectively due to combine corrosion and elevated temperature but these properties reduce by 8.7% and 19.35% respectively due to combined actions corrosion (ET). The Brinell hardness also reduced by 4.2% and 11.26% due to corrosion only and corrosion and (ET). Ductility was increased by 10.5% and 16.25% for corrosion and corrosion (ET). The environment and elevated temperature – corrosion have significant effect on reduction the fatigue life and strength of AA 7025. It’s clear that the combine corrosion and (ET) combination reduce safely of the mechanical properties compared with the corrosion only and room temperature conditions.

The Evaluation of Rental Amount of Religious Endowments by Using Geomatic Techniques and Machine Learning Algorithms Hilla/ Iraq

Oday, Z. Jasim; Mohammed Mejbel; Ali Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 12, Pages 1837-1850
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i12.2111

The religious endowments are one of the important sources, which acquire historical, cultural, and economic importance in all countries of the world. In particular, a religious endowment in Iraq includes several distributed real estates and lands that usually require efficient management systems. One of the most important factors affecting the management of real estates that belong to religious endowments is the rental amount of each real estate. In general, the estimation of the rental of real estates can support the future development of religious endowments. Governmental agencies are faced with some challenges in the management of religious endowments in terms of rental pricing due to numerous economic and geographic factors. The rapid development of artificial intelligence systems and Geomatic techniques can present a framework for rental amount estimation based on spatial and non-spatial factors. In this study, a machine learning algorithm (Support Vector Regression) will be combined with Geographic Information System (GIS) to predict and evaluate the rental amount of real estates that belong to a religious institution in Iraq (Shiite endowment in Hillah city). The final results indicated that the proposed method achieved an overall accuracy of 71%, a root mean square error of 0.2257 million Iraq, Dinar (IQD), and a correlation coefficient of 0.9272. This study can be used as an effective tool for the decision-makers to plan and manage the religious endowments in developing countries.  

Size Effect on The Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beams

Hind T. Jaber; Kaiss F. Sarsam; Bassman R. Muhammad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 12, Pages 1960-1976
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i12.2283

According to research, as the depth of a beam increases, the section's shear strength can be expected to decrease. The size effect is a phrase that has been used to describe this tendency. Testing of unreinforced specimens under shear has also shown that the shear strength might be lower than what is typically anticipated in the design. As a result, it is critical to comprehend the behavior of these structures, as they may be influenced by a size impact. Sixteen reinforced concrete beams of different rectangular cross-sections without stirrups were tested. The tested beams were simply supported made of high-strength reinforced concrete subjected to two equal concentrated loads up to the failure. The experimental results showed that all of the beam specimens failed in shear except one which had failed by flexure. Moreover, increasing beam height from 150 to 250 mm has decreased the cracking and ultimate shear strength ratio for all groups except for group four when the beam height increased from 150 to 300 mm the cracking and ultimate shear strength ratio has increased. Furthermore, increasing beam depth from 150mm to 300mm has led to increasing the ultimate load besides decreasing their final deflection at the same level of load, which is the apparent size effect in the stiffness of the tested beams.

Dynamic Behavior of Pavement Layers on Sand Subgrade

Mariam M. Hussein; Mohammed Y. Fattah; Miami M. Hilal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 12, Pages 1760-1770
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i12.1770

Reinforcement interlayer reduces the development of cracks in the asphalt overlay by absorbing the stresses induced by heavy traffic or underlying cracking in the early-constructed pavement. This research is dedicated to studying the behavior of pavement layers on a sand subgrade under simulated effect of earthquake. In this study, the sand layer has a thickness of 600 mm and the base course is taken as 300 mm. The asphalt layer was prepared as a panel with dimensions of 300 × 300 × 50, which represents the surface layer. These layers are experimentally tested under the influence of earthquake loading with different frequencies 0.5, 1, 1.5 Hz. The tests consist of two parts without adding the geogrid, with geogrid in the center of the base layer and between the base layer and sand layer. Loaded stresses in the three layers are monitored using stress gauge sensors, while displacements of the asphalt layer by using displacement gauge sensor. Obtained results considered models reinforced with geogrid, the stress recorded is higher than in unreinforced models but the displacement decreases by increasing the geogrid in the layers at three frequencies. When the geogrid is laid between the base course and sand layer, the stress in the sand subgrade layer is less than that in the base and asphalt layers.

Preparing WorldView2 Imagery for Map Updating Projects – Aldjyl/ Aleibayiji (Iraq/ North Baghdad) as a Case Study

Oday Z. Jasim; Mohammed M. Salih; Ahmed A. Luaibi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 12, Pages 1828-1836
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i12.1499

In the presented study, a WorldView2 WV2 satellite image has been prepared to be used in map updating projects. The performed operations can be classified into two categories, the first category includes pansharpening methods for creating a new 8- spectral bands of WV2 Imagery, each one of them has a 0.5-meter spatial resolution. The Pansharpening technique has been implemented with four different approaches, i.e. (Principal Components PC, Wavelet Transform WT, Hyperspherical Color Space HCS, and High Pass Filtering HPF). For these four methods and based on a visual comparison among the quality of the resulting images (with respect to the original Multi-spectral Worldview2 MS-WV2 image), the HCS image has been determined as the best one of them. Because of the high-security situation of the study area, and the impossibility of using the Global Positioning System GPS and other surveying devices there, the Controlled Image Based CIB of 1-meter resolution has been depended on as a source of reference Ground Control Points GCPs. Initially, set GCPs and Check Points are determined on both the HCS Pansharpened image and the CIB image. For maintaining the linearity of the geometric distortion within WV2 original image, the 1st order polynomial transformation model has been selected to perform the geometric correction process. It is clearly concluded that the resulted Root Mean Square Error RMSE of the geometric correction process is acceptable for a wide range of mapping applications. Moreover, the resulting geometrically corrected pan-sharpened WV2 image can be utilized for increasing the interpretation capability of the land features by giving more false color displaying options, and finally supporting the related map updating projects.

Effect of Starch Powder on Behavior of Silica Fume Biopolymer Concrete

Samir M. Atia; Waleed A. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 12, Pages 1797-1805
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i12.2103

The great economic development and the growth of modern means of construction have led to the spread of large quantities of chemical admixtures that we must be cautious of. As the world is turning towards environmentally friendly alternatives, finding locally viable solutions is becoming inevitable. The influence of using Nano starches of a biopolymer on certain properties of silica fume concrete in the fresh case (slump and fresh density) and in the hardened case (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and flexural strength) has been investigated. It has been added to silica fume concrete in various percentages of (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 0.75%) by cement weight. The mix proportions of concrete mixtures were 1:2.3:2.3, with a fixed w/c of 0.47 and 15 % silica fume added by the weight of cement for all mixers. super plasticizer of 0.75% is also added by the weight of cement for all mixtures. According to the findings, slump increased by 19%, and fresh density increased by 3% when Nano starch was added at a concentration of 0.75%. The optimal level of Nano starch addition was 0.25%, which resulted in a 43% increase in compressive strength and a 34% and 26% increase in splitting tensile and flexural strength of concrete, respectively.

Mitigation of the Factors Affecting the Autogenous Shrinkage of Ultra-High Performance Concrete

Adil M. Jabbar; Mohammed J. Hamood; Dhiyaa H. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 12, Pages 1860-1868
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i12.2155

Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a new generation of concrete characterized by its high strength, high durability, and high stiffness. Autogenously shrinkage represents one of the issues of UHPC that occurred at early ages. It occurs particularly during the first 48 hours after casting. This paper focuses on the ways that can be depended on to mitigate the autogenously shrinkage and obtain the outstanding mechanical properties of UHPC. The results showed that the use of coarse sand and high dose of high range water reduced the admixture above 5% of cementations of materials weight, and high ambient temperature at the time of mixing and casting led to increasing the autogenously shrinkage. While using fine sand, silica fume at 25% of cement weight, and crushed ice at 50% of mixing water to control the mixing temperature can reduce autogenously shrinkage significantly.

Effect of adding additional Carbon Fiber on Piezoresistive Properties of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Pavements under Impact Load

Ayad K. Mohammed; Ali Majeed Al-Dahawi; Qais S. Banyhussan S. Banyhussan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 12, Pages 1771-1780
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i12.1942

Multifunctional Cementitious Composite (MCC) characteristics are directly related to the type and dosage of the Electrically Conductive Materials (ECMs) reinforcing the relevant concrete matrices. This study investigated the electro-mechanical capacities of fiber reinforced concrete pavement (FRCP) with and without the addition of micro scale-carbon fiber (CF). The impact energy of FRCP under compacted load was evaluated initially; then, the effects of 0.5% and 1% content by volume of CF on the piezoresistivity capacities of FRCP were investigated under applied impact load. This type of load is the most common force causing long-term rigid pavement deterioration. Obtained results showed that the use of a hybrid fiber (micro-scale carbon fiber 0.5% and macro-scale steel fiber 1% by volume) enhanced the impact strength (impact energy) due to CF’s resistance to micro-cracks. The developed FRCP showed good results in terms of self-sensing under compact load with both 0.5 and 1.0% by volume of CF.

A Review About Preparation and Properties of Biochar and Application Fields in the Environment

Marwa Al Rawi; Ghayda Al Kindi; Jwad K. Al Refaae

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 12, Pages 1894-1904
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i12.1996

Biomass’ pyrolysis process is responsible for producing the biochar charcoal, this process does not incorporate the oxygen, and it is utilized as a soil enhancer for each one of the carbon sequestration, and soil health prospects. Biochar can be defined as a stabilized solid which is enriched with carbon and could remain in the soil for extended period of time. Biochar has been studied as a way of carbon sequestration, and it might be a way used for handling climate change and global warming. It happens due to the processes that are associated with pyrogenic carbon capturing and storages. This review is focused on an overview of biochar preparation and application in the environment, previous studies and Applications. Biochar is prepared from various organic materials such as miscanthus, switch grass, corn stover, and sugarcane bagasse. The method of preparation varies with different temperatures and the discharge of nitrogen gas used for a period of one hour not to mention thermal decomposition at different temperatures of heat (500, 600, 700 and 800oC). The success of its use as a adsorbent material, and in treating the soil from heavy metals, its suitability for agriculture, and the treatment of the liquid leachate from solid waste down into the groundwater, in addition to the treatment of groundwater when the topography of the region differs.

A Review of Composite Steel Plate Girders with Corrugated Webs

Ghazwan Ghanim; Wael S. Baldawi; Ammar A. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 12, Pages 1927-1938
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i12.2193

A corrugated steel plate girder is a vastly used structural element in numerous fields of application due to its many favorable characteristics. A corrugated web girder, the bending moments, and application forces are only transferred by means of flanges, that the maximum moment carrying capacity is more than any other hot-rolled sections used, while transverse shear forces are only transmitted through a corrugated steel web, webs at a greater depth to a thickness ratio are usually used resulting in slender sections that are susceptible to buckling on the Flat web. The use of corrugated web girders has been increasing in recent years due to optimizations in the automated manufacturing process of corrugated steel webs and a decrease in weight. Thus, to avoid buckling on the web and to obtain maximum strength, corrugations are provided in the area on the web. Corrugated steel plate girder’s ability to be used in numerous fields of application due to its preferred properties. The main advantage of the corrugated web plate girders over the hot rolled girders is the flexibility in the dimensions of the girder. Improvement in the plate girders is essential to take full advantage of this asset. This new achievement has helped engineers to design more optimized structures. This paper provides a review of several studies on corrugated steel web plate girders and plate girders improvement.

Effect of Recycled Aggregate on Behavior of Tied and Spiral Reinforced Fibrous Circular Short Columns

Eyad K. Sayhood; Mohammed A.E. Al-Hamdani; Jabbar K. Sahan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 12, Pages 1945-1952
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i12.965

This study focuses on studying the behavior of fibrous circular short columns (tied and spirally reinforced) using recycled coarse aggregate (f'c, ft, Ec, and fr) by using recycled aggregates with comparison to normal aggregates with and without using steel fibers. For this purpose, ten (10) short columns were cast at five groups each of two circular columns(tied and spiral of 150 mm radius x 600mm height) with different percentages of recycled coarse aggregate (0%, 50%, and 100%) and different percentages of steel fiber (0%, 0.5% and 1%). The study showed that when adding the 50% normal aggregates with 50% recycled aggregates, decreases of (10%, 18%, 30% and 22%) for (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength and elasticity module), respectively were observed, and when replacing the 100% normal aggregates with 100% recycled aggregates, decreases of (30%, 35%, 58% and 63%) for (Compressive strength f'c, splitting tensile strength ft, flexural strength fr and elasticity module Ec), respectively were observed. The changes on the compressive strength of adding steel fibers to the RAC by a proportion of (0.5% and 1 %) resulted in a significant increase of about (14 % and 35 %), respectively.

Assessment of Electricity Sector Using Geomatics Techniques: (Ramadi City as a Case Study)

Hisham M. Jawad Al-Sharaa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 12, Pages 1905-1910
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i12.2035

Geomatics involves the collection, management, integration, representation, analysis, modeling and display of geographically referenced information describing both the Earth’s physical features and the built environment. One of the main use of this tool is to estimate electrical energy demand throughout Al Anbar Governorate, which have major problems in this sector with about 750 to 770 MW. The consumption of the city of Al Ramadi is about 200 MW. According to official forecasts by the Directorate of Electricity Networks of Al Anbar, this demand is expected to increase to about 900 MW during the summer of 2020. The present distribution systems in Al Ramadi are mostly overhead. Gradual conversion from overhead to underground systems, particularly at the 11 kV level, is recommended, especially in the central part of the city. This will allow for higher system safety and reliability, and for a much aesthetically improved appearance. This necessitated the construction of additional backup stations. Furthermore, prepared a plan for stations that have been constructed in the year 2020, in order to meet the anticipated demand growth during the planning period. Long-term plan for the Governorate of Al Anbar in order to cope with the increased demand for electrical energy.

Wild Clary Plant Extract as Corrosion Inhibitor for Carbon Steel in Seawater Medium

Zainab S. Aziz; Rana A. Majed; Majid H. Abd

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 11, Pages 1646-1653
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i11.2151

Aqueous extract of wild clary has been used in place of a corrosion inhibitor in the corrosion control of carbon steel. The major components of this extract are Ethan amine, Amino-octadic, and 4H-Pyran-4-one. It has an excellent inhibition efficiency (IE) of 83.078% at a concentration of 20 (mL/L) and a temperature of 298 (K). The extract was characterized by FTIR and GC MS, where the antibacterial was tested and the protective film was analyzed on the samples using FTIR spectra. The protective film formed on the metal surface is confirmed using an electrochemical study by Potentiostat, which revealed that this extract was a mixed-type inhibitor.

Electrophoretic Deposition Used to Prepare and Analyze the Microstructure of Chitosan/Hydroxyapatite Nano-Composites

Israa Z. Ahmed; Hussein A. Jaber; Shaymaa M. Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 11, Pages 1693-1704
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i11.2181

This research studies the coating layer properties from chitosan and nano –hydroxyapatite made by pulsed electrophoretic deposition (PEPD) for biomedical applications. The 316L SS alloys were coated with hydroxyapatite in different solutions in 100 mL of suspension at a 30 V continuous voltage. To characterize the deposited coatings, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Contact Angle, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX),Yield deposition and Optical microscopy structural (OM) was used for coating layer, in addition to being calculated Zeta potential for suspensions. The aim of this study is to show that using the Pulsed EPD method at room temperature, a simple and low-cost solution for in situ synthesis of Nano -HAp within a chitosan matrix for biomedical applications can be demonstrated.

Investigation of Some Properties for Laminated Composite Used for Prosthetic Socket

Shereen A. Abdulrahman; Qahtan A. Hamad; Jawad K. Oleiwi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 11, Pages 1625-1631
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i11.2050

Polyester has been used as a prosthetic socket base. It is well documented that the raw material of the socket base should have exhibited good mechanical properties. Prosthetic socket is a device that connects an artificial limb with the amputee part. In this work, seven laminated composites were prepared using vacuum technique from polyester resin and reinforced with Jute, Carbon, Glass, and Perlon fibers. The objective of this study is to manufacture prosthetic sockets from different laminated composite materials (fibers reinforced polymer) to make high-strength and durable prosthetic socket design. The results showed that the best laminated composite specimens have three jute fiber layers with four carbon layers whose compression strength and hardness reach (67) MPa and (86) Shore-D, respectively. Also, the water absorption of the composite specimen of jute with carbon fibers is higher than that of the composite specimen of jute with glass fiber.

Investigation of the Effect of Microcapsule Additive on Mechanical and Physical Properties of Concrete

Reem T. Salmana; Alaa A. Abdul-Hamead; Farhad M. Othman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 11, Pages 1639-1645
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i11.2091

Cracks are a fundamental problem in concrete, so this research investigates an experimental study of the effect of adding SiO2 on the self-healing behaviour of concrete. The study is done by studying the physical properties, microstructure, and mechanical properties of concrete. Microcapsules were prepared to contain (cement and nano SiO2) in a (palettization (fluidize bed coating) method) with (5,10, and 15) % of cement weight. The ratio of the prepared concrete mixture was (1: 2: 4) and the ratio of water to cement (W / C) 0.45 by the weight of cement was also added as 0.6% Superplasticizer to all concrete mixtures. SiO2 MC is added with (2.5) % of the cement weight in the concrete mixture. In this study, porosity, density, and water absorption tests were performed to study the physical properties, compressive and bending strength to study mechanical properties. So, referring to the results, (SiO2 MC) was used as an effective effect in the self-healing cracking mechanism, and in improving the bending strength and compressive strength. Also, 10 % wt. was recorded as the best addition because it has a positive effect on properties to be applied in construction.

Improve the Corrosion Resistance of the Copper-Zinc Alloy by the Epoxy-WO3 Nanocomposite Coating

Ban D. Abbass; Kadhum M. Shabeeb; Ayad K. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 11, Pages 1669-1673
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i11.2225

Metal corrosion is one of the most critical challenges in industrial processes. In this research, nanocomposite coating was synthesized by blending tungsten trioxide (WO3) nanoparticles with Epoxy resin and applied on brass samples to evaluate the performance of corrosion protection under stressed environments. A dip-coating method was adopted to coat the brass sample's surface. Coated and uncoated brass samples have been subjected to corrosion tests to study the corrosion behavior when exposed to corrosive media. Obtained results indicated that the brass coated samples with mixed epoxy\tungsten trioxide (WO3) exhibited reasonable corrosion resistance because of the ceramic protective barrier on the surface of the metal. Therefore, the proposed methodology could be considered as a promising surface coating that promotes corrosion resistance under stressed industrial conditions.

Recycling of Wood – Plastic Composite Prepared from Poly (Ethylene Terephthalate) and Wood Sawdust

Halla M. Shehap; Mohammed A. ALzuhairi; Sarmad I. Ibrahim; Saif S. Hussien

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 11, Pages 1654-1662
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i11.2203

Plastic waste has become one of the humanities and the ecosystem balance serious environmental Challenges. Furthermore, it is the primary source of plastic pollution because it is inexpensive, widely available, and frequently discarded. Using various waste materials and side fractions as part of wood-plastic composites is one way to promote the circular economy (WPC). Several environmental benefits can be realized by using recycled plastic, including extending the usable life of plastic, reducing waste, contributing to the development of trash recycling, and preventing resource depletion. One of the most efficient recycling processes is glycolysis; the (PET) is depolymerized by ethylene glycol in continuous stirring reactors at temperatures between 200 and 220◦C using glycol as solvent. This work concentrates on the experimental investigation of composite materials from DE polymerization PET, Unsaturated polyester, and VV/55 as a matrix and wood sawdust as reinforcement. The composite samples were checked by the Hardness test, water test, and density test. According to the experimental results, the optimum value is at (2%) wood percentage, giving high hardness value, low density, and low water absorption.

Evaluation of the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al / Fe3O4 Nanocomposites

Suaad M. Jiaad; Khansaa Salman; Ahmed A. Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 11, Pages 1632-1638
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i11.2080

The goal of this research is to study the microstructural analysis and mechanical properties of an aluminum matrix reinforced with different amounts of nano Fe3O4 at (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10wt. %). Al/ Fe3O4 nanocomposites specimens were prepared using the powder metallurgy route. Many examinations, including Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, were performed on the specimens in this study to determine the microstructure and phases of the nanocomposites. Mechanical tests, such as compressive, microhardness, and wear tests, were also performed to assess the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. The results of this study show that Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been homogeneously dispersed in the Al matrix by FESEM and XRD examination. While the mechanical tests show improving the compressive strength at 6 wt.% by 5.36%, the highest microhardness was at 10% by 101.6% compared with the pure Al, and improving the wear rate.

Comparative Study of Perturb & Observe, Modified Perturb & Observe and Modified Incremental Conductance MPPT Techniques for PV Systems

Mohanad H. Mahmood; Inaam I. Ali; Oday A. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 478-490
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i4A.329

This paper presents a modified maximum power point tracking algorithm (Modified MPPT) for PV systems based on incremental conductance (IC) algorithm. This method verified with the dynamic irradiance and sudden change of irradiance, the comparisons with conventional methods, for example, the perturbation and observation (P&O) and Modified perturbation and observation (Modified P&O) were performed. A photovoltaic (PV) panel was simulated and tested using MATLAB/Simulink based on PV panel at Power Electronics Laboratory. The results show that this method capable to find the maximum power point (MPP) under dynamic behavior faster than ( P&O) and Modified P&O). Reduced oscillation of MPP indicates enhanced efficiency, providing maximum power transfer to load

Characterizations of Synthetic 8mol% YSZ with Comparison to 3mol %YSZ for HT-SOFC

Abeer F. Al-Attar; Saad B. H. Farid; Fadhil A. Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 491-500
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i4A.351

In this work, Yttria (Y2O3) was successfully doped into tetragonal 3mol% yttria stabilized Zirconia (3YSZ) by high energy-mechanical milling to synthesize 8mol% yttria stabilized Zirconia (8YSZ) used as an electrolyte for high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (HT-SOFC). This work aims to evaluate the densification and ionic conductivity of the sintered electrolytes at 1650°C. The bulk density was measured according to ASTM C373-17. The powder morphology and the microstructure of the sintered electrolytes were analyzed via Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The chemical analysis was obtained with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Also, X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to obtain structural information of the starting materials and the sintered electrolytes. The ionic conductivity was obtained through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the air as a function of temperatures at a frequency range of 100(mHz)-100(kHz). It is found that the 3YSZ has a higher density than the 8YSZ. The impedance analysis showed that the ionic conductivity of the prepared 8YSZ at 800°C is0.906 (S.cm) and it was 0.214(S.cm) of the 3YSZ. Besides, 8YSZ has a lower activation energy 0.774(eV) than that of the 3YSZ 0.901(eV). Thus, the prepared 8YSZ can be nominated as an electrolyte for the HT-SOFC.

Random Forest (RF) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Algorithms for LULC Mapping

Tay H. Shihab; Amjed N. Al-Hameedawi; Ammar M. Hamza

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 510-514
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i4A.399

In this paper to make use of complementary potential in the mapping of LULC spatial data is acquired from LandSat 8 OLI sensor images are taken in 2019. They have been rectified, enhanced and then classified according to Random forest (RF) and artificial neural network (ANN) methods. Optical remote sensing images have been used to get information on the status of LULC classification, and extraction details. The classification of both satellite image types is used to extract features and to analyse LULC of the study area. The results of the classification showed that the artificial neural network method outperforms the random forest method. The required image processing has been made for Optical Remote Sensing Data to be used in LULC mapping, include the geometric correction, Image Enhancements, The overall accuracy when using the ANN methods 0.91 and the kappa accuracy was found 0.89 for the training data set. While the overall accuracy and the kappa accuracy of the test dataset were found 0.89 and 0.87 respectively

Preparation and Characterization of Polymer Blend and Nano Composite Materials Based on PMMA Used for Bone Tissue Regeneration

Sally A. Kadhum Alsaedi; Sihama I. Salih; Fadhil A. Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 501-509
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i4A.383

As the elderly population increases, the need for bone loss treatments is increasing. Vital substances used in such treatments are required to continue for a longer period and work more effectively. The particularly important biological material is poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement, which is widely used in damaged bone replacement surgery. So, this study focused on the role of added some nanoparticles consist of zirconia (ZrO2), and magnesia (MgO) on the binary polymeric blend (Acrylic bone cement: 15% PMMA) for a bone scaffold. Where, ZrO2 and MgO nanoparticle was added with selected weight percentages (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 wt.%), which were added to the polymer blend matrix. Some mechanical properties were studied including the tensile strength and young modulus for all the prepared samples. The chemical bonding of nanoparticles and synthetic binary polymeric blend composites was evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Tensile strength and young modulus of binary polymeric blend reinforced with 1.5 wt.% ZrO2, and 1 wt.% MgO, significantly increased. The surface morphology of the fracture surface of tensile specimens was examined by Scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM images confirmed that the homogenous distribution of nanoparticles (ZrO2, and MgO) within the polymeric blend matrix.

Cyclic Settlement of Footings of Different Shapes Resting on Clayey Soil

Aseel N. Najim; Mohammed Y. Fattah; Makki K. Al-Recaby

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 465-477
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.483

An experimental investigation is carried out to investigate the impact of the footing shape, when rested on clayey soil under cyclic loading condition. The model footings used in this study are circular, square and the area of footings is fixed. Cyclic load test is carried out on the cohesive soil with three undrained shear strengths (20 kPa, 40 kPa and 70 kPa). Two depths of foundation embedment (at surface and 5 cm) to know the effect of the depths of the foundations on the change of settlement and total vertical stress and two rates of loading (3 mm/sec and 6 mm/sec) are used. It has been observed that the bearing capacity varies in increasing order as Solid, Circular and Square. It is found that the cyclic settlement in the square foundation is less than the circular foundation. The results reveal that the shape of the footing has a significant effect on its bearing capacity and the settlement characteristics. The vertical stress reaches a constant value which is greater below circular footing and it is about (70.9 - 92.7) % greater than below square footing.

Comparative Study of Different Organic Molecules as an Anti-Corrosion for Mild Steel in Kerosene

Eva A. Yaqo; Rana A. Anaee; Majid H. Abdulmajeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 423-430
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.507

The investigation on the efficiency of three organic derivatives was done as inhibitors for carbon steel using electrochemical methods at four temperatures (303, 313, 323, and 333 K) and 100 ppm. The results showed that these prepared compounds gave good efficiencies at experimental conditions by adsorption process and they act as mixed-type inhibitor, the data of corrosion were measured and debated. Using SEM, the inhibited surface of specimens was characterized. In addition, for display the interaction between these compounds and the metallic surface, the Fourier transform infrared spectra was used. In addition, the activity of antibacterial of the inhibitors against some types of bacteria was tested.

Multiwall Carbon Nanotube / Polyvinyl Alcohol Nanofibers Film, Electrical Conductivity Improvement

Akram R. Jabur

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 431-439
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.530

Conductive polymer films were prepared of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10) wt. % multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by electrospinning technique. The morphologies of the synthesized films were tested by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Average fiber diameters gauged statically was (115nm) for (PVA/10 wt. % MWCNT film) while (170nm) for pure PVA electro spun film. Electrical conductivity (EC) of Polymeric nanofiber films improve by increasing MWCNT addition concentration from (3.69 × 10-7 S/ cm) for the pure (PVA) film to (1.24 ×10-2 S/cm) for the film with 10 wt. % MWCNT. The maximum stress of PVA film were increased by adding MWCNTs concentration, the modulus of elasticity was enhanced from 12.87 MPa for pure PVA to 49.89 MPa for PVA/8wt% MWCNT.

Design and Implementation of a Fuzzy Logic Controller for Inverted Pendulum System Based on Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms

Ahmed F. Ghaliba; Ahmed A. Oglah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 361-374
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.400

The inverted pendulum is a standard classical problem in the branch of
control and systems. If a cart is bushed by force then its position and angle
of the pendulum will be changed. Several controllers may employed,
keeping the pendulum arm upright by controlling at the cart location. In
this search paper, the fuzzy-like PID (FPID) controller has been used to
control the inverted pendulum, and the parameters of the controller are
tuned with several evolutionary optimization algorithms like a genetic
algorithm (GA), ant colony optimization (ACO), and social spider
optimization (SSO.) The result of tuned FPID with evolutionary
optimization is compared with conventional PID, and it shows that FPID
with SSO has been given the best result.

Reducing Roof Solar Heat Gain by Using Double-Skin Ventilated Roofs

Mohannad R. Ghanim; Sabah T. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 402-411
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.462

Double skin ventilated roof is one of the important passive cooling techniques to reduce solar heat gain through roofs. In this research, an experimental study was performed to investigate the thermal behaviour of a double skin roof model. The model was made of two parallel galvanized steel plates. Galvanized steel has been used in the roof construction of industrial buildings and storehouses in Iraq. The effect of inclination angle (ϴ) from the horizontal and the spacing (S) between the plates was investigated at different radiation intensities. It is found that using a double skin roof arrangement with a sufficient air gap (S) can reduce the heat gain significantly. The higher the inclination angle (ϴ) the higher the ventilation rate, the lower the heat gain through the roof. In this study, increasing the air gap from 2 cm to 4 cm reduced the heat gain significantly but when the gap was further increased to 6 cm, the reduction in the heat flux was insignificant. A dimensionless correlation was also reduced between Nusselt number ( ) and the single parameter ( ⁄ ) where L is the channel length. This correlation can be handily utilized for designing of engineering applications dealing with high temperature difference natural convection heat transfer.

Air Temperature Modelling Depended on Remote Sensing Techniques

Zainab T. Mohammed; Riyad H. Al-Anbari; Oday Z. Jasim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 352-360
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.398

Air temperature (T air) near the land surface is a fundamental descriptor of physical environmental conditions and one of the most widely used climatic variables in global change studies. In this study, the researcher trying to suggest a model for estimating air temperature in summer season for any region through integrating of Iraqi Agrometeorological network
daily (T air) with the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST), Duration Day Length (DDL) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM). In this model, using satellite images for the study area and data of air temperature for four weather stations located in Babylon governorate from 1- June to 30- September on year 2017 for modeling and accuracy assessment air temperature estimation. The standard error of this model is 1.72887° C, and the correlation equal to 0.69698.

Analysis of Thermal and Insulation Performance of Double Glazed Window Doped With Paraffin Wax

Jalal M. Jalil; Salih M. Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 383-393
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.448

In this paper, a numerical investigation has been performed to study the effect of varying the thermal properties of the paraffin wax on the performance of a double glazed window doped with it during the summer climate of Baghdad (33.3 °N, 44.4 °E). Using FORTRAN (f 90) constructed computer program, finite difference combined with the enthalpy method was utilized to deal with the conduction with phase change problems within the wax. Results obtained show that increasing the density, latent heat, and thickness of the paraffin wax PCM) would increase the temperature-time lag and reduce the temperature decrement factor of the double glazed window, and as a result, improve comparatively the performance of the unit. In contrast, changing the specific heat capacity of the paraffin wax is not a productive (inefficient) technique to develop the performance of the unit. Besides, the recommended thickness of the window (thickness of the PCM) under the ambient condition of Baghdad should be 20 mm or higher.

Characteristics of Exhaust Emissions for a Diesel Engine Fuelled by Corn Oil Biodiesel and Blended with Diesel Fuel

Abdulrahman S. Mahmood; Haqi I. Qatta; Saadi M.D. Al-Nuzal; Talib K. Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 457-464
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.446

Environmentally friend biodiesel fuel from corn oil was tested in single-cylinder 4-stroke diesel engine operated. Three blends of fuels were prepared from corn oil and diesel fuel viz. 7, 15, and 20 % (designated as B7, B15, and B20, respectively). Tests were conducted on this engine using these blends at a constant speed (1500 rpm) and varying loads (0 % to 100 %). The emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, unburned hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NOX) and smoke opacity were measured. In all engine loads, results showed that the emission of CO, HC, and smoke emissions were reduced, while that of NOX and CO2 were increased. Biodiesel blend (B20) showed the highest decrease of the CO and HC and smoke emissions by 22.13 %, 18.5 %, and 25.8 % respectively. While that of NOX and CO2 emissions were increased by 22.3 % and 22%, respectively. It can be recommended as a sound environment friend and renewable for use in diesel engines and can be used without any significant modifications in the engine design

Influence of Cutting Speed on Residual Stresses by Machining of AISI 316L

Safa M. Lafta; Maan A. Tawfiq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 394-401
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.459

RS have an important role in the performance of components and machined structures. The objective of this paper is to study the influence of cutting speed on RS in workpieces that are formed in orthogonal cutting. AISI 316L stainless steel since it has been used in many important industries such as chemical, petrochemical industries, power generation, electrical engineering, and food and beverage industry. Four cutting speeds are selected: (44, 56, 71 and 88) m/min. The alloy was machined by turning at constant depth of cut and various feed rate from (0.065 to 0.228) mm/rev. Residual stresses are examined by X-ray diffraction. The best results of RS obtained are (-3735.28, -1784.95, -330.142, -218.747, -890.758, -2999.632, -2990.401) MPa. Increasing the cutting speed from (44-56) m/min. reduces the compressive residual stress by (21.4 %), while from (71-88) m/min the RS is reduced by (19.3 %). Finally, the RS at cutting speeds are changed from compression to tension

Discontinuous Control and Stability Analysis of Step-Down DC-DC Voltage Converters

Bashar F. Midhat

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 446-456
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.567

Step down DC-DC converters are power electronic circuits, which mainly used to convert voltage from a level to a lower level. In this paper, a discontinuous controller is proposed as a control method in order to control Step-Down DC-DC converters. A Lyapunov stability criterion is used to mathematically prove the ability of the proposed controller to give the desired voltage. Simulationsl1 are performedl1 in MATLABl1 software. The simulationl1 resultsl1 are presentedl1 for changesl1 in referencel1 voltagel1 and inputl1 voltagel1 as well as stepl1 loadl1 variations. The resultsl1 showl1 the goodl1 performancel1 of the proposedl1 discontinuousl1 controller.

Kinematics Analysis of 5 DOF Robotic Arm

Tahseen F. Abaas; Ali A. Khleif; Mohanad Q. Abbood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 412-422
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.475

This paper presents the forward, inverse, and velocity kinematics analysis of a 5 DOF robotic arm. The Denavit-Hartenberg (DH) parameters are used to determination of the forward kinematics while an algebraic solution is used in the inverse kinematics solution to determine the position and orientation of the end effector. Jacobian matrix is used to calculate the velocity kinematics of the robotic arm. The movement of the robotic arm is accomplished using the microcontroller (Arduino Mega2560), which controlling on five servomotors of the robotic arm joints and one servo of the gripper. The position and orientation of the end effector are calculated using MATLAB software depending on the DH parameters. The results indicated the shoulder joint is more effect on the velocity of the robotic arm from the other joints, and the maximum error in the position of the end-effector occurred with the z-axis and minimum error with the y-axis.

Numerical Study of Bond Stress-Slip Relationship in Large Scale Reactive Powder Concrete Beams

Eyad K. Sayhood; Sameh B. Tobeia; Ammar A. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 496-505
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.1

As the reactive powder concrete (RPC) represents one of the ultra-high performance concrete types that recently used in public works and in the presence of several attempts that aims to examine the behavior of RPC, this work aims to theoretically study the bond stress between RPC and steel bars and the corresponding slip for large reactive powder concrete beams by using finite element models done by ANSYS 16.1 software. Where, these numerical models were verified through several comparisons between their results, and the experimental one from previous work, in which good agreement were achieved. The effects of several parameters on the bond stress were studied, the parameters include concrete compressive strength, and steel fibers content, bar diameter, length of the developed bar and concrete cover thickness.

Numerical Investigations on Seismic Response of Structures under the Effect of Infinite Boundary of Soil-Structure Interaction

Qais A. Hasan; Saad F. Al-Wakel; Zahraa R. Zaidan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 516-521
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.4

The damage caused by large earthquakes is not only due to structures but also due to the soil failure, where the dynamic response varies considerably from the fixed base state because of the interaction between the ground and the structure. The main objective of this paper is to study the effect of the infinitely extended soil on the dynamic response of the structure. A three-dimensional dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete building
considering the effect of soil-structure interaction is performed. Building with a different number of stories rest on soil with various characteristics have been taken into consideration. For simulation of wave propagation due to far-field effects, coupled finite-infinite elements is presented for modeling the soil. The infinite boundary provides a powerful tool for dealing with wave propagation problems. The analysis is performed through a finite element method which is implemented in ABAQUS program. An earthquake load is applied in the horizontal direction with various boundary conditions such as; free, and infinite boundary. The effect of boundary on the dynamic response of structure are investigated. The significant difference in dynamic response is observed when infinite boundaries are used, especially in the case of soft soil, where the existence of infinite elements leads to absorption of energy and thus greatly reduce the lateral displacement of the structure.

Development of Surface Roughness and Mechanical Properties of PMMA Nanocomposites by Blending with Polymeric Materials

Hussein M. Sadeq; Sihama I. Salih; Auda J. Braihi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 558-565
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.10

This work aims to a development of mechanical properties of PMMA that is utilized in denture material, by using two types of polymers; blends (PMMA:2%NR) and (PMMA:2%SR) as a matrix materials strengthen with natural nanoparticles from the pomegranate peel powder (PPP) that were added at different weight fractions (0.0, 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7%). Two groups of bio nanocomposites specimens were prepared, using (Hand Lay-Up) method. Experimental tests were carried out on surface roughness, hardness and wear rate as well as analyzing of FTIR test. The minimum values of surface roughness and wear rate were reached 1.51 nm and 0.317×10-8 g/cm respectively for polymer blend nanocomposite ((PMMA:2%NR): 0.7% PPP). Whereas, the maximum value of Shore D hardness reached 90 for the same sample of nanocomposites. According to these results, it can be a concluded that the addition of Nano pomegranate powder and natural rubber can develop the mechanical properties of PMMA material used in medical applications.

Enhancement of Surface Crack Density Produced by EDM Using Hybrid Machining

Saad K. Shather; Shukry H. Aghdeab; Waqass S. Khudier

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 566-573
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.11

The present work is aimed to improve the surface cracks density of electrical discharge machining (EDM) by Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM)/Electrochemical Machining (ECM) EDM/ECM hybrid process. A hybrid method of EDM-ECM combined processing involve EDM shaping as well as electrochemical machining (ECM) finishing, also, they are conducted in sequence one same machine tool, same electrode, yet on the different dielectric. In this study, the used workpiece material is the A2-Tool Steel material, while the electrode material is copper. The influence of controllable parameters could be identified via response surface methodology (RSM), these controllable effects include: pulse current, pulse on time, pulse off time, gap, voltage, and electrolyte concentration on surface cracks density (SCD). It has been noticed that model has been developed by RSM adequacy is acceptable because the coefficient of determination is closest to one for SCD, whereas the optimal solution achieved by Desirability Function Analysis (DFA) are (current =42 A, pulse-on time =100 , and pulse-off time =50 )in addition to that, the generated surface doesn’t have any crack which has been generated via EDM are removed entirely through ECM finishing.

Evaluation of Predictive Equations for Local Pier Scour in Cohesive Soils

Zahraa F. Hassan; Ibtisam R. Karim; Abdul- Hassan K. Al-Shukur

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 584-591
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.436

Wavelet analysis has become a powerful tool for denoising images. It represents a new way to achieve better noise reduction and increased contrast. Here,  experimentally demonstrate the abilities of the discrete wavelet transform with Daubechies basis functions for improving the quality of noisy images. In this research, two methods have been compared to modify the coefficients using a soft and hard threshold to improve the visual fineness of noisy images depending on the Root-Mean-Square error (RMS). The low RMS value and better noise reduction are found in the soft threshold methods based on Daubechies wavelet (db8) for the first image RMS=0.101 and the second example RMS=0.109.

The Synergic Effect of Fly Ash and High Reactivity Attapulgite in Ternary Blended Cement

Shubbar J. Al-Obaidey

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 528-535
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v37i12A.456

The main objective is to study the synergic effect of fly ash (FA) and high reactivity Attapulgite (HRA) together in ternary blended cement of (OPC+FA+HRA) and evaluate the efficiency factor of FA and HRA in binary blended cement and (FA+HRA) in ternary blended cement. To achieve this objective compressive strength of binary blended cement mixes of (OPC+FA) with FA replacement percentages of (20 %, 30% and 40%), (OPC+HRA) with HRA replacement percentages of (5 and 10%) by weight of cement and ternary blended cement mixes of (OPC+FA+5% and/or 10%HRA). Were tested and compared with that of reference mix at ages of (7, 28, 56 and 90) days to assess the synergic effect of FA and HRA in ternary blended cement. The results showed that using ternary blended cement of (OPC+FA+5% and/or 10%HRA) led to increasing compressive strength relative to binary blended cement mixes of (OPC+FA) at the same replacement percentages by weight of cement. More significant increments in compressive strength were noticed at the age of 7 days. The results also showed that the efficiency factors calculated according to the modified bolmoy΄s equation for ternary blended cement were always higher than their corresponding binary blended cement of (OPC+.FA).

Effect of Weather Conditions on the Properties of Cement Rendering

Ayad H. Mseer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 536-541
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.7

The cement mortar used in rendering external walls, in Iraqi hot weather summer, suffers from appearance of many cracks on surface during and after its setting. So, this research aims to study the effect of different factors that can affect those cracks. The studied variables include mix proportions of mortar, grading of the used sand, method of curing, and environmental temperature (rendering during winter or summer). The rendering was laid on two types of walls build from clay bricks or concrete blocks. Tests were carried out on the mortar mixes of the different variables including flow test and drying shrinkage. Results indicate that the suitable flow of cement mortar for rendering should be 190±10%, which means the water content should be higher than that required for standard flow of 110±5% by 10%. Also, found that the amount of cement and water content and fineness of sand have an important role in the appearance of cracks on the cement rendering. Those cracks can be reduced to large extent by a continuous water spraying twice daily for seven days.

Design a Second Order Sliding Mode Controller for Electrical Servo Drive Systems

Shams A. Hashim; Ahmed K. Hamoudi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 542-552
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.8

The aim of this paper is to design and study a powerful second-order sliding mode controller for electrical servo drive systems. The suggested controller can successfully overcome the chattering problem that was usually facing such systems during operation. The first (1-SMC) and second (2-SMC) sliding mode controllers are nonlinear controllers’ techniques capable of stabilizing the output of a plant, even though a disturbance and parameter uncertainty is present. The asymptotically stable is the significant property of 1-SMC as well as 2-SMC. Despite the robustness of the 1- SMC, in real-time but it suffers from a large settling time and a chattering (undesirable rapid oscillations) of system trajectory close to the sliding surface. The chattering must be reduced because of its negative impact on system stability. The chattering can be reduced by replacing the sign function, used in classical sliding mode, by a saturation function. In the current study, the Second Order Sliding Mode Controller (2-SMC) is used to overcome the drawbacks of 1- SMC by reducing both the chattering and the settling time of the control action. The Electrical Servo drive system was adopted in this paper for testing; both, the 1-SMC as well as the 2-SMC. The comparison of results between the two controllers indicated smaller chattering and settling time in the 2-SMC than that in the 1-SMC. The simulation results of this work were obtained by using the Matlab programming.

Influence of Steel Fiber and Spacing of Stirrups on the Torsion Capacity of Hybrid Beams

Alyaa H. Mohammed; Qais A. Hasan; Kaiss F. Sarsam

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 506-511
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.2

This paper investigates experimentally the torsional behaviour of hybrid reinforced concrete beams composed of reactive powder concrete (RPC) at the outer edges of the cross-section and conventional concrete (CC) at the inner parts of the cross-section. Hybrid reinforced concrete members are used extensively to deal with the members strength requirements related to flexural, shear and torsion in structural systems. The torsion failure is undesirable because of its brittle nature, it is obligatory to avoid this kind of failure in the earthquake areas. Seven reinforced concrete beams, with dimensions (100X200X1500 mm), the interior dimensions of hybrid beams of the cross-sectional area (20mm width and 120mm height) with 1500 mm length were cast and tested to failure using two opposite cantilevers steel arms that contribute to transferring the torque to the centre of the beam. The first beam was RPC, the second beam was CC and the other five beams were all poured as hybrid ones. Experimental data of the ultimate capacity, cracking torsional loads, the failure pattern and twisting angle for each beam were gained. Experimental results showed higher value of ultimate torsional strength of hybrid beams than CC ones by about (50) % and lower than reactive powder concrete specimen by about (16.67) % for both varying steel fibre and spacing of stirrups.

State Space Parallelization Method for a 16-Bit Turbo Encoder

Maha A. Fleah; Qusay F. Al-Doori

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 553-557
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.9

Turbo codes are widely used in digital communication systems. Their ability to reach the Shannon channel capacity made it the choice for most of the communication systems. Due to the huge amount of the transmitted data, there is a need to increase the processing speed of the encoders. The researchers used the state space technique to enhance the throughput of the turbo encoder. They apply it to increase the turbo encoder throughput from one bit per cycle up to 8 bit per cycle. The researchers applied the state space method to a three-flip flop, eight state Recursive Systematic Convolution Code circuit to achieve their goal. In this paper, we explored the state space technique and applied it to a four flip-flop Recursive Systematic Convolution Code circuit so that we can achieve a throughput of 16 bit per cycle. The circuit was designed and tested using MATLAB then implemented using FPGA to verify its operation.

Experimental Study of Vibration on Pipe Conveying Fluid at Different End Conditions for Different Fluid Temperatures

Kayser A. Ameen; Mustafa J. Al-Dulaimi; Ali A. Hatem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 512-515
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.3

Dynamic behavior of a copper pipe conveying fluid at different fluid temperatures is investigated experimentally. Three types of supports are used, which are simply support - simply support, fixed – fixed support and fixed – free support. The effect of the support's types on the frequency and the amplitude of vibration for the pipe conveying the fluid are studied for various flow temperature. These vibration characteristics were tested at temperatures 50, 65 and 80 ºC

Design PID Neural Network Controller for Trajectory Tracking of Differential Drive Mobile Robot Based on PSO

Mohamed J. Mohamed; Mohammed K. Hamza

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 574-583
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.12

This paper introduces a nonlinear (Proportional-Integral-Derivative Neural Network) (PID NN) controller for a differential wheeled mobile robot trajectory tracking problem. This neural controller is built based on the principles of neural network (NN) and the equation of conventional structure of PID controller and is applied on kinematic model of the mobile robot. The particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) is utilized to find the best values of three PID NN parameters and connection weights that minimize the error between the reference path and the actual path. The results illustrate that the PID NN controller has a satisfied ability to make the mobile robot tracking any path with good performance, high accuracy and acceptable robustness.

Study Compression, Hardness and Density properties of PMMA Reinforced by Natural Powder Used in Denture Base applications

Jawad Oleiwi; Q. A. Hamad; N. N. Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 522-527
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.5

 This research had been done to investigate the effect of adding natural powder of Pistachio Shell to PMMA, which popularly used in denture applications. The powder added in different weights fraction (3%, 6%, 9%, and 12%), and different average particle size (53µm, 106 µm, 150 µm, and 212µm %), and studying Compression Strength, Surface Hardness, and Density properties. Hand Lay-Up represented the method used to prepare the specimens in this research. The results were statistically analyzed by SPSS (one-way ANOVA) to determine the mean value and showed a significant difference for each particle size. The highest value of compression strength and surface hardness of PMMA composite specimens happened at (9%wt.) of the filler particles. Also the results represented that the density values for the composite specimens are increased with increasing the weight fraction of the filler particles.

Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan- Polyvinyl alcohol Blend Modified by Genipin and Nanohydroxyapatite for Bone Tissue Engineering

Ishraq A. Kadhim; Zuhair J. Abdul Ameer; Assel B. Alzubaidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 11A, Pages 470-474
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.11A.4

Use nanohydroxyapatite into the polymeric matrix as bioactive material for bone tissue engineering has enormous therapeutic potential because beneficial properties biocompatibility, biodegradability, and consider a major inorganic constituent of the bone matrix. The blended films of Chitosan and Polyvinyl alcohol with Genipin as cross-link agent were studied with and without addition Nanohydroxyapatite. Samples were prepared by solvent casting. The resulting films blended composite were characterized by Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, degradation behavior, swelling degree and tensile strength. Degree of swelling, and weight loss of the films blended composite was decreased with an increase of genipin and nanohydroxyapatie concentrations while tensile strength was increased with an increase of genipin and nanohydroxyapaite concentrations. The results showed that the chitosan composite could be used as effective biomaterials for bone regeneration engineering with different degradation rates.

Toxic Effect of Inhalation Polyurethane in Lungs, Liver, and Kidneys Fume in White Male Mice

Sura M. Ahmed; Amel A. Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 11A, Pages 460-463
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.11A.2

In this study, the toxic effect of exposure to inhalation of polyurethane resin fumes by White Male Mice was evaluated over 36 days. The study included the use of the inhalation method in an exposition room filled with the fume chemical to a period of 10, 20 and 40 minutes per day, and were then transferred to the fumigant section of the animal house. The organs of the mice was dissected, and the change of the weight determined. The lungs, liver, kidneys tissues of the exposed mice showed typical structural structures when compared with the control group. The liver cells of the mice group exposed to polyurethane were revealed to expose to some hydrolysis and led to an increase in their size. In terms of lung, tissue was characterized by the presence of interstitial infiltration and bloody congestion. It was observed that water degeneration of the lining cells of the parts of the urinary tracts of the kidney with the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the interstitial tissue. These results suggest that exposure of white mice to polyurethane coating fumes may cause observed harmful effects and cause serious health problems to their liver and lung.

Deep CNN Based Skin Lesion Image Denoising and Segmentation using Active Contour Method

Hadeel N. Abdullah; Hala K. Abduljaleel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 11A, Pages 464-469
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.11A.3

Automatic skin lesion segmentation on skin images is an essential component in diagnosing skin cancer. Image de-noising in skin cancer lesion is a description of processing image which refers to image restoration techniques to develop an image in predefined touch. Then de-noising is the crucial step of image processing to restore the right quality image after that which can use in many processes like segmentation, detection. This work proposes a new technique for skin lesion tumor denoising and segmentation. Initially, using Deep Convolution Neural Network (CNN) to eliminate noise and undesired structures for the images. Then, a new mechanism is proposed to segment the skin lesion into skin images based on active_contour straight with morphological processes. Different noise removal and segmentation techniques on skin lesion images are applying and comparing. The proposed algorithm shows improvement in the results of both noise reduction and segmentation

Investigation the Creep-Fatigue Behavior and A.C. Electrical Conductivity of AA 6061 Under Ultrasonic Peening

Hussain J. Al-Alkawi; Ahmed H. Reja; Mahmood F. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 11A, Pages 453-459
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.11A.1

Ultrasonic peening is an innovative surface improvement process used to increase the resistance of aircraft metals and enhance high cycle fatigue life. The process creates residual compressive stresses deep into part surfaces. These compressive surface stresses inhibit the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. Aluminum alloys are relatively new materials used in aerospace, marine, automobile, and bridges due to low weight, which has significant advantages compared to the other materials. A major concern in the design of Aluminum alloys subjected to variable loads is fatigue strength and life. In this paper mechanical properties, fatigue strength, fatigue life and A.C.. electrical conductivity were studied for AA6061-T6 to assess the effects of ultrasonic peening (UP) on mechanical properties, fatigue at room temperature (RT), creep-fatigue (CF) at 250 ͦC and A.C.. electrical conductivity. Test results showed that after UP, the mechanical properties; ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and yield stress (Ys) were noticeably improved. The improvements in UTS and Ys were enhanced by 5.7% and 1.5% respectively while the ductility was reduced from 16.5% to 15.7%. Fatigue strength was enhanced by 8.37% compared to strength at RT. The results of UT before creep-fatigue CF showed increasing in fatigue strength 147 MPa at CF 250 ̊C and improved to153 MPa after applying UP, indicating 4% improvement in strength. The fatigue life was improved after UP for both RT and CF. It was found that the A.C. electrical conductivity increase as the frequency increase for all the cases above.

An Experimental Investigation on Thermal Efficiency of Flat Plate Tube Solar Collector using Nanofluid with Solar Tracking Mechanism

Saad T. Hamidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 11A, Pages 475-487
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.11A.5

In the present work, flat-plate solar collector (FPSC) in terms of various parameters as well as in respect of lower (Area of FPSC, volume fraction concentration of nanofluids, and mass flow rate) has been studied in this work. The FPSC has been fabricated with 0.192 m2, Dioxide silicon SiO2 (40nm) with the volume fraction of SiO2+Distilled water (0.05, 0.075, and 0.1%) and varying of flow rate (10, 15, 20L/h). These technological devices operate under forced circulation mode of fluid under varying climate conditions. The tracking mechanism has been used in the experiment of FPSC for tracking the sun position during the daytime. As per the ASHRAE standard. The results showed that at volume fraction 0.10 % and flow rate of 20 L/h, the highest increase in the absorbed energy parameter FR(τα) was 7.3 %, and the removed energy parameter FRUL was 11.9 % compared with distilled water. The changes in absorbed energy parameter FR(τα) they vary from 4.4% to 7.3% while in removed energy parameter FRUL, the vary from 1.3% to 11.9% as compared with the distilled water case. The maximum efficiency was about 70 % as the decreased temperature parameter [(Ti–Ta)/GT] is equal to zero at a volume fraction of 0.10 % and flow rate of 20 L/h

Ethical Responsibility in the Practice of Architecture

Abdullah S.S. Almaamouri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 11A, Pages 488-495
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.11A.6

The research deals with the concept of ethical responsibility as one of the most influential concepts in the process of practicing architecture. It is defined as “systems of ethical principles and engineering rules governing the architect in making decisions of design practice, making them sound, preventing them from making mistakes during the stages of design, and the maintenance “by the commitment to them, result in creative architectural texts benefit the individual and society,” and thus determine the research problem in (Lack of cognitive perception of the role of moral responsibility in the practice of architecture). Therefore, the research aims at clarifying the standards, elements and principles of the practice of architecture according to the moral responsibility of the architecture, and accordingly the research assumes that the indicators of moral responsibility have a positive impact in the formulation of creative architectural productions. For the purpose of addressing the issue of research and achieve the objectives of the research and verification of the hypothesis was first build a framework of knowledge, and a comprehensive theoretical framework of moral responsibility deduced from the architectural propositions and proposals to materialize as Chock final in three main indicators: “Standards of the practice of architecture morally, and the ingredients of the practice of architecture morally, and the foundations of the practice of architecture morally”. 

An Overview on Most Effective DRAs in Crude Oil Pipelines

Raheeq I. Ibrahim; Manal K. Odah; Dhoha A. Shafeeq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 391-397
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.2

The flow of crude oil in pipelines suffers from a problem of fluid flow pressure drop and high-energy consumption for pumping especially in low temperatures environment. Flow can be enhanced using viscosity either reduction or drag reduction techniques. Drag reduction is considered as the most effective and most applicable method. The technique contributes in reducing the frictional energy losses during the flow by addition of little doses of materials knowing as drag-reducing agents. The present work focuses on more recent and most applicable drag-reducing agents used in crude oil flow enhancement via pipelines.

The Air Bubbles Effect for Underwater Optical Wireless Communication Using 650 nm Wavelength

Salah A. Adnan; Mazin A.A. Ali; Fatima S. Hakwar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 398-403
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.3

In this research, texts were sent by pulse width modulation
(PWM) in the channel of clean water using
Arduino hardware and software for an underwater wireless optical
communication system (UWOC). The air bubbles device utilized the
disturbance at different distances from the transmitter source within the
channel of clean water. The total length of the channel is (1) m. In this
study, the source of transmitter wavelengths 650 nm was used with the
power of 80mw. The results showed that the received power was 32 mW
in the clean water, while when air bubbles pump within the channel of
clean water at 0.2m, 0.5m and 0.8m away from the transmitter source,
the received power was 28 mW, 27.5 mW, and 27 mW respectively. This
paper shows that max. Signal to Noise Ratio (S/N) and min. attenuation
(α) in the clean water were (24.637dB) and (3.979dB/m) respectively.
The practical results showed that the Symbol Error Rate (SER) in the
case of the air bubbles pump was maximum (0.03) when the value of
(S/N) was minimum (23.899).

Experimental Investigation of Sub-Cooled Flow Boiling in Metallic Microchannel

Suha A. mohammed; Ekhlas Mohammed Fayyadh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 408-415
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.5

Experiments in microchannel heat sink were carried that examine the deionized water two-phase boiling heat transfer. The heat sink consisted of a single microchannel having 300μm wide nominal dimensions and 300μm height (hydraulic diameter of 300μm). The heat sink formed of oxygen-free copper with 72mm length and 12mm width. Experimental operation conditions spanned the heat flux (78-800) kW/m2, mass flux (1700 and 2100) kg/m2.s at 31K subcooled inlet temperature. The boiling heat transfer coefficient is measured, and compared with existing correlations. The results show that higher mass flux leads to a higher boiling heat transfer coefficient and the dominants mechanism is convective boiling. In addition, it was found that an existing correlation provides a satisfactory prediction of the heat transfer coefficient.

Effect of laser Peening on the Microhardness and Roughness of Al-7277 alloy

Mays O. Hashim; Abdul Hadi K. Judran; Razi J. Al Azawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 404-407
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.4

The purpose of the study conducted was an analysis of the influence of pulse density per area unit of LSP on (7277AL Alloy) regarding the surface characterization, roughness achieved and microhardness. The samples, which were used in this investigation, are 7277Al Alloy. Specify the laser parameter used in this study effect on sample surface properties were studied. Such as laser energy, and laser pulses number the results reveal that the microhardness enhancement by 80%, while the surface roughness increased by 69% when laser energy of 360mj and the number of laser pulses of 100 pulse were applied. X-ray fluorescence analyses and optical microscope were carried out for all samples.

Survey of User to User Recommendation System in Online Social Networks

Sammer A. Qader; Ayad R. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 422-428
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.7

The widespread use of online social networks (OSN) and their applications by users lead to the lack of knowledge identification of their needs across the vast amount of data, which made the need to create systems that help people to solve the problems and make decisions with more accuracy, an example of these systems is the Recommendation system (RS), which helps users to make decision and save time in search on a commercial or personal level, one of the most critical types of recommendation systems is the friends recommendation system (FRS) . In this survey, several studies have been suggested to solve the problem of FRS and its mechanism, techniques, and algorithms used to create them Also, the RS types and techniques, a variety of dataset that deals with a specific system, are explained. Moreover, the challenges they face to determine the needs of people in terms of the choice of items or at the level of social networks are included.

Design and Control of a Full-Scale Quarter Car Test Rig for Semi-Active Suspension System

Bahaa-Aldin R. Abdullah; Mohsin N. Hamzah; Ammar S. Merza

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 416-421
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.6

Passive hydraulic dampers are commonly used in the automotive suspension system. Nevertheless, they are suffering from a significant drawback owing to the changing of its characteristics at high-frequency; as a result, decreasing the ride quality due to the increase of the transmitted force, especially at high frequency excitations. The present work developed a semi-active suspension system to solve this problem with its effect. A Sky-hook control strategy is used to suppress the positional oscillation of the sprung mass in the presence of road irregularities via the use of the electrohydraulic (EH) damper, as an objective. In order to apply the control strategy used herein, a full-scale quarter-car test platform has been designed and constructed to offer increased testing flexibility at a reasonable cost not found commercially. MATLAB Simulink is applied for modeling the semi-active suspension system. The control strategy using a Sky-hook control was used to enhance the comfort due to the simplicity of this method that can easily be implemented in a real-time embedded application. The control strategy is evaluated for its performance under the road bump excitation. The experimental results were compared with the simulated ones for both passive and semi-active suspension systems, the comparison includes time response analysis of body vertical displacement, and vertical displacement of quarter car structure.

Hydraulic Analysis of Irrigation Network for the Proposed Taq-Taq Dam Using EPANET Software

Ibtisam R. Karim; Sarmad A. Sahib

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 429-434
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.8

Analysis of pipe network is the fluid flow through hydraulics network containing inters connected branches, whose aim is to determine the pressure drops and flow rates in the individual parts of the network. In the study using specialized software such as EPANET for automatically solving problems of network. The main objective of this study is to analysis the irrigation network of the proposed Taq-Taq dam using hydraulic simulation software, in order to study the distribution of pressure, velocity and head on the pipe network for the purpose of ensuring the operation of the network efficiently and improve quantity and quality of water that distributed through the pipelines system. Finally, the study showed velocity distribution, pressure distribution and head distribution along the pipeline in the irrigation project. All the results that the simulated model seems to be reasonably close to an actual same network.

Structural and Morphological Investigation of Cr2O3/WO3Oxides Films Composite Using Modified Spray Pyrolysis Technique

Zena A. Salman; Farhad M. Othman; Alaa A. Abdul-hamed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 435-441
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.9

Cr2O3/WO3 oxides film composite was successfully synthesized via advanced controlled chemical spray pyrolysis deposition technique using two nozzles. Two solutions of tungstic acid and chromium chloride was sprayed separately at various ratios of (W: Cr) at the same time on a silicon substrate at 500 °C, the film then heat-treated at 400 °C for the 60s. The crystal structure, microstructure and morphology properties of prepared films were studied. Based on characterization techniques, crystallized Cr2O3/WO3 mixed oxides films were investigated by X-ray diffraction after the annealing process, with film thickness of about 500 nm. The SEM and AFM revealed that rough and porous microstructures of Cr2O3/WO3 were formed. The obtained microstructure has been known as one of the most effective microstructures due to having high surface area particularly in gas detection applications

Modelling the Ecosystem Behavior of Abu-Ziriq Marsh in South of Iraq Under Different Water Discharges Scenarios

Fuaad H. Al-Yaseen; Mustafa M. Al-Mukhtar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 442-452
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.10

The marshlands are of fundamental importance to Iraq, a unique ecosystem providing local inhabitants with an essential source of habitat and livelihoods. This paper aims to study the ecosystem behavior of Abu-Ziriq Marsh in the south of Iraq under different scenarios using the Ecosystem Functions Model Program (HEC-EFM) and Hydrologic Engineering Center Data Storage System Visual Utility Engine (HEC-DSSVue). To this end, data was converted from tri-monthly and semi-monthly to daily data using the HEC-DSSVue program. The daily data natural(flow, stage) was used for five years between 2013 and 2018. The prediction process was evaluated using three criteria: correlation coefficient (R), root mean square error (RMSE), and the Nash–Sutcliffe effectivity coefficient (NSE). Results of R, RMSE and NSE for the daily inflow discharge (stage) of natural were 0.98 (0.93), 1.55 (0.19) and 0.95 (0.73). Five scenarios of a percentage decrease in gage(flow, stage) with 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% were investigated. Results showed that the decrease in discharge from 2% to 8% did not significantly affect environmental relations and could be used by the competent authorities. However, when the discharge was reduced to 10%, the environmental relations were greatly affected and threatened the life of the organisms. In addition to that, results for wetland health reverse lookup at the fifth scenario show that Abu–Ziriq Marsh need (70.2%) as a percent of the time, when flows equal or exceed four m3/sec. This discharge was chosen because it can be supplied on most days of the year, which is the time needed to be revived when flows equal or exceed 4 (m3/sec).

Investigation the Morphological Characteristics of the Particulate Matter Emissions from the Oxygenated Fuels Combustion in Diesel Engines

Mohammed A. Fayad; Bashar R. AL-Ogaidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 384-390
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.1

Understanding the size and morphological properties of particulate matter (PM) is essential to improve analysis of the process of PM formation in diesel engines. These will help to reduce undesirable environmental impact and health effects. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to study the changes in size characteristics of PM/soot and soot reactivity. Furthermore, improve the oxidation of soot particles in diesel engines is necessary under the range of different fuel combustions. Oxygenated fuels (e.g., ethanol blend, E10 and butanol blend, B16) were used in this experimental study to show how insignificant changes in morphological characteristics and activity of PM.
The oxidation and activation energy of PM was achieved at the lower temperature from the combustion of oxygenated fuels compared with diesel fuel combustion. Besides, it was found that both the size of soot particulate and the number of primary particles are reduced with increasing the oxygen content in oxygenated fuels than the diesel fuel. The shape of primary soot particle for PM is a bit more spherical in the case of diesel fuel than to the oxygenated fuels.

A Compact Single-Feed Patch Antenna with Frequency and Polarization Diversity

Fayyadh H. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 9A, Pages 374-383
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.9A.5

A new compact single feed square ring patch antenna using meandered 4λ transformer is designed, for frequency and polarization diversity. The proposed antenna is constructed from a square ring patch antenna, and two orthogonal meandered cascaded 4λ transformer (OMCT), incorporated with six switches for frequency and polarization reconfiguration purposes. The OMCT with switches is necessary to get good impedance bandwidth (BW) and axial ratio bandwidth (ARBW) for circular polarization state. In addition, it utilized to excite the antenna at two orthogonal locations, with equal magnitude and quadratic in phase, for achieving circular polarization mode at resonant frequencies 2.44GHz, 4.7GHz, and 5.6GHz. Moreover, it can excite the antenna as non-orthogonal modes for various other frequency bands, such as 2.89 GHz, 3.49 GHz, 4.9 GHz, 5.2GHz, 5.49GHz, 6.16GHz and 3.1GHz as linear polarization (LP) state. The proposed antenna has a compact low profile planar structure with area equal to 23mm2. Simulation and measured results show that the proposed antenna demonstrates a reasonable impedance bandwidth, and axial ratio in the circularly polarized state. Simulation results have been obtained from commercial CST-2014 Microwave Studio. The proposed antenna is fabricated for simulation result verification, and the implemented antenna is tested using R&S ZVL13 Vector Network Analyzer. The experimental confirms the simulation results.

Recycling of Waste Paraffin Wax by the Addition of SiO2 Nano-Powders to Improve Thermal Conductivity

Aseel B. Al-Zubaidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 9A, Pages 369-373
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.9A.4

Paraffin wax is an important material used in thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The thermal conductivity of the material is an important parameter that decides the degree of exploitation of the paraffin wax in TES systems. The thermal conductivity is improved by the addition of silicon oxide nanoparticles (1%, 2%, 4%, and 6%) to the paraffin wax. The average size of the SiO2 particles is equal to 38 nm. The addition of SiO2 nano-particles at very small ratios was found to enhance the thermal conductivity of the paraffin wax considerably. SiO2 nanoparticles, add to paraffin wax, have a significant effect in enhancing the thermal storage characteristics of paraffin
Paraffin wax is an important material used in thermal energy storage
(TES) systems. The thermal conductivity of the material is an important
parameter
that
decides the degree of exploitation of the paraffin wax in TES
systems. The thermal conductivity is improved by the addition of silicon oxide
nanoparticles (1%, 2%, 4
%,
and 6%) to the paraffin wax. The average size of the
SiO
2
particles is equal to 38 nm. The a
ddition
of SiO
2
nano
-particles at very
small ratios was found to enhance the thermal conductivi
ty of the paraffin wax
considerably. SiO
2
nanoparticles, add to paraffin wax, have
a significant effect
in enhancing the thermal storage characteristics of paraffin

Point Cloud Pre-Processing and Surface Reconstruction Based on Chord Algorithm Technique

Ali M. Al-Badairy; Ahmed A. Al-Duroobi; Maan A. Tawfiq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 9A, Pages 364-368
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.9A.3

3D laser scanner is one of the modern technologies, which used to obtain the geometric information about the 3D scanned object surface. But, there are some problems that are associated with this technique such as the huge number of obtained points which require high memory to save and the required data processing processes. This paper proposed a data simplification algorithm for point cloud of a scanned object using 3D laser scanner (Matter
and Form) in a manner to extract the necessary geometric features, which are
represented by points for a 3D object. This algorithm based on the
instantaneous calculation of chord height of each set of adjacent points in the
point cloud. A MATLAB environment was used to build a proposed
simplification algorithm program. Then this program was applied using a
proposed case study. The result which was obtained from the application of the
proposed algorithm and surface fitting process for the proposed case study
proved the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in data simplification. The
percent of data which was ignored as noisy data point was (24%) of the total
number of data point in applying the algorithm for two attempts.
3D laser scanner is one of the modern
technologies, which
used to
obtain the geometric information about the 3D scanned object surface.
But,
there are some
problems
that
are
associated with this technique such as the
huge number of obtained points
which
require high memory to save
and
the
required data processing processes.
Th
is paper proposed a data simplification
algorithm for point cloud of a
scanned obje
ct using 3D laser scanner (Matter
and Form) in a
manner to extract the necessary geometric features, which
are
represented by points for a 3D object. This algorithm based on
the
instantaneous calculation of chord height of each set of adjacent points in th
e
point cloud. A MATLAB environment was
used to build a proposed
simplification algorithm program
. Then
this program
was
appli
ed using a
proposed case study.
The result which was obtained from
the
application
of
the
proposed algorithm and surface fitting process for the proposed case study
proved the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in data simplification.
The
percent of data which was ignored as noisy data point was (24%)
of the
total
number of data point in applying the algorithm for two attempts.

Smoothing Smartphone GPS Raw Measurements

Tariq N. Ataiwe; Abbas Z. Khalaf; Israa H. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 9A, Pages 359-363
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.9A.2

This  research aims  to  investigate  the  smoothing  of  the  pseudo-range raw  measurements  of  the  smartphone  using  a  Hatch  filter.  The  measurements  of  smartphones  suffer  from  high  noise  generated  from  low-cost  antennas  and  oscillators, which are designed to work in a certain way. These types of low-cost antennas  and  oscillators  are  entirely different  from  geodetic  instruments,  which  are  designed  for  high  accuracy  positioning.  The  GPS  measurement  data  were  collected   using   a   Huawei   P10   device,   41   minutes   and   24   seconds   GPS   observation  time  with  sampling  intervals  of  1  second  using  Geo++  Android  application.  The  GPS  measurements  are  processed  using  standalone  (epoch  by  epoch)  method,  by  MATLAB  software  developed  by  the  authors,  as  a  part  of  a software  package  for  processing  smartphone  GPS  measurements.  The  errors  in  raw  measurements  in  the  Easting,  Northing,  and  Up  (ENU)  components  when  using  standalone  (epoch  by  epoch)  method  are  ranging  from  -50m  to  30m,  and  the errors after applying the Hatch filter are reduced to have ranged from -10m to  5m,  the  raw  data  were  very  noisy  and  funded  it  has  many  cycles  slips  as  a  result of low-cost antennas and oscillators of smartphone’s. The cycle slips in the measurements  were  detected  and  found  that  it  was  the  result  of  jumping  the  errors to 27 m in northing and 43 m in up.

Complex Surface Representation and Machining Time Estimation Upon Three Types of End Mill Cutter

Rasha J. Marzoog; Ahmed A. Alduroobi A. Alduroobi; Sawsan S. Al-Zubaidy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 9A, Pages 354-358
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.9A.1

The accuracy of data transition between CAD and CAM has been playing a great role in the product life cycle, and eventually, the product quality. As products complexity increased, the need to robust technique to data transition increased. On the other hand, Machining simulation facilitates deciding the process parameters. The aim of the present research is divided into two aims: first: building a free form surface and transforming its data accurately from CAD to CAM without any distortion. Second: study the milling process using different end cutters geometry and make a comparison between those in terms of machining time at a constant scallop height (s.h.). The study passed through three steps, first: A mathematical model and computer program had been built for non-uniform B-spline surface creation. The output points are stored in a format to be easily imported. Second: importing the data into manufacturing simulation program to emulate the milling process. Three types of milling tools with different end cutter had been used (flat, ball, and toroidal). Third, use a CIMCO edit package to estimate machining time for the three tools. A conclusion had been made that the surface data had been transformed accurately into the simulation process. Another conclusion was, with fixed (s.h.) the ball end mill takes more time than toroidal, which in turn takes more time than flat.

Vacuum Effect on the Performance of Solar Air Collector with Micro-Channel Absorber Plate

Jalal M. Jalil; Nashwa A.Abdulkadhim A. Abdulkadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 8A, Pages 348-353
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.8A.6

In this study, the effect of vacuum with micro-channel technique
on solar air collector performance is investigated experimentally. Vacuum
space reduces the loss of heat for the absorption plate by conduction and
thus improves the solar collector performance. It has been demonstrated
that the solar collector is evacuated to 0.1 bar of pressure for absorber-tocover spacing of 4cm. An absorber plate was manufactured from Aluminum
metal with 30 rectangular micro-channels (length 0.9, width 0.004, height
0.0008 m) is constructed with measurements facilities of velocity,
temperature and differential pressure. The tests are carried out indoor using
solar simulator. Results showed that the performance of solar collector
increases with vacuum about 2-5% than gained with non-vacuum utilizing a
micro-channel absorber plate-black surface.

Effect of Potassium Chloride and Potassium Sulphate Electrolyte Solutionon Surface Roughnessand Material Removal Rate in Electro Chemical Machining (ECM)

Heba S. Qasim; Shukry H. Aghdeab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 8A, Pages 341-347
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.8A.5

Electrochemical machining (ECM) is nontraditional machining
which is used to remove metal by anodic dissolution. In this study the
metal workpiece (WP) was stainless steel (AISI 316) and potassium
chloride (KCl) and potassium sulphate (K2SO4) solutions were used as
electrolyte, and the tool was used from copper. In this work the
experimental parameters that used were concentration of solution,
current and voltage as input. While surface roughness (Ra) and material
removal rate (MRR) were the output. The experiments on electrochemical
machining with using concentration (10, 20 and 30) g/l, current (2, 5 and
10) A and voltage (6, 12 and 20)V. Gap size between tool and WP (0.5)
mm. The results showed that (K2SO4) solution gave surface roughness
and material removal rate less than (KCl) solution in all levels, maximum
(Ra) is (0.471) and minimum (0.049), while (KCl) solution gave
maximum (Ra) was (4.497) and minimum was (0.837). Generally
increasing in machining parameter (concentration of solution, current
and voltage) lead to increase in (Ra) and (MRR). This study aims to
compare the effect of using different electrolyte solution including
potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium sulphate (K2SO4) on the surface
roughness (Ra) and material removal rate (MRR).

Characteristics of Artificial, Gypsified and Natural Gypseous Soils under Dry Condition

Wisam M. Yaqoob; Falah H. Rahil; Moammed A. Al-Neami

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 8A, Pages 302-312
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.8A.1

Gypseous soil characteristics were studied types many researchers, but
the bearing capacity of sandy gypseous soil with different preparing of the soil
models were tested in dry condition under static and cyclic loads in this study, three
types of gypseous soils are prepared (artificial, gypsified and natural gypseous
soils). The laboratory tests were needed to evaluate geotechnical soil properties.
The main objective of this study is testing of the soil models in dry condition for
measuring earth pressures with displacements of the soil models under monotonic
and repeated loads within relatively large manufactured physical model. The
results found that the natural and gypsified soils have displacements of about (1 to
2 cm) and the pressures of earth reaches to about (500 – 550 kPa) and the artificial
gypsified soil reaches to (600 - 650 kPa) and the displacement of about (1 cm). SO3
content tested for the soil samples reaches to about (11.7 %) for gypsified and
natural soils while reaches about (24.5 %) for artificial gypseous soil.

A Hybrid Neural-Fuzzy Network Based Fault Detection and IsolationSystem for DC Motor of Robot Manipulator

Arkan A. Jassim; Abbas H. Issa; Qusay A. Jawad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 8A, Pages 326-331
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.8A.3

In this paper, the detecting and isolating fault that occurs in (actuator
and sensor) in robot manipulator, which is used as a mathematical model were proposed for fault detection, where the neural network was used to detect the fault. The neural network was trained on the data set obtained from the Input/output on the (DC motor).The output of the sensor or actuator was compared with the output of the model (neural network) after that the residual signal is used to detect the fault. The fuzzy logic circuit was used for fault isolation that is depending on the residual signal from any sensor or actuator that faults. There are three types of faults detected and isolated in this study abrupt fault, incipient fault and intermittent fault. The Matlab R2012a was used to the model steady state designed and simulated .The model has a high capacity for detecting faults.

Characteristics of Artificial, Gypsified and Natural Gypseous Soils under LeachingCondition

Wisam M. Yaqoob; Falah H. Rahil; Mammed A. Al-Neami

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 8A, Pages 313-325
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.8A.2

The gypseous soil known as a problematic soil with a collapsibility
behaviour, three types of gypseous soils are prepared (artificial, gypsified and
natural gypseous soil), special manufactured leaching system used for testing the
soil models, the main objectives of this study are testing the soil models in dry and
leaching conditions for measuring earth and pore water pressures with
displacements and gypsum dissolved of the soil models under monotonic and
repeated loads within relatively large physical model. The results at leaching
process for three days revealed that the natural and gypsified soils have earth
pressures reach about (150 kPa) and (4 to 4.5 cm) for displacements, while pore
water pressure increased until reaches about (120 kPa), but for artificial gypseous
soil, earth pressures reaches about (300 kPa) and (1 cm) for displacements. TDS
and SO3 content measured and reaches to about (1900 ppm) for gypsified and
natural soils while reaches about (350 ppm) for artificial gypseous soil. STATISICA
program used to verify the results with a very good agreement reaches to 95% of
the statistical models.

Effect of Radial Clearance on Stress and Strain Distribution in the Astral Deep Drawing

Waleed K. Jawad; Ali T. Ikal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 8A, Pages 332-340
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.8A.4

In this paper, an astral die was designed and constructed to produce an
astral cup in the deep drawing operation by experimental work and numerical
simulation. The influence of radial clearance on drawing load, cup high, the
distribution of stress, strain and thickness along the side wall, minor and major
axis were also studied. The deep drawing process was carried out to produce an
astral cup with an inner dimension of (41.5mm × 34.69mm), and (30mm) height
drawn from a blank sheet with a thickness of (0.7) and diameter (80) made of low
carbon steel. A commercial program (ANSYS18.0) was used to perform the
numerical simulation. Three types of radial clearance equal to (1.1 , 1.2 , and
1.3 ) are used to investigate the influence of radial clearance. It was found that
the maximum value of the drawing load 55KN) recorded with radial clearance
equal (1.1 ). The process of a squeeze in the wall that occurred with the radial
clearance (1.1 ) due to the difficulty of the flow of the metal to be exposed to
maximum tensile stress. The maximum effective stress (674MPa) and strain
(0.973) were recorded with the clearance of (1.1 ) at the minor axis.

Monitoring of Agricultural Drought in the Middle Euphrates Area, IraqUsing Landsat Dataset

Imzahim A. Alwan; Abdul Razzak T. Ziboon; Alaa G. Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 222-226
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.1

This study was conducted to monitor the agricultural drought in
the Middle Euphrates area, Iraq during the period from 1988 to 2018.
Multispectral Landsat TM, ETM+, and OLI images were used. The images
dated 1988, 1993, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2018, which obtained during
growth months of plants (January, February, March, November, and
December).A computerized drought monitoring was adopted using ERDAS
Imagine 2015, ENVI 3.2, and ArcGIS 10.5 environments to process and
analysis the data. The spectral indices, which used in this study were: The
Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Vegetation Condition
Index (VCI). The change analysis presented in this study is based on the
statistics extracted from the six resultant drought maps. The final results
were illustrated that drought area in the region had a noticeable increase
compared with no drought area. The results revealed that percentage of nodrought area ranged between (7%) and (17%) during the period from 1988
to 2018. The extremely and severely drought classes recorded high
percentage followed by moderately and mild drought in the region. From
this study can be concluded that there is a high rate of drought in the
region, especially in its southern and western parts.

Torsional Behavior of Solid and Hollow Core Self Compacting Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Fibers

Tareq S. Al-Attar; Sarmad S. Abdul Qader; Hind A. Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 248-255
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.5

Torsion of structural members and the behavior of steel fiber self- compacting reinforced concrete became the area of interest for many researchers nowadays. The experimental program of the present work consists of casting nine reinforced self-compacting concrete beams in three groups. Each group consists of three beams with the dimensions of 200×300×1500 mm. The first beam has a solid cross-section, the second beam has a hollow core with the dimensions of 60×120×1500mm and the last beam has a hollow core with the dimensions of 80×180×1500mm. The steel fiber contents were 0, 0.5 and 1.0 % by volume for first, second and third groups respectively. The torsional angle of twist versus torsional moment (torque) of each beam was found during the experiments, and the effect of variables, fibers volume fraction and section geometry, on this relationship was investigated. Moreover, the fresh and hardened properties of concrete were carried out using several tests, which included slump flow, L-Box, compressive strength, tensile strength, and finally the torsion test. The current results showed that the addition of steel fibers has improved the torsional strength for all beams and the fibers were more effective in hollow core sections than in the solid ones.

A Cooperation of Fog Computing and Smart Gateways in a Secure and Efficient Architecture for IoT-Based Smart Homes

Amin H. Seno; Sahar A. Alshammari

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 290-301
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.10

Nowadays Internet of Things (IoT) is growing to be a serious factor in numerous areas of our daily life style. Internet of Things brings different opportunities of intelligence to important aspects such as health, payments, energy management, industrial sectors, transportation and also many other specialties. It is important to notice that the interaction between these two part the embedded equipment and Cloud based web services is such a common or prevalent scenario of Internet of Things deployment. When it comes to the security point of view, jointly users (consumer) and smart devices need to reassure and establish a secure and confident communication channel and should have a perfect form of digital identity. In many situations, IoT devices needs an already or earlier established infrastructure for their usage and that cannot be managed by the device owner, such as the case in smart homes. Furthermore, the scenario presupposes a security stack that it is appropriate for heterogeneous devices which can be integrated in Internet of Things frameworks or in already presented operating systems. We proposed a Foggy Smart Home Architecture (FSHA). We identify end users by writing an authentication and authorization protocol, and we will reduce the time required for this security operation, so that the proposed method can prevent Non-manipulation, online/offline password guessing attack and user impersonation attack and man-in-the-middle attack. Our method improves performance of smart home and using fog layer can minimize traffic between cloud and gateways.

Gait Analysis Before and After Total Knee Replacement

Sadiq J. Hamandi; Safa’a D. Al-Hussainy; Summer M. Sabeeh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 282-289
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.9

Total knee replacement is a surgical procedure for treatment of knee Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis and posttraumatic arthritis. The main goals of TKR are relieve the pain, restore function, mobility and restore normal limb alignment for the patients. The aim of the study to investigate the gait dynamic improvements following TKR surgery by compare the dynamic parameter pre-operative and post-operative and then comparing the results with the normal gait parameters. The gait analysis was performed on five patients before and after they underwent unilateral TKR surgery. After three months from the total knee replacement there was a remarked increase in the function and decrease in pain. The varus and valgus malalignment will be return to normal alignment after operation, which is one of the main goals of the TKR. Post-operative cadence is higher than pre-operative for four patients, post-operative speed is faster than pre-operative for four patients and post-operative stride length is larger than pre-operative for four patients. The patients continue to walk with significant gait abnormalities by examining the kinetics and the kinematics of the operated limb, the results show the knee function not fully restored three months after unilateraL TKR surgery.

Enhanced Solution of Inverse Kinematics for Redundant Robot Manipulator Using PSO

Hind Z. Khaleel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 241-247
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.4

Kinematics of the robot is divided into two parts: the forward
kinematics, which evaluates the end-effector’s position from joint angles, and the
inverse kinematics, which demonstrates the joint angles from the end-effector's
position. The solution of the inverse kinematics problem is too difficult and
complicated for the redundant robot arm manipulator. A Particle Swarm
Optimization (PSO) algorithm is an effective method to solve global optimization
problems. This paper presents the solution of inverse kinematics problem of a
three-link redundant manipulator robot arm using PSO without using the inverse
kinematics equations. The circle, square and triangle generated trajectories using
PSO are enhanced as compared with the trajectories of other works. The
enhanced PSO algorithm is successfully found the best generating three joint
angles and the best generating end-effector's position of a three-link robot arm.
Then according to these joints and positions the circle, square and triangle path
trajectories, results are smoother than the path trajectories of other work. This
enhanced solution of inverse kinematics using PSO algorithm is too fast due to
the short elapsed time in every iteration of trajectory. Besides that, these
velocities results have been given evaluated and give an indication that the threelink robot is moving fast during the PSO algorithm. The elapsed time of circle
trajectory equals to 20.903981 seconds, the elapsed time of square trajectory
equals to 11.747171 seconds and the elapsed time of triangle trajectory equals to
15.729663 seconds. MATLAB R2015b program is used in order to simulate all
results. The main benefit of this work is to solve two problems: 1) inverse
kinematics is too complex equations of the three-link robot. The solutions of best
joint angles using PSO are computed within joint limits without using inverse
kinematics equations. 2) Another problem, this work is enhanced three
trajectories with respect to the best joint angles and reaches 96% percent as
compared with another work. The error is too small according to the start and
goal PSO generated points for each trajectory.

Assessing Water Quality for Al-Diwaniyah River, Iraq Using GIS Technique

Khalid M. Hussein; Sataa A.F. Al-Bayati; Salih A.A. Al-Bakri A.A. Al-Bakri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 256-264
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.6

In this  study,  Al-Diwaniyah  River  within  Al-Diwaniyah  Governorate was monitored for a set of chemical, physical,and bacteriological parameters for the assessment of water quality during January to July 2018. Water quality maps for  this  river  were  plotted  torepresent  the  change  in  each  parameter  during  the study  period  using  GIS  program.  Three  sampling  stations  along  the  river  and eighteen parameters were selected: air temperature, water temperature, turbidity, pH  value,  electrical  conductivity  (EC),  biochemical  oxygen  demand  (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), alkalinity, chloride, Sulfate, total suspended solids (TSS), total  dissolved  solids  (TDS),  calcium,  magnesium,  total  hardness,  lead,  total coliform,and  Escherichia  coli  bacteria.  The  results  explained  that the  water temperature  varied between (15-31) °C. pH  values ranged between (7.4-8.2) and river  water  was  considered  as  slightly  alkaline  with  alkalinity  concentrations between (124-176) mg/L. Most waterof the  river was very  hard according to the values of hardness that varied between (384-531) mg/L. The turbidity values of the river  ranged  between  (1.5-35.2)  NTU.Electrical  conductivity  was  between  (998-1380)  μs/cm.  Total  dissolved  solids  and  total  suspended  solids  were  their  values varied  between  (620-932)mg/L  and  (2-28)  mg/L  respectively.  It  was  found  that among  measured  positive  ions,  calcium  concentrations  were  higher  than  the magnesium  concentrations,  ranging  between  (71-175)  mg/L  and  (21-67)  mg/L respectively.  On  the  other  hand,  when  studying  Anions, sulfate  concentrations were  higher  than  chloride  concentrations  with  values  ranging  from  (152-339) mg/L  and  (101-167)  mg/L  respectively.  River  water  contained  dissolved  oxygen concentrations  ranging  (6.3-10.1)  mg/L  while  concentrations  of  biochemical oxygen  demand  varied  between  (0.6-7.6)  mg/L.  Lead  ranged  in  valuesbetween (0.001-0.017)  mg/L.  The  study  found  that  bacteriological  parameters,  including total coliform and E. coli, ranged between (500-1600) MPN/100ml and (30-1600) MPN/100ml respectively. In general, the parameters of Turbidity, SO4, BOD5, TC and E. coli have exceeded Iraqi standards for drinking water IQS: 417 while the rest  of  the  parameters  were  within  these  limits.  It  revealed  that  station  2  which was  located  only  at  ashort  distance  from  the  site  of  the  wastewater  treatment plant  was  more  polluted  than  the  other  two  stations.  The  results  showed  that  the water  of  the  river  is neithersuitable  for  drinking,  nor  suitable  for  swimming according  to  the  high  bacterial  pollution  in  addition  to  the danger  and  threat  to aquatic life but can be used for irrigation purposes.

Investigation of External and Internal Inversion for Aluminum Tube with Various Die Parameters Effect

Basim M. Fadhil; Ava Ali Kamal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 235-240
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.3

Finite element modeling has been conducted to investigate the
effect of die radius fillet, tube wall thickness, and friction coefficient on both
external and internal inversion for
the
aluminum tube. A 3D model was used
to build the contact pair for the a
luminum tube and the steel
die
. Due to the
axial symmetry, a 45
o
sector for the contact pair has been chosen. It has been
found that there is an important role for those parameters to govern the
inversion process and the mode of deformation beside the valu
e of the
applied force. No local buckling was seen in the external inversion in
contrast with internal inversion. A good correlation for current results with
experimental one that has been got by others.

Zoning Areas Susceptible to Land Subsidence in Tigris and Euphrates Basins

Ali Darvishi Boloorani; Masoud Soleimani; Ramin Papi; Seyed Kazem Alavipanah; Ayad M. Fadhil Al-Quraishi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 265-272
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.7

Land Subsidence is considered as one of the riskiest hazards in nature and geology. It may be caused by human activities including but not limited to long-term depletion of water, petroleum, and gas from underground reservoirs. Monitoring and zoning of regions susceptible to land-subsidence within Tigris and Euphrates rivers basin can play a major role in predicting and preventing damages from subsidence and can aid in better planning for utilizing its water resources. Accordingly, this study proposed to employ 9 effective parameters on subsidence including: precipitation, total water underground changes, elevation, slope, population, land use, distance from petroleum and gas fields, distance from faults, and distance from rivers. Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory method was applied for analyzing relationships between parameters. Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process and Boolean methods were combined to produce zoning maps of Tigris and Euphrates basin subsidence. The results were indicative of the high potential of subsidence in zones contributing to 1.39% of the total area of the Tigris and Euphrates basin. Inter-parameter analysis by using of Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory indicated that land cover, total water underground changes, and population were the most impressible factors in land subsidence zoning, respectively.

Study the Behavior of High Performance Concrete Circular Short Columns Confined by CFRP

Asmaa A. Ahmed; Shatha S. Hasan; Ali J. Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 273-281
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.8

This paper presents the results of experimental study on reinforced concrete columns rehabilitation with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) under concentrated load. Twelve short circular reinforced concrete columns (150 mm diameter and 600 mm height) were tested. Three specimens were unstrengthening and tested until failure as control specimens. Nine specimens were rehabilitation by carbon fiber reinforced polymer after loading about 75% from ultimate axial load capacity of control specimens. The test parameters were the type of concrete are normal strength concrete (NSC), high performance concrete (HPC) and high performance concrete containing engine oil (HPCEO) in additional to effective the ratio CFRP confining (fall wrap (100%strengthening), 50mm strips wrap 50mm spacing (50%strengthening)and 40mm strips wrap-60mm spacing(40%strengthening)). Test results showed that Adding used engine oil to concrete have significantly effect on workability of concrete where work as plasticizer. HPCEO mix showed lower strength (compressive, splitting tensile and flexural) and ultimate axial load of column than those HPC mix but greater than NSC mix. Where the compressive strength of concrete was (27.3 MPa, 45.8 MPa and 69.7 MPa) for NSC, HPCEO and HPC respectively. The ultimate axial load capacity of unconfined reinforced concrete columns was (52 ton, 78 ton and 117 ton) for NSC, HPCEO and HPC respectively. Reducing efficiency of rehabilitation by CFRP with increasing in compressive strength of concrete. The ratios of increasing in ultimate axial load capacity of rehabilitation RC columns with 100% and 50% wrapping in comparison with 40%wrapping are 20% and 4% respectively for NSC, while these ratios become 15% and 5% respectively for HPCEO and for HPC , these ratios are 10%and 3% respectively.

Using Microbial Desalination Cell to Treat Iraqi Wastewater

Talib R. Abbas; Majid A. Dixon; Mustafa Hussein Al-Furaiji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 227-234
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.2

A Three-chambers MDC was made using three identical cubical
plexi-glass sections. Each chamber has an effective volume of 35 cm3. An anion
exchange membrane (AEM) was used to separate the anode from the
desalination chambers while a cation exchange membrane (CEM) was used to
separate the cathode from the desalination chambers. Two graphite sheets were
used as anode and cathode electrodes. Biotic experiments have included aircathode MDC fed with synthetic municipal wastewater, Bio-cathode MDC in
which the cathode chamber was inoculated with microalgae as an oxygen
source and air-cathode MDC was fed with floated oil layer in the anode
chamber as an organic source. Maximum power density obtained from the
MDC was 121 mW/m2. The corresponding current density was 410 mA/m2.
Maximum power density obtained in this study was in consistency with that
presented in previous studies. Maximum coulombic efficiency and charge
efficiency achieved were 9% and 165% respectively. The results of this study
confirmed the validity of using MDC technology to treat municipal wastewater
as well as oil, desalinate brackish water and generate electric power
simultaneously. Moreover, the results revealed the possibility of using mixed
culture algae, available in the Iraqi environment, in the cathode chamber as an
oxygen source to develop more energy efficient MDC. Further study deals with
different system configurations and different operating conditions are needed.

DNA Fingerprints of Two Tilapia Fish Species of Euphrates River at Governorate ofAl-Muthanna Using RAPD Markers

Taha Al-Khafaji; Mustafa S.F. Ziyadi; Marwa K. Musad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 345-349
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.7

During the last decade, tilapia species (Cichlidae: Teleostei) became
members of Iraqi fish fauna. They characterized with morphological similarity among
genera and species. That makes species differentiation not easily. Molecular methods
followed to differentiate between redbelly tilapia Coptodon zillii (Gervais, 1848) and
blue tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner, 1864) of the Euphrates River sector
at Al-Samawah city. RAPD-PCR method used to create the genetic fingerprints of two
tilapia fish species. Seven decamer primers (OPA08, OPA10, OPA13, OPA17,
OPA19, OPB08 and OPC02) used to amplify DNA fragments using PCR-RAPD
technique. Forty-four bands scored after electrophoresis on 2% agarose gel along
with molecular marker fragmented to each 100 base pair. The molecular weight of
bands was calculated using PhotoCapt-MW software. The volume of bands ranged
from C. zillii 168 bp to 2227 bp while they ranged from 62 bp to 2154 bp in O.
aureus. The results achieve the RAPD fingerprints of two tilapia species in Euphrates
River at for genetic Al-Samawa city and draw the genetic tree with the same species
from Shatt A-Arab River in Basrah city. The study concluded that there is the closest
relatedness among tilapia populations from Euphrates and Shatt Al-Arab Rivers. The
results proved that RAPD markers were efficient to generate DNA fingerprints of
tilapia fish species. Furthermore, the utilizing of the RAPD markers can differentiate
the two studied species. The present study may be the first genetic study on these
tilapia fish species. Moreover, this would be the baseline studies in the future. In
addition, this study would be valuable for conservation program and documentation
of identities of tilapia fish species in Iraqi inland waters

Study on Removal of Vanadium from Iraqi Crude Oil by Prepared Nanozeolites

Amin D. Tamer; Faras Q. Mohammed; Luma H. Mahmood; Marwan Hussein; Mahdie M. Hanyn

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 6A, Pages 188-194
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.6A.1

The present study has been conducted to investigate the removal of vanadium from Iraqi crude oil by prepared zeolite nanoparticles. Ball milling was used as a top-down approach to synthesize zeolite nanoparticles. Different variables such as adsorbent loading, Vanadium loading, and operating time were investigated for their influence on Vanadium removal. Experimental results of adsorption test show that both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms predict well with the experimental data. Kinetic analysis of the studied system gives the following linear equations, For Langmuir isotherm: 1𝑞𝑒=1.6505 1𝐶𝑒−0.0139 with R2 = 0.9738, For Freundlich isotherm: 𝑙𝑛𝑞𝑒=1.0848 1𝐶𝑒 – 0.4412 with R2 = 0.9711
XRD and EDX analyses reveal the noticeable uptake of zeolite for V. In crude oil, experimental results indicated that for zeolite loading at 1 g/100 ml oil and within approximately 6 h, the removal efficiencies of V were 65, 40, and 30% at vanadium loadings of 70, 80, and 90 ppm respectively. Long-time tests revealed the high capability of zeolite A for vanadium removal.

Physical and Chemical Characteristics Comparison of the Drinking Water and Water Produced from the Conventional and Modification Solar Water Distillery

Hussein H. Mohammed Ali; Sabah T. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 6A, Pages 214-221
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.6A.5

A comparison of the physical and chemical characteristics of water samples produced from the conventional and modification solar water distilleries, and water samples of networks from different regions in Kirkuk were carried out. Two samples of each water type were tested. The study has focused on measuring the total dissolved solids, pH, electrical conductivity, sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, sulfate, nitric and chloride. The results show that all tests of distillate water produced from the solar water distillery are within Iraqi and world standards lower than the other samples, but only pH values ranged from 7 to 8.3, which are within the standard specifications.

Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals(Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb) by Using Aquatic Plants in Shatt Al-Arab River

Taha Y. Al-Edani; Hayfaa J. Al-Tameemi; Zainab F. Jasim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 365-369
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.10

The study conducted to evaluate the ability of some aquatic plants in absorption and accumulate some heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb) in their tissues from contaminated water in two sites of Shatt Al-Arab River, Province of Basrah/Iraq. Water samples were collected from two sites one of them north of Basrah (Gurna) and the other from Sindbad island middle site of Shatt Al-Arab river. The chemical analysis had been performed to find out water quality. A laboratory experiment had been conducted by using three types of aquatic plants which were; Common Hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum L., Common Reed (Phragmites australis L, and Nut Grass (Cyperus rotundus L.). Two types of water qualities (Gurna and Sindbad island) from Shatt Al-Arab river in addition to distilled water as a control treatment. Plants were planted in glass containers filling with water samples to know the ability of plants to absorb heavy metals. Results showed that water quality, according to American salinity laboratory classification was C4S1 for both sites. Concentration of cadmium, copper, iron, and lead in Shatt Al-Arab river in both sites was (0.021, 0.034), (15.40, 23.50), (248.1, 181.0), and (15.5, 54.0) ugL-1 respectively. The preliminary analysis of heavy metals concentration in aquatic plants of Cd, Cu, Fe and Pb were 0.18, 14.5, 650.5, and 26.2 mg kg-1 of dry weight respectively. While the results were 0.45, 36.2, 1173.0, and 50.5 mg kg-1 dry weight respectively in the Ceratophyllum, Finally, in the common reed, the concentration was 0.2, 30.5, 1095.2, and 45.2 mgKg-1 dry weight for each heavy metals respectively. The removal efficiency of aquatic plants was varied with plant species and they took the following order common hornwort >common reed>nut grass.

Heavy Metals Accumulation in Two Types of Tree Leaves from Baghdad Urban Areas

Maha A. Mahmood; Athmar A.M. AL-Mashhady; Ali N. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 350-355
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.8

It is well known that environmental pollution by many heavy
metals is a serious problem to the natural ecosystem due to their toxic
effects. Most heavy metals such as Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn are needed by
various organisms but at certain concentrations is very necessary for
both plants and animals. However, it has been suggested that ever green
plant trees can assist in controlling such pollution via various methods
where one method is the ability of these plant trees to absorb heavy
metals from contaminated soils. The current work was designed to assess
Cd, Mn and Pb plant content in two tree species (Eucalyptus sp. and
Albizia sp.) collected from Tourist Baghdad Island (TBI) situated in AlFh’hama region. It seems very obvious that these examined trees can be
regarded as certain heavy metals eliminator where eucalyptus tree has
shown considerable ability in removing all examined heavy metals which
were significantly higher than that of Albizia trees.

Removal Performance Assessment of Dyes in Solution Using Mesoporous MCM-41 Prepared from Iraqi Rice Husk

Najat Saleh; Anaam A. Sabri; Ban S. Abdul Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 6A, Pages 207-213
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.6A.4

In this study, mesoporous silica MCM-41 material was synthesized using Iraqi rice husk for the first time, as silica precursor and Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template. MCM-41 was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), BET surface area, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Then the ability of MCM-41 as adsorbents were tested to treat dyes as one of the organic pollutants from synthetic wastewater . The adsorption behavior of Gentian violet(GV), Methylene blue(MB) and Congo red(CR) dyes from synthetic wastewater onto mesoporous MCM-41 was tested. Batch adsorption was employed to determine the effects of pH (2-11), adsorbent dose (0.05-1g), contact time (0–200 min), initial concentration (25-300 mg/L) and temperature (293,313,333ͦ K). It was found that MCM-41 has higher potential for adsorption of basic dyes (GV, MB) and lesser for acidic dye (CR) from aqueous solution in batch system .Adsorption isotherms were fitted with the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin models. It was found that the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model for GV and CR had the best fit with; on the other hand, the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model had the best fit for MB.

Recycling of Sewage Sludge Ash in Polymer Structures

Mohamad Alsaadi; Aseel B. Al-Zubaidi; Mukhallad Haider; Hasanain Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 311-318
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.2

In this study sewage sludge ash (SSA) particles were used as filler in the polyester resin to fabricate particulate composites with various filler contents of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 wt%. The tensile, flexural, impact, hardness, chemical composition and scanning electron microscope tests wear done on the samples in accordance with ASTM standards. The results were improved at the particle content of 5 wt% for the tensile and flexural strength and then showed reducing trend with extra particle addition. Tensile and flexural modulus values of the particulate polyester composites significantly enhanced compared with the unfilled polyester composite. Energy Dispersion Spectrometry (EDS) results showed that the SSA contains elements and oxides which may increase adhesion force with polymer. In spite of the particle content of SSA that used with polymer to produce various structures for different applications was low, this study approved that using of SSA can protect the environment due to increasing the amount of SSA can affect the environment badly in addition to produce cheaper polymer composite for industrial applications.

Improving the Properties of Main Drainage Water by Using of Magnetic Field Technique

Olla H. Kareem; Abdul Hameed M.J. Al-Obaidy; Riyad H. Al-Anbari

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 6A, Pages 195-200
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.6A.2

In this research, main drainage channel treated by using a magnetic field with a density of (6000 Guesses). The general drain water samples flowed through the magnetic field with three levels of treatment (5 minutes, 15 minutes and 30 minutes) depending on the contact time. After treatment, it was found that the magnetic field works to improve more than ten physical and chemical properties of water. Essentially, Magnetic treatment has had a significant effect on the high salt content found in general drain water samples as it has been reduced and converted into simpler compounds. In addition, the magnetic field has an important role in increase the percentage of dissolved oxygen in water.

Assessment of the DesalinationEffect on ShatAl-Arab

Mohammed I. Al-Hashimi; Falah Alnedawy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 385-390
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.13

The resource of the dulcet water decreasing on our plant. Obstacles and problems that face water resources are the pollution and increasing of industrial wastes because of the human activities, lack of water resources in a place is considered dryness on well as unacceptable quality and quantity. The effect of outstretch and tide in estuaries of rivers increase the concentration of the salt in surface water. The city of Basra suffers from the lack of water discharge and high concentration of salt , wastewater, and the salt wedge ascending from downstream of Shat al – Arab river. The water decrease in quantities due to the decrease of water discharge in Shat al –Arab river from 1300 m3 /s to 1000 m3 /s . Now the water discharge reaches less than 40 m3 /s by the end of 2015. Shat al – Arab river suffers from the shortage of incoming water from rivers, which cause increase of salinity. Proposals are made for resolving some of the questions.

Hydrogeologic Sustainability and Mitigation of Shallow Groundwater against High Saline and Chemical Pollutants

Najah M.L. Al Maimuri; Arkan R. Ali; Abdulhadi M. Al-Sa’adi; Mohammed K. Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 303-310
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.1

A hydrogeologic study has been adopted to conceptualize the concepts of groundwater levels lowering in swamped area of Tyass, middle of Iraq. 2D dimensional groundwater model and, mitigation model has been used to mitigate the aquifer against high salinity and chemical pollutants by the mitigation theory of heterogeneous subsurface media, which depends upon physical and mathematical derivation, evaluation of chemical pollutants and total dissolved salts (TDS) of subsurface water before and after mitigation process. The water table level was lowered up to 2.43m at the center of a pumping well of abstraction discharge (400m3/day) obtained after 2755days in steady state. The ions concentrations of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), mercury (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and TDS in groundwater of 0.4, 3.25, 1.15, 0.004, 0.033 mg/liter and 7000ppm respectively were reduced to less than the allowable limits according to WHO of 0.3, 3, 1, 0.003, 0.01mg/liter, 1200ppm respectively by adding 0.2WD of fresh water from Hillah river and using maximum no. of pumping wells of (19 at April) after 240 months. The mitigation period was reduced to 120 months when the addition of solvent volume was doubled. Mitigation process in heterogeneous against high saline levels and chemical pollutants has been proven a good tool for the rehabilitation of polluted aquifers.

Environmental Impact Assessment for Modern Brick Factory in Baghdad, Iraq

Saadi M.D. Al-Nuzal; Salih A. Al-Bakri; Sarah D.A. Zankana

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 377-384
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.12

The environmental and social impacts of a bricks factory was evaluated and the information's have been collected from a community questionnaire, as well as the analysis quadrilateral (SOWT) strategic for default modern bricks factory. The results devolve toward the manufacture of bricks with a modern and environment friend technology showed the extent of the community's awareness about contaminants posed by traditional brick plants. The analysis of the strategic quadrilateral project gave positive results in terms of overcome strength elements and of weakness in the internal environment and opportunities to overcome threats in the external environment for the modern factory. The study summarizes number of recommendations concerning, the most important use of modern technologies to reduce pollutants outside of the brick factories and alternatives and environmental monitoring plan for the project so as to ensure that the protection of the surrounding environment.

Modification of Prepared (Al 2024/Alumina/Mn) Composite by Laser Surface SiC Clad Layer

Marwa H. Juber; Amer H. Majeed; Mohammed S. Hamza; Thair A. Tawfiq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 6A, Pages 201-206
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.6A.3

The present work shows the cladding process of silicon carbide on the substrate of prepared composite (Al 2024/Alumina/Mn) by using a laser beam (pulsed Nd-YAG). To obtain the desired results, the best laser parameters were chosen. The parameters of the laser beam that have chief affected during the experiments in this work are peak power (1.9)kW, work frequency (8)Hz and pulse duration (5.3)ms, the preplaced powder technique favorite during a cladding process and the results in this work were proved by SEM, micro-hardness, EDS, and chemical corrosion tests. The results of the experimental work have shown that a micro-hardness increased about (28%) times for Aluminum/Alumina composite by silicon carbide cladding compared with the original value of micro-hardness, and thickness of the cladding layer was about (34μm). The resistance of corrosion was enhanced with about (35%) for the Aluminum/Alumina composite with SiC cladding.

Behavior of Recycled Aggregate Fibrous Reinforced Beams Under Flexural and Shear Loading

Eyad K. Sayhood; Ali Sadiq Resheq; Farah L. Raoof

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 338-344
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.6

The use of recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) to replace part or
all of the natural coarse aggregates (NCA) in the production of concrete
has been on the increase. Such use helps in the protection of the natural
resources and in the reduction in the use o
f landfills.
The experimental
work consists of casting and testing ten rectangular simply supported
reinforced concrete beams of dimensions (1500*150*240) mm with
concentric point load at mid span as well as tests for control specimens to
determine the mechanical prope
rties of the concert. Five beams of these
ten beams were designed to fail in flexure and other five beams were
designed to fail in shear. Two beams were considering as a reference
beams using normal aggregate (NCA) and two beams were considering as
a refer
ence beams using recycled aggregate (RCA. The other six beams
were cast using recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) with steel fiber in
three different volumetric ratio (vf).The present investigation contains
three main variables: Coarse aggregate (normal and
recycled).
Transverse
reinforcement (with stirrups spacing 50 mm for flexure failure mode and
without stirrups for shear failure mode). Steel fiber (vf) = (0.5) %, (1) %
and (1.5) %.
In addition, constant longitudinal reinforcement ratio 0.012
.
Experiment
al results have generally showed that ultimate loads (Pu) of
beams made with RA are approximately close to the results of beams made
with NA but with decrease of values (14% and 21%) for flexural and shear
behavior respectively.
The ultimate load of fibrou
s concrete beams is
greater than beams without steel fiber by
(33%
-
50%) for shear behavior
and
(21%
-
35%) for flexure behavior.

Rubber Pad Sheet Metal Forming of Round Metal Blanks into Multi Shape Axisymmetric Cups by FEA and Experimental Methods

Karem M. Younis; Adnan I. Mohammed; Jalil Shukur

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 370-376
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.11

Rubber-pad forming process of round sheet blanks into axisymmetric cups is studied by numerical and experimental approaches. In the experiments, round metal sheets are formed into the axisymmetric cups by pressing them between a rubber pad and a former block with desirable shape. To investigate influences of different parameters on the forming load, three former blocks with different shapes, blank material of low carbon steel (ST12) with thickness 0.5 mm ,three polyurethane rubber with different hardness (50,60 and 70) shore A and rubber pad having three different thickness (40,60 and 80) mm . ANSYS Workbench utilized to perform the numerical part of this research. The results showed that the produced cup height is significantly affected by rubber pad hardness.

Seasonal Variations of Air Pollutants Concentrations within Baghdad City

Layla L. Alwan; Sedik A.K. Al-Hiyaly; Ayat H. Mahdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 356-364
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.9

Air pollution is increased significantly nowadays due to various
industrial activities and car combustion emissions. In this work, data have been
collected from Al-Jadrya Monitoring Station (JMS). The effects of seasonal
variation on the pollutants concentration were examined. Furthermore,
relations of nitrogen oxides concentrations (NOx) were assessed during the first
hours of the working days. Three randomly days from each of January,
February, July and August have been taken to represent winter and summer
seasons, respectively. It has been found that concentrations of all examined
pollutants have not exceeded the acceptable limits. However, nitrogen oxides
(NOx) seem to be effected by seasonal variation where its concentration has
increased in June and August of the summer season. The concentrations of other
pollutants (SO2, CO, PM) have not been influenced by seasonal variations, and
they depend on the gaseous source emissions at different times of the year.
Hourly monitoring for nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentration showed increasing
in concentrations during the summer season, especially in the early hours of the
working days.

Lung Cancer Detection from X-ray images by combined Backpropagation Neural Network and PCA

Israa S. Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 5A, Pages 166-171
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.5A.3

The lungs are portion of a complex unit, enlarging and relaxing numerus times every day to supply oxygen and exude CO2. Lung disease might occur from troubles in any part of it. Carcinoma often called Cancer is the generally rising and it is the most harmful disease happened in humankind. Carcinoma occurs because of uncontrolled growth of malignant cells inside the tissues of the lungs. Earlier diagnosis of cancer can help save large numbers of lives, while any delay or fail in detection may cause additional serious problems leading to sudden fatal death. The objective of this study is to design an automated system with an ability to improve the detection process in order to perform advanced recognition of the disease. The diagnosis techniques include: X-rays, MRI, CT images etc. X-ray is the common and low-cost technique that is widely used and it is relatively available for everyone. Rather than new techniques like CT and MRI, X-ray is human dependable, meaning it needs a Doctor and X-ray specialist in order to determine lung cases, so developing a system which can enhance and aid in diagnosis, can help specialist to determine cases in easily.

Removal oil from produced water by using adsorption method with adsorbent a Papyrus reeds

Firas K. Al-Zuhairi; Rana Azeez; Suhair A. Mahdi; Wafaa A. Kadhim; Muna Kh. Al-Naamee

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 5A, Pages 157-165
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.5A.2

A papyrus reed, as a type of unusable farming waste, was used as a
kind of low-cost biosorbent for the elimination a crude oil from produced water
that was produced in an Al-Ahdab field, Iraq, in a batch stirred operation
mode. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron
microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the biosorbent before and after
adsorption. Batch tests were employed as a function of the contact time,
adsorbent dose, and the pH of the solution. The experimental results show at
increases the amount adsorbent dosage, pH and contact times, the removal
efficiencies were increases and optimum condition was obtained at pH value
equal to 9, 5000 ppm adsorbent dose and 45 minutes contact time for removal
about 94.5% of crude oil, for test sample initial crude oil concentration 257.06
ppm. Therefore it can be disposed of without environmental damage. The better
fitting for equilibrium sorption process data was satisfactorily by the
Freundlich isotherm model with (R2= 0.9665) and the adsorption kinetics best
described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

A Group Authentication Protocol on Multilayer Structure for Privacy-Preserving IoT Environment

Maytham Azhar; Amin H. Seno

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 5A, Pages 172-180
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.5A.4

In the Internet of Things (IoT) systems, large amounts of data are accumulated from anywhere at any time, which may attack individuals' privacy, especially when systems are utilized in medical and everyday environments. With the promise of IoT's proactive systems, the integration of smart things into standard Internet creates several security challenges, because most Internet technologies, communication protocols and sensors are not designed to support IoT. Recent research studies have shown that launching security / privacy attacks against IoT active systems, in particular, Wearable Medical Sensor (WMS) systems, may lead to catastrophic situations and life-threatening conditions. Therefore, security threats and privacy concerns in the IoT area should be actively studied. This causes us in this paper to create a privacy authentication protocol for IoT end-devices on a four-layer structure that does not have the ability to accurately identify the device of request's sender so that some attacks can be minimized. We used the Blakley Sharing scheme to design a key generation and distribution system for secure communications between edge devices and end devices and examined the security properties of the protocol for the five common attacks in the IoT. The results of the experiments show that the proposed authentication protocol by the Blakley method is more efficient with increasing number of instructions in both fog structures and in a without fog structure, which shows a higher flexibility of the Blakley method than the Schemer because of the increasing number of instructions indicating increasing the number of nodes in the network.

Controlling the Q-Point in Distributed Feedback Lasers Using a Numerical Optimization Methodology

Hisham K. Hisham

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 5A, Pages 148-156
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.5A.1

In this paper, a new methodology for controlling the Q-point in the distributed feedback (DFB) lasers is proposed. The method based on reducing the DFB transient period (TP) by optimizing laser’s model parameters numerically. The analysis has taken into account investigated the effects of the laser injection current (Iinj), the dc-bias level (Ibias), the temperature (T) variation, and the gain compression factor (ε). Results showed that by optimizing the value of Iinj, Ibias, T and ε; the Q-point could be controlled effectively. Where increasing the current ratio (i.e., Iinj/Ith) leads to reduce the TP value. In addition, by increasing Iinj and/or Ibias, the relaxation oscillation period (TRO) and the laser delay time (TDelay) are reduced significantly. From the other hand, the temperature varying may push the DFB laser to operate in an improper region through increasing the TP value; which may lead it to operate in the off-mode. Moreover, as ε is increased, the sinusoidal oscillations are dramatically damped results in a reduction in the TRO value and larger period of stabilized.

Optimization Using Taguchi Method for Physical and Mechanical Properties of Bio Mimicking Polymeric Matrix Composite for Orthodontic Application

Jenan S. Kashan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 5A, Pages 181-187
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.5A.5

This work take in consideration the application of Taguchi optimization methodology in optimizing the parameters for processing (composition, compounding pressure) and their effects on the output physical (Density and true porosity) properties and mechanical(fracture strength and microhardness) properties for the Nano HA,Al2O3 fillers reinforced HDPE hybrid composite material for orthodontic application. An orthogonal array of the Taguchi approach was used to analyses the effect of the processing parameters on the physical and mechanical properties. On the other hand, the surface roughness and particle size distribution were also calculated to study their effect on the output properties. The result shows that the Taguchi approach can determine the best combination of processing parameters that can provide the optimal physical and mechanical conditions, which are the optimum values (the optimum composition was15HA/ 5Al2O3/80HDPE, and optimum compounding pressure was102 MPa.

Study the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High Chromium White Cast Iron (HCWCI) under Different Martempering Quenching Mediums

Ali H. Ataiwi; Zainab A. Betti

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 4A, Pages 112-119
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.4A.1

The aim of this study is to find an alternative quenching medium for the ordinary nitrate mixture that is cheaper and more available in Iraqi markets. So to obtain the suitable medium , the  effect of different quenching mediums used in martempering treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of  high chromium white cast iron was studied  . This type of cast iron is used in mining ,crushing and cement plants as mill liners so it is subjected to extreme conditions of wear and impact that eventually cause failure . In this study, two types of quenching mediums were used in martempering treatment: (50% Sodium hydroxide + 50 % potassium hydroxide) mixture and (50% Sodium nitrate + 50 % potassium nitrate) mixture with different quenching intervals. It is  also found that both of the quenching mediums produce higher hardness values at 350°C martempering temperature for 4 hr quenching time ,but there were several advantages and disadvantages associated with using these two different mediums

The Extraction of Alumina from Kaolin

Alaa H. Ali; Mohammed H. AL-Taie; Ihab F. Ayoob

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 4A, Pages 133-139
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.4A.4

Alumina has wide industrial and technological applications that can be extracted from different locations, different methods and materials. Kaolin from Iraq Alduikhla astrologer has used as a raw material source for alumina production. The alumina concentration in the Iraqi kaolin is more than 34% which considered as a good replacement for bauxite rack. Crushing andground is the first process to reduce the kaolin particle size to the micron level which increases the surface area of kaolin.
The kaolin is heat treated at different temperatures (600, 650, 700 and 750) ̊C for 2 hours to remove some of ithe mpurity like organic materials and crystal water before acid treatment. A different concentration of hydrochloric acid (pH) (0.45, 0.5, 0.55, 0.6 and 0.65) has used for extraction of alumina from kaolin. The reaction between the hydrochloric acid and kaolin has studied at different temperature (30, 60 and 90) ̊C. The extraction of alumina has decreased with increase t inhe reaction temperature. Finally t,,he alumina extraction by this method has characterized using XRD and XRF to investigation the crystal structure and the amount of impurities presented there. The final extracted alumina h isaving cubic crystal structure (γ alumina) with purity above 95%.

Mapping LCLU Using Python Scripting

Oday Z. Jasim; Khalid I. Hasoon; Noor E. Sadiqe

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 4A, Pages 140-147
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.4A.5

Land cover land use changes constantly with the time at local, regional, and global scales, therefore, remote sensing provides wide, and broad information for quantifying the location, extent, and variability of change; the reason and processes of change; and the responses to and consequences of change. And considering to the importance of mapping of (LCLU). For that reason this study will focus on the problems arising from the traditional classification (LCLU) that based on spatial resolution only which leads to prediction a thematic map with noisy classes, and using a new method that depend on spectral and spatial resolution to produce an acceptable classification and producing a thematic map with an acceptable database by using artificial neural network (ANN) and python in additional to other program. In this study the methods of classification were studied through using two images for the same study area , rapid eye image which has three spectral bands with high spatial resolution(5m) and Landsat 8 image (high spectral resolution with eight bands), also several programs like ENVI version 5.1, Arc GIS version 10.3, Python 3, and GPS. The result for this research was sensuousness as geometrics accuracy accepted in map production.

Experimental Study of 3D printing Density Effect on the Mechanical Properties of the Carbon-Fiber and Polylactic Acid Specimens

Wafa A. Soud; Ihsan A. Baqer; Mohammed R. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 4A, Pages 128-132
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.4A.3

Two 3D printed materials (Polylactic Acid and Carbon fiber) with variable printing density have been investigated due to their practical uses in the engineering utilization. The effect of printing density composites was studied by the tensile test. The used materials stress-strain curves were analyzed to find modulus of elasticity and ultimate tensile strength of the mentioned materials. The results manifested that the carbon fiber has the highest strength-weight ratio. On the other hand, the carbon fiber showed more ductility than the Polylactic Acid. The results of this paper will be aiding the researchers or engineering students to decide which material is suitable for 3D printing applications.

Development the Physical Properties of Polymeric Blend (SR/ PMMA) by Adding various Types of Nanoparticles, Used for Maxillofacial Prosthesis Applications

Sihama I. Salih; Jawad K. Oleiwi; Hajir M. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 4A, Pages 120-127
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.4A.2

As maxillofacial defects increased due to cancer; it became necessary to select high-quality prosthetic materials in this field. Silicone rubber is widely used in damaged maxillofacial affected areas replacement surgery as bio material. The aim of this research, prepared a nano composites materials, from polymer blend (silicone rubber: 5% PMMA) reinforced by different types of nano-powders; pomegranate Peels Powder (PPP), Seeds powder of dates Ajwa (SPDA) and TiO2 nano-powders with loading level (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4%). Some physical properties such as density, water absorption, and Thermo-Physical test, FTIR analysis, as well as, FTIR, antibacterial tests were done on prepared samples. The results showed that the composites material based of polymer blend with optimum percent are of 0.2% of pomegranate Peels Powder (PPP), 0.3% of Seeds powder of dates Ajwa (SPDA) and 0.1% of TiO2 nano-powders that have ideal characteristic. Also for antibacterial tests, polymeric blend composites with optimum percent of this nano-powders show that more antibacterial efficiency against S.aureus bacteria than E.coli bacteria.

Design of Double Notch Band Half-Elliptical Shape Reconfigurable Antenna for UWB Applications

Haydar M. Al-Tamimi; Salah M. O.

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3A, Pages 85-89
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3A.2

A compact ultra-wideband (UWB) reconfigurable antenna with dual band-notched properties is presented in this paper. The dual notch band half – elliptical reconfigurable antenna is fed by (50 Ω) microstrip feed lines and it is printed above an FR-4 substrates (32 × 32.6) mm2 dimensions. This dual band notched characteristic is accomplished by embedding two crossing U-shaped slot in the half-elliptical radiating patch of the proposed reconfigurable antenna. The modeling procedure and performance evaluation of the presented antenna was achieved by using the electromagnetic simulator software, (CST) Computer Simulation Technology. The measured bandwidth of the presented antenna for (VSWR < 2) spans 2.6 GHz to 12 GHz, which covers the entire UWB band of 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz, with a controlling dual notched band (VSWR > 2) in 3.5 GHz and 5.2 GHz. The presented antenna is appropriate for UWB applications with another benefits of reduces the interference effect with the wireless local area network (WLAN) systems that operating in 5.15–5.35 GHz band (IEEE 802.11a), as well as reducing the interference effect with the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) application, which operates in 3.5 GHz band (IEEE 802.16e). The parameters that affect the efficiency of the antenna as regards to its frequency domain and radiation pattern qualities are studied.

Design of n-Bit Adder without Applying Binary to Quaternary Conversion

Walaa MH. Khalaf; Dhafer Zaghar; Kadhum Al-majdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3A, Pages 106-111
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3A.5

Microprocessor has been considered as most important part in ICs manufacturing and making progress since more than 50 years, so increasing microprocessor speed is paid attention in all technologies. ALU is known as the slowest part in microprocessor because of the ripple carry, nowadays microprocessor uses 8-uints as pipeline, each one has 8-bits for implementing 64-bit, working in this form has been captured the microprocessor development and limited its speed for all its computations. Parallel processing and high speed ICs always trying to increase this speed but unfortunately it remains limited. The contemporary solution for increasing microprocessors speed is the Multiple Valued Logic (MVL) technology that will reduce the 8-bits to 4-qbits, this paper proposes a new design of a 2-qbit full adder (FA) as a basic unit to implement MVL ALU (AMLU) that has 8-units as pipeline, each one consists of 4-qbits to implement 32-qbit which is equivalent to 64-bit, without applying binary to quaternary conversion and vice versa. The proposed design increases microprocessors speed up to 1.65 times, but also a little increase of implementation.

A Survey on Deceptive Detection Systems and Technologies

Harith H. Thannoon; Wissam H. Ali; Ivan A. Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3A, Pages 90-95
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3A.3

There are many types of indicators that have been proven to be useful clues for deceptive detection techniques, and most of this indicators that have been presented and proven by psychology to be signs of lying. This paper presents a survey of most popular deceptive detection systems. Many techniques for lie detection have been presented by researchers; most of them are reviewed in this paper. This study focus on the algorithms, which are presented in some pervious work, and how the database has been collected for each technique, furthermore explain the adopted cues for each deception detection technique. The accuracy of each proposed technique is included in this paper, then this study shows the advantage and disadvantages for each deception system with the useful and robust cues here.

Analysing Some Mechanical Properties of Cinnamon Powder Reinforced with Polymeric Materials Used in Dental Application

Ahamed M. AlGhabban; Reem A. Mohammed; Jumaah R. Mahmood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3A, Pages 96-105
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3A.4

In the dentures industry, materials must be chosen to have good mechanical properties in order to resist the conditions that may occur in the mouth. A study was conducted to assess tensile strength, elasticity coefficient, elongation, flexural strength, flexural modulus with impact properties of poly methyl methacrylate resin as matrix strengthened with cinnamon powder and also analysing these mechanical properties by using (OriginLab) software program. The samples of Poly Methyl methacrylate bio composites which containing 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% weight fractions of cinnamon powder and an unfilled as control sample were fabricated using “hand lay up” method. The results indicate that the addition of 8% weight fraction cinnamon powder into Poly Methyl methacrylate resin improved of ultimate tensile strength, modulus elasticity ,flexural strength, flexural modulus (62 MPa, 3.7 GPa, 96 MPa, 6.4 GPa) respectively, compared with the values of pure Poly Methyl methacrylate (51 MPa, 1.5 GPa, 78MPa, 2.0 GPa) respectively. Also can be noted that the elongation at break values decreases with an increase in weight fractions of filler, where the sample (Poly Methyl methacrylate +2% cinnamon) has the best value for elongation compared with samples reinforced (4%, 6% and 8% wt). The impact strength results observe the maximum value was present in the sample (Poly Methyl methacrylate+6% cinnamon). From the results, descriptive, One Way ANOVA statistical analysis and means comparison by used (Scheffe test and Tukey test) for all mechanical properties indicated, turns out if Sig equals 1 shows that the variance in mean is significant at the level of 0.05, whereas Sig is 0 designates that the mean variance is not significant at the level 0.05.

Performance of Geopolymer Concrete Exposed to Freezing and Thawing Cycles

Mohammed H. Shamsa; Basil S. Al-Shathr; Tareq S. al-Attar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3A, Pages 78-84
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3A.1

In this study, the effect of rapid freezing and thawing (ASTM C666 – procedure A) on three different types of Geopolymer concrete studied using three types of pozzolanic material: fly ash, metakaolin and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). The Geopolymer concrete was prepared using 400 kg of the pozzolanic material with alkaline liquid prepared at 8 molar concentration with normal fine and coarse aggregates. The ratio of alkaline to fly ash and GGBFS was 1.5: 1 and for metakaolin was 2: 1 for workability and compressive strength requirements. Specimens (100 × 100 × 400) mm were exposed to 100, 200 and 300 cycles of freezing and thawing. The decrease in measured compressive strength was (23, 43, and 26%) for Fly ash, metakaolin and GGBFS respectively. The investigated types of concrete showed good resistance to freezing and thawing. The durability factor of these types was (77%, 68%, and 81%) for fly ash, metakaolin, and GGBFS respectively.

Effect of Using Local Insulation Materials on the Indoor Temperature of Residential Buildings at Iraq

Abdulrahman S. Mahmood; Haqi I. Qatta; Nassr F. Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2A, Pages 37-45
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2A.1

In this research, a thermal insulation between the two layers of a wall has been used for the residence buildings to reduce the heat transmitted across the walls and thus reducing the power consumption for cooling load. A MATLAB program was used to obtain the thermal response for various types of walls from the energy sources (solar radiation and ambient temperature) in summer season in Baghdad, Iraq. Local materials used in this study as thermal insulators between the two layers of walls are: local cane mat, wood sawdust and cork grains. Modeling tests were carried out on June, July and August via using Matlab program. The simulation results obtained have been compared for five different types of walls are: usual wall, thick wall, wall containing local cane mat, wall containing wood sawdust and wall containing cork grains, which helps in finding the heat flow across the wall where boundary conditions varied according to solar radiation and environment thermal load. The results showed that using the walls containing of local cane mat, wood sawdust and cork grains can reduce the heat gain by 50%, 44% and 40% respectively, compared with usual wall and thus reduce the power consumption.

Optimal Location and Parameter Setting of STATCOM Device Based PSO for Iraqi Grid Voltage Profile Enhancement and Power Losses Minimizing

Rashid H. Al-Rubayi; Mohammed B. Eesee

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2A, Pages 60-69
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2A.4

The main goal of this work is to enhance the Voltage stability by using optimum location and parameters setting of STATCOM device. The parameters are the magnitude of the output voltage 𝑉𝑉𝑅 and the angle 𝛿𝑉𝑅, these parameters are taken to control the device performance. The simulation results have been done by using power flow program solution by Newton-Raphson method (Matlab program / M-file) with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique, for power losses minimizing and improving voltage profile. Two systems have been implemented:- IEEE 5-bus test system and Iraqi (400 kV) National super Grid System 27-bus. The MATLAB programs are Applied in the first step on IEEE 5- bus test system to examine the performance of the programs by comparing the results with other references, then it is implemented on Iraqi (400 kV) National super Grid System to find optimum location and parameter setting of STATCOM device. The results show that, the STATCOM has significant effect on improving the voltage profile and reducing apparent power losses, The STATCOM device performance depends on its location and parameter settings, and The PSO algorithm can easily find out the optimal location and parameters setting of the STATCOM for which the voltage deviation are minimum

Examining the Impact of Different Thermosyphon Diameters and Working Fluids on Their Performance

Talib Z. Farge; Sahar R. Al-Sakini; Aseel A. Ismael

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2A, Pages 46-51
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2A.2

This work was designed to examine the effect of various thermosyphon diameters and working fluids on the thermosyphon performance. A thermosyphon made from copper tubes with three different external diameters 7, 13 and 22mm with thickness of 1mm is used in this work. The length of evaporator and condenser were 120 and 300 mm respectively. Working fluids were water, acetone and Freon R11 working fluids are tested. The obtained results have shown that the temperature gradient was decreased when increasing the thermosyphon diameter. Also, the results showed that the Merit for water had the highest value than the other working fluid at the operating range of temperature. The results were shown the heat dissipation by the thermosyphon increased when increasing the thermosyphon diameter for all working fluids. Also the heat dissipation from the thermosyphon with working fluid of water had a highest value of heat dissipation than the others working fluids. The percentage decreased in the temperature gradient by using thermosyphon with diameter of 22mm for water, acetone and Freon R11 were 73.53 %, 68,53 % and 52.35 % respectively compared with that without using thermosyphon.

Diagnosis and Evaluation of Defects Encountered in Newly Constructed Houses in Erbil City, Kurdistan, Iraq

Khalil I. Wali; Noori S. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2A, Pages 70-77
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2A.5

This study investigated the types and profile of defects facing newly constructed houses through conducting a survey and analyzing defect records of data observed for 652 houses out of 1000 houses newly constructed for Salahaddin University academic staff in Erbil City. The result of analysis revealed that the overall of 6758 defects identified with the mean average of 10 defects per house. The overall percentage of defected houses for each type of defects and the location of the defect ranged from 10% to 67%. The most defected components found in the doors and windows, which comes in rank 1 with the highest percentage of defected houses reached to 76%, whereas coating and painting of doors come in rank 2 with percentage of 75%, and cracks in structural elements come in rank 3 with 73%. Analyzing the defects in terms of area and location showed that the finishing works representing the major defects area of 48%. While, the defects in the doors and window representing second highest defects of 42%. The results indicated that the quality performance in newly constructed houses is low due to poor workmanship and lack of experience and skills of construction staff and inadequate supervision

Investigation of Corrosion Protection for Steel by Eco-Friendly Coating

Majid H. Abdulmajeed; Hiba A. Abdullah; Slafa I. Ibrahim; Ghaith Z. Alsandooq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2A, Pages 52-59
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2A.3

The coupling effect of coating and inhibition has been investigated in the present work. polypyrrole coating with adding coumarin was applied on carbon steel to protect it against corrosion. Electropolymerization process by cyclic voltammeter was carried out in 0.2M oxalic acid electrolyte containing 0.1M pyrrole monomer without and with 0.01M coumarin as an eco-friendly inhibitor. SEM/EDS, AFM and FTIR techniques were used to identify the coating film. Corrosion test using Potentiostat was achieved for uncoated and coated specimens and the results indicated that the corrosion potentials became nobler compared with uncoated specimen, this means that the anodic sites were covered by undoped and doped PPy film as illustrated from the deceasing of anodic and cathodic Tafel slopes. Protection efficiencies were acceptable and good (71.46% for PPy film and 77.47% for coumarin/PPy film). The polarization resistance was increased from 0.114 Ω.cm2 for uncoated C.S. to 0.176 and 0.404 Ω.cm2 for PPy coated and coumarin/PPy coated C.S. While the porosity percentage was 0.44% and 4.50 for PPy coated and coumarin/PPy coated C.S. due to increasing the roughness of coumarin/PPy film.

Investigation of Optimum Helix Angle of a Wire Rope Subjected to Harmonic Dynamic Loading

Hatem H. Obeid; Riham A. Nima

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1A, Pages 6-11
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1A.2

The current work includes the dynamic structural analysis of wire rope with different helix angle. The main objectives are; estimating the stress and deflection for each helix angle, comparing the results to get the best helix angle suitable for practical applications. This paper falls into two parts: The first part includes modal analysis for the models of wire rope using finite element method with certain boundary conditions that are suitable to obtain the first five frequencies for each helix angle and the second part focuses on harmonic analysis of wire rope to estimate stress and deflection and compares maximum results that coincide with the first natural frequency of each model. In the analysis the results of each helix angle were compared to other helix angle results, the structure of 82° helix angle have the smallest stresses and deflection. That means when the helix angle increases the flexibility decrease and rigidity increase.

A Comparative Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Various Fibers Reinforced Concrete

Ahmed M. Al-Ghaban; Hussein A. Jaber; Aya A. Shaher

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1A, Pages 28-36
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1A.5

The present work presents an investigation the effect of adding various fiber materials such as (glass, nylon, and carbon) into the concrete mix for inspecting and compare the mechanical properties of different fibers reinforced concrete. Two different fiber length states of (short=3cm and long=10cm) are used in this work. The concrete of ordinary Portland cement of (1:1.5:3), (cement: sand: gravel), were mixed with each of the fiber materials at four different weight percentages (0, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2) wt% per cement content. Compressive strength and flexural strength were experimentally investigated of different fibers reinforced concrete specimens after curing for 28 days. The results showed that the incorporation of various fibers with the concrete mix generally improved the strength of concrete by improving the toughness. The flexural strength of concrete with addition of various fibers was strongly enhanced than compression. Addition 0.8% of nylon fiber to concrete resulted in the maximum increase of its compressive strength, reaching the rate of increasing to 11.08% for short fiber and 20.75% for long fiber. Addition 1.2% of nylon fiber to concrete mix resulted in the maximum increase of the flexural strength, reaching rate of increasing to 120.02% for short fiber and 211.49% for long fiber. Increasing the length of fibers increases the strength of the concrete but a little extent. Among these fibers, nylon containing concrete composite exhibits promising mechanical strength that could be easily used as low-cost partitioning wall, false ceiling, and other household purposes.

Production of Lightweight Concrete by Using Construction Lightweight Wastes

Huda S. Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1A, Pages 12-19
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1A.3

This research covers the use of cellular lightweight concrete waste as recycled coarse aggregates to produce lightweight concrete. Various volume fractions of coarse aggregate (35%, 50%, and 75%) were used. The specimens were tested for compressive strength and density at age of 28-days. The compressive strengths for the resulting lightweight concrete with a density of (2131, 1826 and 1630) kg/m3 were (24, 22.6 and 11.5) MPa, respectively. In addition, silica fume was utilized as a constant replacement ratio 6% of cement weight for mixes lightweight aggregate to enhance the compressive strength of such concrete.

Automatic Tool Path Generation for Parametric Surfaces

Tahseen F. Abbas; Sara J. Shawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1A, Pages 20-27
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1A.4

A tool path generation algorithm has been proposed and implemented in the presented work. The aim of the development of tool path algorithm is to machine parametric surface with a given tolerance and scallop height. The algorithm proposes dividing the desired parametric surface to several linear segments depending on the desired accuracy of the parametric surface. The Bspline technique has been used to generate the required data of the parametric surface. After generating the tool path, the cutter movement has been simulated allowing to reduce the cutting time and cost. The tool path is verified on the C-TEK CNC milling machine by machining six models. Various tool path strategies are also discussed and compared with the developed algorithm. The machining performance includes machining time; dimensional accuracy and surface roughness were measured for result evaluation. A measuring method has been proposed and implemented to measure the accuracy of the final 3D models. A Digital 3D-Touch Probe was used. The statistical method of error assessment and similarity factor has been implemented in this work to show the efficiency of the proposed works. The results showed that the similarity factor of the proposed works were (87.6%) for one model, and (85.9%), (89.6%) for other models. Matlab (v.7.1), UG-NX8.5, and VERCUT software have been used in this work for implementation. A comparison between the proposed method and UG-NX8 has been done to present the flexibility of the proposed method.

Proposed Collision Avoidance System in Driverless Cars

Hiba A. Tarish; Alaa Q. Rahima; Tanya A. Jaber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1A, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1A.1

Avoiding collisions is an important matter in the majority of transport systems and in many other applications in driverless cars it is very important to have an active collision avoidance system since only the car to take an action and no driver to help. The goals of collision avoidance systems are tracking objects of possible collision risks and decide any action to avoid or mitigate a collision with the help of sensors and radars. Car accidents have become quite common nowadays. After investigations, conclusions have stated that a great deal of those accidents happened because drivers fail to stop the car at the right time. Sometimes, the pedestrians are not crossing the road at the right time. Researchers discovered that about 35 percent of people die due to accidents, 98 percent of which die because of fatal road accidents. Many car industries have proposed an AI system in the vehicles for the aim of reducing accidents and this is considered as the backbone of the auto-driven car. However, this system is complex and expansive. That is why; ordinary people are still under the risk of accidents . The system proposed to driverless cars is simulated and modeled via small Miniatures and in Matlab and assembled in Arduino.

Developing an Approach to Redesign Freeform Surfaces Using B-Spline Technique

Amjad B. Adulghafour; Ahmed T. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 12A, Pages 1213-1221
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.12A.1

In product design process trends currently tend to use sculpture surface (freeform surface) that modeling by using (NURBS, B-spline, Bezier) technique to suit aesthetic, functional and manufacturability requirements. The B-Spline technique is one of the most important tools in computer aided geometric design (CAGD). This paper reported a new approach to design 3D freeform CAD model and then represented this model mathematically by using B-Spline technique. This mathematical represent consider one of the important aims that useful in manufacturing process through its geometric data which defines by this represent. The approach has three major steps: design 3D CAD solid contain freeform surface by using CAD software, analysis and extraction the parameters including geometric data of 3D CAD model based on IGES file format, and then construction the B-Spline surface of the model that contain multi patches by using basis function of the surface. The approach has been extensively tested with more than case study has 3 degrees of the surface then represented mathematically in four patches.

Robust Multiple Model Adaptive Control for Dynamic Positioning of Quadrotor Helicopter System

Safanah M. Raafat; Zainab SH. Mahmoud

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 12A, Pages 1249-1259
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.12A.6

The quadrotor control has been one of the benchmark control problems. It is considered as an under-actuated, multivariable and high nonlinear system due to its dynamics, having strong coupling between translation and angular motion and affected by external disturbances associated with flight environment. Therefore, there is a need to design a robust control that can keep up with sudden changes and find better tracking performance against modeling error and uncertainties. In this work, an adaptive state feedback control method denoted as Classical Multiple Model Adaptive Control (CMMAC) has been implemented. This method embodies in its structure a bank of filters. Kalman filter (KF) has been used where each filter has been designed for a specific value of an equilibrium point and set of controllers, which was provided by the LQ-servo design. Comparisons of the performance of a quadrotor system between control designs for single Kalman filter with CMMAC for the same value of uncertainty in terms of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) have been presented. CMMAC meets better performance of tracking design for all variations; the performance of the controlled quadrotor has been improved for the linear and angular coordinates 100%, as compared to the performance when using one Kalman filter.

Study of the Mechanical Properties of Jute Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites

Lamees S. Faiq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 12A, Pages 1244-1248
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.12A.5

The study results show the use of jute fibers to develop a low cost material for wall panels, roofs and other construction board. The study has been investigates the cement mechanical characteristics jute fibers reinforced concrete. Different lengths of fibers (2cm) and (4cm) were mixed to act as reinforcement for the concrete samples. The samples with different fiber percentages (0.5%, 1% and 1.5% by weight of cement) were tested in axial compression and splitting tensile strength. A total of (42) concrete cube samples (100mm*100mm*100mm) and (42) cylindrical samples (100mm*200mm) were used in the tests, these include compressive and splitting tensile strength and were conducted at (7) and (28) days of concrete age. The results showed that increasing the fiber content and length leads to a slight decrease (4.3% - 12.3%) in the compressive strength but it improves the splitting tensile strength which reached best value at the (1% by weight of cement) fiber content and (5cm) length. The increasing of splitting tensile strength was up to (19.4%) from the reference concrete strength.

Some Mechanical Properties of Polymer Matrix Composites Reinforced by Nano Silica Particles and Glass Fibers

Sudad Younis; Jawad K. Oleiwi; Reem A. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 12A, Pages 1283-1289
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.12A.10

This research studied the effect of nano silica particles on wear behavior test , ultimate tensile strength ,impact strength, fracture toughness and hardness shore D of specimens composite material. The hand-lay-up method is used to preparation of specimens established from unsaturated polyester resin matrix reinforcement with 4% weight fraction glass fiber (chopped / woven) mat and 1%, 3%, 5% weight fraction of nano silica particle. The nano silica particles used in this study has an average size of (less than 45nm). The results showed that the specimen (up+4% woven glass fiber+5% nano SiO2) gives better mechanical properties include ultimate tensile strength, impact strength, fracture toughness and hardness shore D (110 MPa, 13.7 K.J/m2, 18.92 MPa.m1/2, 85 shore D) respectively,when compare other specimens. The wear rate decreased from (22.5×10-4 cm3/N.m) for specimen (pure unsaturated polyester resin) to (0.18×10-4 cm3/N.m) for specimen (UP+4% woven glass fiber +5% nano SiO2) under parameter 7N (load), 15 minutes (sliding time), 2m/s (sliding speed) and (7 cm) sliding distance.

Comparison Between Deterministic and Stochastic Interpolation Methods for Predicting Ground Water Level in Baghdad

Muammar H. Ali; Aqeel Sh. Al-Adili; Nagaratnam Sivakugan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 12A, Pages 1222-1225
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.12A.2

Surface interpolation techniques are usually used to create continuous data (i.e. raster data) from distributed set of point data over a geographical region. There are deterministic and stochastic (geostatistical) interpolation techniques can be used to create spatial raster surface. In this paper, the comparison between the Inverse Distance Weight (IDW) interpolation method as deterministic method and the Kriging interpolation method as stochastic method is done to determine the best performance for measuring levels of ground water in Baghdad Governorate. Spatial raster surface surfaces as ground water prediction maps are generated from each method by using average ground water level measured at 206 wells in the study area. These maps are shown spatial variation in the ground water levels and they have complete different. The IDW method results a refined map and lesser error than the Kriging method. Thus, the analysis shows that the IDW gives better real performance of measuring levels of ground water in Baghdad Governorate.

Formation Control of Mobile Robots Using Sliding Mode Control Based on Conditional Servocompensator

Laith Khames Majeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 12A, Pages 1302-1310
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.12A.12

In this paper, the problem of controlling a group of mobile robots is considered; each one operates with the nonlinear nonholonomic under actuated dynamics. A coordinated control scheme is designed based on leader-follower(s) method to achieve prescribed formation maneuvers. This objective is fulfilled using the approach of sliding mode controller based on conditional servocompensator, which will bring the system error trajectories into a positively invariant set (boundary layer) close to the origin. Then, a special form of servocompensator conditional integrator, which will be active only inside the boundary layer, will regulate the trajectories to the origin in finite time. Compared to the traditional integral which will deteriorate the performance of the feedback system, the conditional version will have a very insignificant effect on the performance. The simulation results show that the designed controller is able to achieve the objective efficiently with very reasonable control actions.

Investigation Vibration Damping in the Hydraulic Systems by Using an Accumulator

Walaa M. Hashim; Huda A. Al-Salihi; Hisham A. Hoshi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 12A, Pages 1267-1282
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.12A.9

It is generally accepted that the vibration of fluid power systems considered to be one of the major problems that is normally occurred in the hydraulic system, which causes a noise and short life of its components. Accordingly, it should be reduced the efficiency as well as an increase leakage system. Hence, present study pays more attention to investigate a bladder an accumulator which was successfully added to the hydraulic system in order to reduce the vibrations that might be generated by the system and decelerate the actuator at the end stroke. Which variables are measured before relief and directional valve and at the linear cylinder body. It was found that the maximum percentage damping in vibration velocity at a position before relief and directional control valve and at cylinder body was 20%, 20.8% and 55% at 20 and 15 bar pressure supply respectively. Whereas, it was observed the acceleration was 11.3%, 12.5% and 50% at 40 bar pressure supply. Also, it was found that the piston begins decelerate gradually from distance 25cm in which equal to 1/6 of total stroke length with a period of time 5 seconds.

Investigation of The Effect of Loading Paths in the Tube Hydroforming Process

Adil. Sh. Jaber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 12A, Pages 1236-1243
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.12A.4

The control accurately of internal pressure, axial feeding and paths of loading which have important influences on the final tube quality. In this research an impact of loading path of the tube hydroforming process and final part requirements ( i.e. thickness specification and shape conformation) were studied numerically. Small bulge shape tube hydroforming parts were utilized in the finite element analyses to get several guidelines on the effect of the relation between the internal pressure and axial compressive feeding programs. Two dimension model of bulge shape tube (50 mm) bulge width has been developed from cylindrical tube with thickness (2mm) of the copper and (60 mm) outer diameter. A commercial available finite element program code (ANSYS 11), is used to perform the numerical simulation of the tube hydroforming operation. The results demonstrate that, the loading path has very important influenced on the thickness distribution over the tube and capability attained the target shape of the required product.

Resistance of High-Volume Fly Ash Self-Compacting Concrete to Internal Sulfate Attack

Tareq S. Al-Attar; Ahmed A. Taha

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 12A, Pages 1260-1266
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.12A.7

This paper investigates the durability of high-volume Fly ash self-compacting concrete, HVFASCC that exposed to internal sulfate attack. At the present work, HVFASCC was produced with two Fly ash replacements: 50 and 60% by weight of Portland cement. The internal sulfate attack was simulated by adding natural gypsum (CaSO4) that contain ion (SO3-2) to fine aggregate by two weight percentages: 1 and 2%. Limestone dust was used as filler with a content of 100 kg/m3. The cementitious materials, cement and Fly ash, content was 400 kg/m3 and the water to powder ratio for the studied mixes was 0.34 by weight. To ensure the self-compact ability of the mixes, slump flow, T500, V-funnel and L-box tests were done. The Compressive, Splitting and Flexural strength Tests were extended to the age of 240 days. The results showed that there is no significant difference between 1 and 2% of SO3 content on the behavior of all mixes. The presence of limestone powder in the paste solution could have a role in stabilizing ettringite and reducing paste porosity at early ages. At later age, 240 days, the harmful effect of SO3 is diminished and that may be caused by the depletion of gypsum and the dominant product will be calcium monosulfoluminate hydrates instead of calcium sulfoaluminate hydrates.

Mechanical Properties Modeling and Optimization for Polymeric Matrix Hybrid Bio Composite for Scaffolds Application

Jenan S. Kashan; Marwan N. Arbilei

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 12A, Pages 1226-1235
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.12A.3

TiO2 / Polypropylene composite considers very promising biomaterials in bone replacement and repair application, but mechanical properties still out of load bearing scaffolds application. In this work, two approaches were suggested to produce enhanced polymeric matrix bio composite for scaffolds application, 1st one was by using Nano TiO2 particles to produce bio composite with good mechanical properties. while the 2nd approach applied by the addition of Al2O3 Nano particles. Different processing conditions have been used like different compounding pressures, compounding temperatures, and chemical composition. This work aimed to investigate the effect of these additions and processing factors on mechanical and physical properties for the proposed composite. Linear and multiple regression modeling techniques approached, and the mathematical models have been concluded and evaluated. The optimum preparation factors have been reduced and analyzed with Taguchi method to find the best preparation criteria to prepare the best mechanical properties product. Using Nano scale TiO2 powder enhanced mechanical and physical properties, moreover the addition of Nano Al2O3 powder maximize the mechanical properties to very similar values to natural bone.

A Simplified Recurrent Neural Network Trained by Gbest-Guided Gravitational Search Algorithm to Control Nonlinear Systems

Omar F. Lutfy; Ahmed L. Jassim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 12A, Pages 1290-1301
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.12A.11

This paper presents a feedback control strategy using a Simplified Recurrent Neural Network (SRNN) for nonlinear dynamical systems. As an enhancement for a previously reported modified recurrent network (MRN), the proposed SRNN structure is used as an intelligent Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID)-like controller. More precisely, the enhancement in the SRNN structure was realized by employing unity weight values between the context and the hidden layers in the original MRN structure. The newly developed Gbest-guided Gravitational Search Algorithm (GGSA) was adopted for optimizing the parameters of the SRNN structure. To show the efficiency of the proposed PID-like SRNN controller, three different nonlinear systems were considered as case studies, including a control valve, and a complex difference eq.. From an extensive set of evaluation tests, which includes a control performance test, a disturbance rejection test, and a generalization test, the proposed PID-like SRNN controller demonstrated its effectiveness with regards to precise control and good robustness and generalization abilities. Furthermore, compared to other Neural Network (NN) structures, including the original MRN and the Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) NN, the SRNN structure attained superior results due to the utilization of a reduced set of parameters. From another study, the GGSA accomplished the best optimization results in terms of control precision and convergence speed compared to the original Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA).

Experimental and Numerical Study of the Earing Defect During Square Deep Drawing Process

Kariem M. Younis; Adil. Sh. Jaber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 12A, Pages 1267-1275
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.12A.8

Deep drawing process is a very complex process which controls a lot of parameters and the associated defects. The aims of this research are to discuss the effect of parameters of the process utilized in square deep drawing process such ; material properties, blank size, blank shape on the height and shape of earing defect appear of the drawn cup. Three dimensions model from low carbon steel (AISI 1008) with thickness 0.7mm of square cup (41.4mm by 41.4mm). The finite element software (ANSYS 11) was utilized to carry out the numerical simulation of the deep drawing process, and the experimental work result of earing was compared with numerical of earing shape result. In this work, three types of the radius of die entry of 3, 5, 7mm, three shapes of the blank (circular, octagonal, and square) with various diameters, four types of radius of the punch profile of 3, 5, 6, and 7mm had been selected to form a cup with square sides. The results show that, The circular blank give the best results according to earing defect and useful height of the drawn cup, when square shape of blanks were utilized, excessive earing will show in the square cup, due to non-uniform distribution of blank material around the perimeter of the die cavity, minimum material in the flat side and too much material found in the die corner, while when using octagonal shape of blanks which have a same surface area to the square blank, the earing will reduce in the corner of the cup due to extract of the too much material from the blank corners. The results showed a high agreement between the experimental work and numerical simulation reached to 85 % in terms of the shapes and lengths of the earing appearing in the square cups.

Effect of Inhibition by Honey on Corrosion Behavior of Composite Materials from Al-4% Si Alloy Reinforced with Y2O3 Particles

Hanna A Al-Kaisy; Mervit M. Hanoos

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 11A, Pages 1208-1212
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.11A.12

this work focuses on the preparation specimens of metal matrix composite materials exemplified alloy (Al-4%Si) reinforced by yttria particles Y2O3 with different weight percentage (1,2and 3). Effect of yttria particles on polarization behavior of (Al-4% Si alloy) in sulfuric acid (0.5 M) was studied by using potentiostat in the presence and the absence of natural honey with different concentration (1and 2gm/L) as inhibitor. The results show that the values of tafel slops and corrosion rate (Rmpy) of composite materials reinforcing with particles of yttria with three percentage decreases with increasing the concentration of honey, and the efficiency of inhibition (El%) of composite materials in the acidic solution was more than that of base alloy after adding 2gm/L of inhibitor corrosive medium are (64.79%, 77.49% and 88.79%) respectively.

New Accurate Wattmeter Based on Logarithmic Amplifiers

Azzad B. Saeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 11A, Pages 1165-1170
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.11A.5

Analog Computers can realize most of mathematical equations; these equations can be solved using difference, adder, logarithmic, anti-logarithmic, integrator, and differentiator amplifiers. The logarithmic and anti-logarithmic amplifiers are the main components of the analog computers, whereas, they can convert the multiplication and division operations to addition and subtraction ones, and they can convert the exponential functions to multiplication relationships. These amplifiers depend on the non-linearity of the relation between forward current and applied voltage of the diode. All of previous types of wattmeters, measure the consumed power of a specific load or resistor by multiplying the difference voltage of that load by the current passes through it (i.e. P=V.I). In this paper, a proposed accurate wattmeter circuit has been designed and implemented using logarithmic, anti-logarithmic, non-inverting, and difference amplifiers. The proposed circuit has been utilized for measuring the consumed power of a resistor that have any resistance value. It differs from previous conventional (analog, and digital) wattmeters due to its calculation of the consumed power for a given resistor by multiplying the voltage difference (V) across that resistor by itself once time, then the resultant value is divided by the resistance (R) value of that resistor (i.e. P=V2/R).

Hiding 9 Gray Images In RGB Image and Using Filters For Noise Removing

Haraa R. Hatem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 11A, Pages 1144-1147
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.11A.2

This paper shows two major techniques, the first is steganography and the second is filters. Gaussian and median filters are used to enhance the quality of image and remove the noise. Two kinds of noise are added to RGB cover image. RGB cover image are divided in to three cover images RGB. The hiding algorithm is Least Significant Bits (LSB) which is used to hide three different images in each part of noisy cover image. The results of proposed system show that the ability of extracting secret message without errors. Normalized Correlation (NC) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) tests are utilized to find the robustness of the proposed system. The simulation results of this work are performed by Matlab program.

Applying Modern Optimization Techniques for Prediction Reaction Kinetics of Iraqi Heavy Naphtha Hydrodesulferization

Zaidoon M. Shakor; Anfal H. Sadeiq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 11A, Pages 1171-1175
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.11A.6

In this study, a powerful modern optimization techniques such as Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Artificial neural network (ANN) were applied to estimate the optimal reaction kinetic parameters for Heavy naphtha Hydrodesulferization (HDS), the hydrodesulferization unit located in AL-Daura refinery-Baghdad/Iraq. The reactions was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor packed with Co-Mo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst and the operating was 315-400 °C temperature 35 bar Pressure and 0.5-2.1 hr-1 liquid hourly space velocity. The result showed that hydrodesulferization of heavy naphtha follows the pseudo-first order reaction kinetics. This study signifies that the reaction kinetic parameters calculated by Genetic Algorithm was found to be more accurate and gives the highest correlation coefficient (R2= 0.9507) than the other two methods. ANN technology by using the topology of (3-3-1-1) provides an effective tool to simulate and understand the non-linear behavior of the process. The model result showed very good agreement with the experimental data with less than 5%. mean absolute error.

Corrosion Activity Laser Treated Aluminum-12% Silicon Alloy with Fe and Ti Powders at Two Different Energies

Hanna A Al-Kaisy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 11A, Pages 1196-1200
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.11A.10

In This work, the corrosion activity of laser treated almium-12%silicon alloy was tested. The addition of Fe and Ti as elemental powders was studied. Two different laser energies of 750 and 1000 kJ were used. Corrosion measurements by potential static at 3mV.sec-1in condensed synthetic automotive solution. The corrosion data show that laser treatment led to increasing corrosion resistance due to smoothness of the surface alloy because of high energy, and the corrosion resistance in the presence of Fe and Ti powders better than that in the absence of metallic powders were increased from (8.416 Ω.cm2( to )11.216 Ω.cm2( whereas corrosion rate decreased from (1.3194) to (0.7615) of specimens which laser treated with present Ti compared with as received , and the corrosion resistance increase with increasing laser energy.

Difference and Contradiction of Critique Methods to Produce Styles of Modulation in Architecture: (Architect Peter Eisenman as Example)

Basim H. Al-Majidi; Baneen A. Al-Saadawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 11A, Pages 1122-1143
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.11A.1

Rapid changes and developments have brought contemporary intellectual theories and different and diverse ties to highlight the different and multiple concepts contribute to the definition of any philosophy and intellect, which are frequent and mutant methods and demonstrations of the same values and origins which in turn describe the state of existence, continuity, permanence and human communication, the most important concepts are Difference and contradiction as the basis of everything, and without them there is no existence or knowledge. most contemporary studies focused on the different critical methods linked to the semantics and meanings that express architecture on the one hand, and methods of expression, invocation and illustration on the other hand, and both are contribute in the formation and creation of architecture and enrich its architectural output, despite the wide presentation of the concepts of difference and contradiction but these propositions only addressing each notion separately without knowing their relationship as critical methods and trends shaping the contemporary architecture and achieving communication with community structure, So the problem of research has determined with (lack of comprehensive knowledge study describes the most important applied mechanisms to concepts of difference and contradiction as critical methods contribute to the production of continuous civilized building formation patterns of interaction between the designer objective and the receiver subjective), In order to address this problem, a conceptual framework was built for the methods of difference and contradiction, and the election a number of architectural projects of “Eisenman” which shows difference and contradiction as a clear critical trends and methods as applied mechanisms or strategies produce emerged architecture formation patterns of outreached architectural output among clones of what is happening globally or immersed in cloning for local references, and then described and evaluated them in accordance with indicators drawn from the conceptual framework of the concepts of difference and contradiction that place and give the more plausible explanation, presenting a number of recommendations to depend on as critical methodology contribute in production of patterns forming architecture, its recognition swinging between what is subjective accompanies sensory perception and what is that accompanies mental perception, and as sentimental mechanism for networking events, harmony and pleasure and thrill in physical output.

Physical Properties Study on Ti-C/Nano-Ceramics Composite

Ahmed M. Al-Ghaban; Niveen J. Abdulkader; Hadeel A. Al baiaty

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 11A, Pages 1185-1188
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.11A.8

The effect of introducing Al2O3 and CuO nano particles on the physical properties of sintered Ti-C based materials has been studied. Titanium and carbon elemental powders have been mixed with nanoparticles of Al2O3 and CuO to produce composites of Ti-C/ceramics at 1100 °C. The XRD results show that for different amount of mixed nanoparticles, TiC, TiO2, and some rest of the reacted powders are the most dominant stable phases. In terms of physical properties, the results show that the raised Al2O3 percentage leads to gradually increase in apparent density of the sintered mixture as compared with the purely prepared TiC. Moreover, porosity and water absorption decrease with increasing Al2O3 percentage. On the other side, adding CuO to the sintered mixture causes in decreasing the apparent density. Furthermore, it was observed that CuO creates much porosity and increase water absorption of the sintered mixture.

Fault Diagnosis in Wind Power System Based on Intelligent Techniques

Kanaan A. Jalal; Lubna A. Abd alameer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 11A, Pages 1201-1207
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.11A.11

Wind energy is one of the most important sources as well as being environmentally friendly and sustainable. In this paper, different types of faults of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) have been studied based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Field Programmable Gate Array. To simulate the wind generators model MATLAB/Simulink program has been used. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is trained for detection the faults and (PSO) technique is used to get the best weights. After the training process, the network was transformed into a Simulink program and then converted into the Very High Speed Description Language (VHDL) for downloading on the (FPGA) card, which in turn is used to detect and diagnosis the presence of faults where it can be re-programmed with high response and accuracy.

The Effect of Addition of CeO2 Nanoparticles on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-Al-Mg Compact Samples

Mahdi M. Hanoon; Akeel A. Al-Attar; Ali M. Resen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 11A, Pages 1189-1195
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.11A.9

In this research, Ti-15Al-5Mg alloy with different amount of CeO2 nanoparticles was prepared by powder metallurgy method, the powders of these materials were mixed together by ball mill then the mixed powders were pressed under high pressure, the compacted samples were sintered in electron furnace under argon gas. The density and porosity measured using Archimedes method, XRD and SEM images were used to detect phase's peaks and microstructure of all alloy sets. Vickers micro-hardness measured and Brazilian compressive tests, the results of these tests were drawing in charts with porosity and CeO2 nanoparticles percentage. From these results the best amount of CeO2 is 7 vol.% which give best mechanical and physical properties, because of created of (Ti-CeO2).

Effect of V-Shape Twisted Jaw Turbulators on Thermal Performance of Tube heat exchanger: An Experimental Study

Nassr F. Hussein; Nassr F. Hussein; Abdulmunem R. Abdulmunem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 11A, Pages 1158-1164
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.11A.4

The main purpose of the present investigation is enhancing heat transfer rate in a tube heat exchanger by using V-shape twisted Jaws. The air is used as a working fluid and pumped through the test section with different values of Reynolds number (6000 - 19500), while the heat flux has been selected as a constant boundary condition around the tube section. In this study, two type of twisted jaw turbulators are used with two twisted ratio (TR= 2 & 4) as well as, the effect of using different numbers of turbulators (N= 6, 8 and 10) inside test section with equal distances between pieces are studied. The results indicated that, using augmentations with TR=2 gives better heat transfer rate and thermal performance factor comparing with the other case TR=4. The maximum rate of heat transfer is achieved in case of N=10 by an increased 160.29% for TR=2 and 102% for TR=4 comparing with plain tube case. In addition, results show that the values of thermal performance factor exceed the unity and shows uptrend behavior with rising numbers of turbulators indicating to feasibility of using these turbulators practically.

Size Miniaturized Fractal Nested Circular Rings-Shaped Microstrip Antenna for Various Wireless Applications

Shereen A. Shandal; Mahmood F. Mosleh; Mohamed A. Kadim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 11A, Pages 1176-1184
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.11A.7

In this paper; a wideband fractal circular rings shaped microstrip antenna over partial rectangular ground plane is presented. Fractal geometry technique is used in order to take advantage of its self-similar property which lead to attain not only size miniaturization but also wider bandwidth and iteration method is utilized that reach up to third iteration. The proposed model is simulated by High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) package. Such model is designed on FR4 substrate with a compact size of (20×18×1.5) mm3, 4.3 permittivity and 0.02 loss tangent. The microstrip line feed is used to feed this antenna with a length of 4.65mm and width of 3mm, in order to increase the impedance bandwidth of proposed model to 67.64%. This model is designed to operate at a range of frequency (4.5-9.1) GHz with two resonant frequencies at 5.6GHz and 8GHz. The length of ground plane Lg is optimized for enhance antenna parameters such as input reflection coefficient and Bandwidth. The simulation results show that the input reflection coefficient values are -54.5 dB and -46.5 dB at two resonant frequencies 5.6GHz and 8GHz. Also, radiation efficiency of proposed antenna is 97.29% with peak gain of 4.34dB. This antenna is appropriate for various wireless Applications such as satellite communication, weather radar, (Industrial Scientific Medical) ISM band and (Wireless Fidelity) Wi-Fi.

Geomatics Techniques to Evaluate Bus Service Coverage A Case Study on Nasiriyah, Iraq

Murtadha S. Satchet

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 11A, Pages 1148-1157
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.11A.3

In this paper, geomatics techniques were used to collect, build, and analyze a geo-database of the bus transport network. Spatial identification of bus routes and bus stops using GPS was performed using GIS to link and analyze the necessary metadata with the available spatial data. The criteria used to assess bus service coverage were as follows: the spatial coverage in terms of the walking distance to the transport service, the adequacy of the transport network length, and extent of supply availability of the bus transport system. The results revealed that the population “living in 47% of the city’s urban area” could arrive at a transport service within a period of less than 5 minutes (in other words, a walking distance of less than 400 m), which is the typical time to arrival. Furthermore, the study concluded that the current length of the transport network is sufficient to provide typical spatial coverage for the city's entire urban area if redistributed.

Studying the Effect of Ambient Temperature on Wastewater Degradation in Simulated Self-Purification Aerated Sewer System

Tala A. Al-Khateeb; Riyad H. Al-Anbari; Kareem K. Al-Jumaili

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1C, Pages 5-10
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1C.2

Designing and operating a simulated gravity sewer system had been accomplished in the current research. The design had been provided with aeration system in order to deliver oxygen to microorganisms presented in sewage water. The system had been used in three different seasons in order to investigate the ambient temperature effect on treating wastewater. The results revealed that ambient temperature had a significant role in organic waste degradation powered by the presence of air into sewage pipes and level tanks. Maximum degradation measured in terms of chemical oxygen demand removal (RCOD) was recorded to be 14.28 under 30 OC ambient temperature and 8 hr of treating time. The results recorded from the current system seemed to be promising in terms of self-purification ability of the transporting sewer system.

Potential of Alfalfa for Use in Phytoremediation of Soil Polluted with Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons

Abdul Hameed M.J. Al-Obaidy; Riyad H. Al-Anbari; Sara M. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1C, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1C.1

Remediation technology is a promising technique decrease pollutant like hydrocarbons from the environment. An experimental work was made at green house of University of Technology in order to study the effect of crude oil on the vegetate growth and to measure the decrement which happened on shoot height, germination rate and the reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), which result, by this phytoremediation technique. The samples of soil were measured for TPH reduction and removal by Horiba model (oil content analyzer) OCMA–350. Five doses were used in this experiment (0 control, 10x103, 30 x103, 50 x103, 75 x103) (mg crude oil / kg soil). The polluted soil used in this study appeared to be a harmful environment for alfalfa plants, leading to serious adverse effects on alfalfa germination and growth. Seed germination is known to be a sensitive process affected by environmental factors like the presence of soil pollutants.

Optimization of Heat Treatment Parameters for the Tensile Properties of Medium Carbon Steel

Abbas Kh. Hussein; Laith K. Abbas; Wisam N. Hasan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 10A, Pages 1091-1099
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.10A.10

The purpose of this study is designate quenching and tempering heat treatment by using Taguchi technique to determination optimal factors of heat treatment (tempering temperature, percentage of nanoparticles, type of base media, nanoparticles type and tempering time)for increasing ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and ductility properties of medium carbon steel. An (L18) orthogonal array was chosen for the design of experiment. The optimum process parameters were determined by using signal-to-noise ratio (larger is better) criterion. The importance levels of process parameters on tensile properties were obtained by using analysis of variance, which applied with the help of (Minitab18) software. Percentage of volumetric fractions of nanoparticles with three different levels(0.01, 0.03 and 0.08 %) were prepared by dispersing nanoparticles that are (α-Al2O3,TiO2 and CuO) with base fluids (De-ionized water, salt solution and engine oil).Medium carbon steel specimens were suffered to hardening and tempering heat treatment process. The variables of tempering heat treatment were temperatures (400 C˚, 550 C˚) and a soaking times (30, 45 and 60 minutes) respectively. Tensile testing performed on samples using united universal hydraulic machine. The results for ( S/N) ratios showed the order of the factors in terms of the proportion of their effect on ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and ductility properties as follow: Tempering temperature ( 400 C˚) ,Nanoparticles type (TiO2 ),Tempering time (30 min),Type of base media (salt solution, engine oil) and Percentage of nanoparticles ( 0.03%) was the least influence for ultimate strength and yield strength while for the elongation were as follows: Tempering temperature (550 C˚),Tempering time(60min), Nanoparticles type (CuO),Type of base media (deionized water) and last percentage of nanoparticles (0.08%).

Analysis and Simulation of Unmanned Aircraft Propeller Motor Using PSIM

Ahmed S. Yousif; Ammar S. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 10A, Pages 1081-1090
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.10A.9

The study and simulation of a PI speed controller for small UAV or quadcopter motor is discussed in this research. The motor under consideration is MAXON 2260 215, which is a brushless DC motor that has permanent magnets on the rotating part and the stationary windings are connected so that the back electromotive force is trapezoidal. The motor utilizes a PI controller, which dominate the duty cycle of the PWM pulses applied on the switches of the inverter so that the motor can run at the required speed. A Chopper is used as a power converter and a proportional–integral as speed and current controller. The DC motor, which is being run individually, can be controlled on a wide range of operation up to the rated speed. The simulation is implemented and evaluated using PSIM software program under a wide range of speed, voltage and load torque inputs such as the rated speed and load torque, half the rated load torque and half speed since these tests are vital to test maneuver movement such as roll, pitch, yaw and throttle. The main objectives of this paper are; to understand the process of deriving the model for a propeller motor, to evaluate the stability and accuracy of the control loop for successful aviation, to apply a tuning plan on a closed loop system (PI) and to check the system procedure versus the given technical specifications.

Seasonal Variation of Residual Aluminum Concentration in Drinking Water

Layla L. Alwan; Ayat Mahdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1C, Pages 63-70
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1C.10

Data for aluminum concentration in Baghdad raw and drinking water have been taken from Baghdad Mayoralty for the period of the year (2005-2006) and for six water treatment plants (Al-Karkh, East Tigris, Al-Wathba, Al-Karama, Al-Qadisia and Al-Dora). The available data were analyzed by using statistical programs like (spss, statistica, grapher and excel) .Relation with water quality parameters was obtained like relation with pH and temperature. From the study the pH value was found to be ranged between (7.45-7.85) in supplied water for minimum aluminum residual. From the contour plot results show that an equation has been concluded which connect concentration with pH and temperature. Seasonal variation was also studied; maximum concentration found to be in summer season, at Al-Karama and Al-Wathba water treatment plants concentrations were constant during the period of the study. Comparison between water treatment plants was also made, Al-Qadisia and Al-Karkh water treatment plants have the best control conditions, aluminum concentrations were found to be within the Iraqi drinking water quality standards (0.2 mg/l).

Ultrasonic Technique in Treating Wastewater by Electrocoagulation

Najem A. Al-rubaiey; Mohammed G. Al-Barazanjy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1C, Pages 54-62
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1C.9

Electrocoagulation Treatment can be considered as a favorable tool for the removal of many pollutants of various forms of wastewater. These pollutants may include the removal of colloidal, the breaking-up of emulsions and heavy metals. This process consists of the disintegration of the anodes (usually iron or aluminum), exciting the creation of coagulant mixtures in wastewater. That will aid to coagulate contaminants and generate bubbles in favor of mixing and elimination of solids suspension by flotation. Recently, the arrangement of using this technique with other treatment tools has turned out to be an interesting subject leading to an improvement in the removal efficiency of the treatment. In this study, a combined treatment of electrocoagulation and ultrasound has been applied to treat three most common wastewaters in oil industry. The ultrasound-electrocoagulation removal efficiencies for the removal of oil, suspended bentonite and zinc have been evaluated here. In this work, a synthetic wastewater would be treated using electrocoagulation technique to reduce turbidity caused by pollutants. This process has been done in a batch reactor equipped with aluminum/iron electrodes with and without agitation. The effects of one of the most important parameter, i.e. applied voltage on turbidity have been studied. In addition, the effect of using ultrasonic has been also evaluated. It was found when ultrasonic used with electrocoagulation, the turbidity increased for suspended bentonite and oily wastewaters and an improvement in removal efficiency for the heavy metals pollutants. The results were compared and discussed.

Influence of SAW Welding Parameters on Microhardness of Steel A516-Gr60

Sadeq H. Bakhy; Samir A. Amin; Fouad A. Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 10A, Pages 1039-1047
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.10A.4

Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) process is generally used for industries, such as petroleum storage tanks, pressure vessels, and structural components.
Good mechanical properties of welded joint lead to crack-free strong joints. In this research, included angle, current, welding travel speed and arc voltage were utilized as welding parameters to weld ASTM A516 Grade 60 (low carbon steel). The experiments were carried out according to a design matrix that established by DOE (Version10) with RSM technique. Microhardness of welded samples was measured by a Digital Microhardness Tester, and then RSM technique was used to model and optimize the microhardness based on the welding parameters. The results showed that the including angle and welding current have a great effect on the microhardness. The optimum solution for minimum microhardness was found at 450 Amp welding current, 38 cpm welding speed, 34-volt arc voltage and included angle of 60⁰. The optimum value of microhardness was (186.7 HV). Eventually, the experimental and predicted results of microhardness were found in good agreement with 4.6%. maximum error.

Study The Effect of Micro CaCO3 and SiO2 and their Mixture on Properties of High Strength Concrete

Ahmed M. Al Ghaban; Aseel B. Al Zubaidi; Zahraa F. Jawad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 10A, Pages 1027-1033
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.10A.2

This paper investigated the effect of incorporating two types of micro particles micro CaCO3 and micro SiO2 on mechanical properties and durability of concrete. Micro materials were added in four different dosages of 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% by weight as partial replacement of cement in concrete mixture. Mechanical properties of hardened concrete (compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength) have been done after 28 days of water curing. In addition, water absorption test was carrying out for obtaining the durability properties of concrete specimen. Binary combination of micro CaCO3 + micro SiO2 were also studied the combined effect of the micro particles. Micro-structural characteristic of modified concrete was done through the scanning electron microscope. The results showed that incorporation of micro CaCO3 and micro SiO2 particles lead to increase the packing and enhance the mechanical properties and durability of concrete. A significant performance was observed in case of micro silica addition to the concrete in comparing with other micro particles.

Analytical Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Bismuth Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Laser Ablation Technique

Abdul Hadi K. Judran

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1C, Pages 71-81
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1C.11

Bismuth nanoparticles were synthesized using laser ablation technique by focusing solid bismuth target in distilled deionized water by 1064 nm and 532 nm laser radiations generated by Q-switched pulsed Nd:YAG laser, respectively. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV–Vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The XRD pattern of the synthesized sample was indexed as. UV–Vis spectrophotometer indicated that the peak of absorption spectra of bismuth nanoparticles located in UV-region (230 nm) and increased towards IR region with increase laser energy and laser wavelength. SEM and TEM exhibited spherical shape of bismuth nanoparticles with decrease in particles size with decreasing laser wavelength. The antibacterial activity was tested against Enterobacter and Proteus (gram-negative bacteria) and Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive bacteria). Synthesized bismuth nanoparticles exhibited inhibitory effect on both bacteria strains with best selectivity against Enterobacter and Proteus (gram-negative bacteria).

Green Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using Laser Ablation Technique

Azhar M. Haleem; Ruaa H. Abbas; Abdulhadi Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1C, Pages 11-16
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1C.3

Titanium dioxide nanaoparticles (TiO2 NPs) were prepared using laser ablation technique by ablation of titanium target immersed in distilled de-ionized water (DDW) by Q-switched pulsed Nd:YAG laser of 1064 nm, 1 Hz, (490) mJ and 700 pulse. UV-visible spectrophotometer and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the optical and morphological properties of prepared nanoparticles, respectively. The absorption spectrum of TiO2 NPs was at ultraviolet-region (214 nm) due to Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), and the particles size distribution of the prepared nanoparticles ranged from 30 to 100 nm. The antifungal activity of
TiOR2R NPs was carried out against Microsporum canis. TiOR2R NPs showed
significant inhibitory activity especially at high concentrations and high
exposure times with microbial pathogenesis.

Microstructure and Electrical Conductivity of 7075Al alloy/SiC Nano Composites

Hussain J. Al-Alkawi; Sameir A. Aziez; Deana A. Idan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 10A, Pages 1034-1038
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.10A.3

Analysis using scanning electron microscope (SEM) at high magnification showed that the microstructure of the nano composites exhibited uniform distribution of SiC particles and less porosity. The experimental results revealed that adding Nano Reinforcement to 7075Al alloy improve the electrical conductivity for the metal matrix composites with 3, 6, 9 wt. % SiC were adopted in this work. The maximum enhancements were observed at 9wt. %SiC of 5200(Ω. m) -1 compared with the metal base of 35 (Ω. m) -1.

The Role and Important of Internet of Things in Building Sustainable City

Nahla F. Alwan; Muna K. AL-Nuaimi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1C, Pages 22-29
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1C.5

Every year many people migrate from country to city to live there. This will load a big pressure on the whole living in the city, Baghdad city also suffer from this problem in addition to other found problems like energy consumption , waste accumulate , Traffic congestion, noise, environmental pollution. To offer a good sustainable future living to population without any damage to environment and to solve many problems , one can use internet of things which is the connection network of the things especially with high spread of networks now which Internet of things based on it .the purpose of this research is to explain internet of things (IoT) and its role in solving many problems in the city , by using of the data collect by internet of things and to respond in real time to know problems and to enable planning and building city in a valuable sustainable way . As well as to explain the concept and models of smart city and its relationship to the sustainable city and Internets of things. In addition, to demonstrate in a simplified way the possibility of using the Internet of things to solve the problems in the Baghdad city and to raise the standard of life of its inhabitant is in a sustainable smart way. Taking this in the strategic planning of Baghdad city.

Potential of Ethylhexyl Ester Oil to Enhance Drilling of HTHP Wellbores

Lina Jassim; Robiah Yunus; Suraya Abdul Rashid; Amar Salleh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1C, Pages 30-37
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1C.6

Ester-based drilling fluids have been accepted as an alternative to mineral oils in drilling applications and currently being utilized to drill oil or gas wells around the world. However, the ester-based fluids have deficiencies that limit its ability to carry and transfer drilled solids, stabilize the wellbore and drill the extended reach wells. Several approaches have been considered to overcome the ester limitations. Thus, the main aim of this study is to overcome these limitations by developing the high performance ester-based green drilling fluids for deep and ultra-deep wells. The low-pressure technology was applied in the synthesis of the ester to minimize ester hydrolysis