Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Main Subjects : Engineering


Heat Pipe thermal performance analysis by using different working fluids

ALI khalaf soud; Qusay Abdul Ghafoor

Engineering and Technology Journal, In Press
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132052.1086

This study investigated the thermal performance of the heat pipe and conducted on the effects of working fluids with wick and vertical position. The experiments were conducted using a copper heat pipe with )20.8( mm inner diameter, and the length of the evaporator, the condenser, and the adiabatic regions were 300 mm, 350 mm, and 300 mm, respectively. The working fluids selected were water, Methanol, Ethanol, and different binary mixtures (50: 50) %, (30: 70) %, and (70: 30) % mixing ratios. The filling ratio for all working fluids remained constant with the value of 50% of the evaporator volume, and the heat input values were 20, 30, 40, and 50 watts. The results show that the highest value of the heat transfer coefficient was found at the working fluid mixture of (50% water: 50% methanol) at a heat input value of 50W, and the highest value of the effective thermal conductivity was for Methanol at heat input 50W.A conventional heat pipe is a passive device transporting an amount of heat between two different temperature zones. It has no moving parts and does not require electricity input. The heat pipe constructed of three sections: at the first end of the pipe is the evaporator section where the heat is received from the heat source, the other end of the pipe is the condenser section where the heat is rejected, and in between, the adiabatic section where the working fluid and heat transported inside the heat pipe,

An Enhanced Interface Selectivity Technique to Improve the QoS for the Multi-homed Node

Haider W. Oleiwi; Nagham Saeed; Heba L. Al-Taie; doaa nteesha

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 8, Pages 0-0
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133066.1165

The user’s handoff is still an arguable issue that many mobile communication systems face, especially with the exploded growth of users and internet-based applications. There is a critical need for adequate quality of service (QoS) to meet the stringent requirements. This paper aims to study the overall performance and feasibility of several QoS mechanisms with the single-homed and multi-homed networks/nodes fluctuating resource availability. It investigates the adaptability of multi-interfaced multi-homed techniques to enhance the essential governing parameters, i.e., throughput, end-to-end latency, processing time, and jitter. Moreover, the paper introduces an interface selectivity technique for the multi-homed node to adopt the optimal interface, which offers the best services to explore the enhancements of the overall network performance. The overall results show how the introduced mechanism managed to keep the communication going on the multi-homed node. Furthermore, the results show that site multi-homing provides a better overall end-to-end latency over host multi-homing as it supports the entire network.

A Review of Control Technique Applied in Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF)

Ayad M. Hadi; Ekhlas M. Thjeel; Ali K. Nahar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 8, Pages 0-0
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i8.2116

In recent years, electronic transformers and electronic devices (nonlinear loads) have increased. These loads are the source of harmonics (non-sinusoidal and distorted waves) and the interactive force that affects the performance of the power system network. Also, it badly affects the power factor and electrical energy on the scales of efficiency and quality. For this reason, a system called “Active Power Filters” has been adopted. It provides an effective alternative to traditional LC passive power filters. It can improve network performance by treating and reducing harmonics, improving power factor and quality, avoiding resonance between the filter and the network, and reducing reactive power. This paper presents a study on the shunt active power filters device and how to connect it to the distribution network and A review of the bathing control strategies in the methods of calculating current and power, methods of controlling the PWM device, the most prominent techniques for improving the PID control system, and the most prominent algorithms applied in that to improve the safety performance of the  Shunt  Active Power Filter (SAPF) on the one hand and to demonstrate the ability of different systems to compensate for THD on the other hand. APF performance fluctuates from one control strategy to another. It reduced (THD) between 0.9% and 13% in several control techniques applied with PWM. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the techniques applied to control the performance of the "Shunt Active Power Filter" to reduce THD

Power Quality Examination for (250KW) PV Grid-tied Connected at Various Irradiance Levels

Ahmed A. Jasim; Dahri Y. Mahmood; Oday A. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 8, Pages 0-0
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i8.1831

Although using a PV grid-tide system has many advantages, connecting the PV to the grid creates a new challenge at the power quality level. The PV grid-tide plant (250 kW), implemented at the Iraqi ministry of electricity building, was taken as a case steady to examine the power quality issue at various irradiance levels. The plant was described in detail and built using MATLAB2018b/Simulink. The developed system was examined at various irradiance levels. The results showed that an increased irradiance level leads to an enhancement in the power quality. The total harmonic distortion (THD) decreases with the increase of irradiance. Such behavior has a good impact on the power quality, where the (THD) is considered a crucial parameter in the power quality issue and increased irradiance level, leading to increased injected power to the grid. Up to the date of writing this study, the power quality effect of the installed (250 kW) PV grid-tied system on Iraqi grid utility was not previously studied, whether for the studied system or another PV grid-tied system installed in Iraq.

Numerical Investigation of a Window Solar Air Collector with Moveable Absorber Plates

Norhan I. Dawood; Jalal M. Jalil; Majida K. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 7, Pages 0-0
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i7.2270

Window solar air collector is an imperative instrument for heating residential buildings in cold regions. This paper presents a numerical investigation of the thermal performance of a window solar air collector with seven moveable absorber plates. With glass on the front and back sides of the collector. By the use of FORTRAN 90; The three-dimensional steady-state turbulent forced convection method was used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. The seven plates opened and closed at different angles in unison manually by a specific mechanical mechanism. The effect of changing the plate angles has been tested, alongside the effect of airflow rates and the intensity of solar radiation. Numerical results illustrate that air temperature difference is higher at vertical plates position (angle 0) compared to that at angle 90. In contrast, flexibility between sunlight penetrating the room and hot air from the collector will be gained when the plates are set on angle 90. Results indicate that the thermal performance was improved by 67% when the plates were set at angle 0. Maximum thermal efficiency for angle 0 was 72% at a mass flow rate of 0.0298 kg/s. However, maximum thermal efficiency was 51% at mass flow rate 0.0298 for angle 90°.

Improvement of Metal Forging Processes by Stresses and Temperatures Analysis

Adnan I. Mohammeda; Ibrahim K. Ahmed; Munir A. Allow

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 6, Pages 0-0
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i6.2169

The mechanical components are produced by various fabrication methods, although forged products have excellent mechanical characteristics at a minimal cost. The stress and temperature analysis process in the closed die hot forging contributed to finding failure regions in these dies through simulations in the FE program. This enables the process to be improved and reduced time and mineral losses. A simplified model was used to represent the forming process, with a temperature of (1150-950 °C) was simulated using MSC Simufact software. The forge fastener head product is formed with a horizontal mechanical press of 800 tones. In this research, the workpiece material used Ck45 alloy steel, 56NiCrMoV 7 tool material. The results illustrate the maximum equivalent stresses values, and the maximum value was 739.70 MPa / 240.64 on lower die and product at a heating temperature of 950 °C, respectively. The local plastic deformation would be expected at places where the maximum stress is generated and exceeds the yield strength of the die material.

Properties of Welded Copper Tubes Fabricated Via Friction crush Welding

abduljabar Saad Joma; Akeel D. Subhi; Fadhil A. Hashim A. Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 6, Pages 0-0
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i6.2292

The welding process is one of the fabrication processes in which tubes can be performed for structural purposes and transport liquids or gases. This study is focused on the manufacturing, characterization, and evaluation of mechanical properties of welded tubes made from oxygen-free copper (C1020) sheets using friction crush welding. The welded tubes were produced using different tool rotation speeds (1500, 1600, and 1700 rpm) and feed rates (130, 140, and 150 mm/min). The flanged edge height of 2.5 mm and 0.5 mm gap between the ends of the copper sheet was used. All examinations on welded tubes were achieved using different instruments such as optical microscopy, SEM, hardness, and tensile testers. The microstructure study showed good weld quality and good material flow between the two ends of the copper sheet in the weld zone. Moreover, the weld zone was not defective. The lowest hardness was identified in the crush zone due to the coarseness of the copper grains. The highest tensile strength of 105 MPa was obtained at the tool rotation speed of 1500 rpm and 130 mm/min feed rate. The results also showed that ductile fracture is the main source of failure.

Structural Characterization of (Mg(1-x)pbxO)-NPs by Modified Pechini Method

Israa A. Najem; Fadhil Abd Rasin; Shaker J. Edrees

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 6, Pages 0-0
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i6.2147

The structural characterization was discussed in the present paper of the pure MgO nanoparticles and the doped (Mg(1-x)pbxO) nanoparticles specimens, where (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.03). The modified Pechini method was used to prepare all the specimens. From (DTA), the convenient temperature of decomposition from Mg(OH)2 to MgO was above 375°C. The structure investigation (XRD) revealed that all the specimens have identical space groups and index well to cubic structures. The obtained crystallite size by Scherrer''s equation was increased with increasing the fraction of doping except for (Mg0.97Pb0.03O) due to the formation of PbO oxide. The molecular vibration by FTIR demonstrated that all the pure and doped specimens have the same framework. As the incorporation of Pb2+ ions increases, the bands get broader, and the intensities increase in the ranging 800-400 cm-1 due to vibrations of O-Mg and O-Pb bands, respectively.

Preparation of CuO/ZnO Nano-Particles Using Sol-Gel Technique and Studying the Characterization

Doaa A. Yassen; Farhad M. Othman; Alaa A. Abdul Hamead

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 6, Pages 0-0
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i6.2104

Copper oxide (CuO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are two of the most promising oxides under development right now. The sol-gel technique was used to make Nano composite particles NCPs of ZnO-CuO. The copper (II) nitrate rehydrate 0.1M and zinc nitrate hex hydrate 0.1M liquids were mixed in a 1:1 ratio, and the gel was formed at 80 °C, then dried and calcined for various times 500 °C (3, 5, and 7 hours). Particle size analyzer (PZA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and apparent density were used to characterize the CuO/MgO particles. The x-ray diffraction results showed that the phases of the composite particles were pure. FESEM scans, on the other hand, revealed nanoparticles incorporated in the ZnO-CuO matrix with particle sizes ranging from 60.76 to 145.1 nm. The density of the aforesaid samples was 0.1382, 0.1418, and 0.1469 g/cm3 in that order, increasing as the calcined duration increased. This promotes crystal formation, and CuO/MgO has strong catalytic activity for advanced applications.

Effect of Voltage on Electrode Wear Rate (EWR) in the Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) for Stainless Steel AISI 444

Shukry H. Aghdeab; Anwer Q. Abdulnabi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 6, Pages 0-0
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i6.2144

Electrical Discharge Machining process (EDM) is a nontraditional metal removal technique that uses thermal energy to erode the workpiece without generating any physical forces of cutting between the tool and the machining part. It is used to cutting of hard and electrical conductivity materials and product intricate shapes of products. The aim of this work is to study the effect of changing voltage values on electrode wear rate (EWR). The machining parameters includes voltage (V), peak current (Ip), pulse duration (Ton) and finally, pulse interval (Toff). The results show that the EWR was increase with rising in voltage, peak current and pulse duration values but when the pulse interval value rises, the electrode wear rate reduce. The best (EWR) value was (0.093507) mm3/min that obtained at voltage (140) V, Ip (12) A, Ton (400) µs and  Toff (12) µs.

Influence of Machining Parameters on Surface Roughness in Chemical Machining of Silicon Carbide (SiC)

Naeem A. Abdulhusein; Abbas F. Ibrahim; Abdullah F. Huayier

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 6, Pages 0-0
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i6.1879

This study discussed the influence of chemical machining parameters such as (machining time, type of etchant, etching temperature, and concentration of the solution) on the surface roughness of ceramic material (silicon carbide) as a workpiece in the chemical machining (CHM) process. To achieve the best value for surface roughness. In this research, four levels of factors affecting the chemical etching process were used, the values of etching temperature (60, 80, 100, and 120) °C, the etchant concentration (50, 60, 70, and 80) %, and machining time (30, 50, 70, and 90) min, and two etchant type (HBr, HCl). Experiments proved the best value of surface roughness is obtained (2.933) µm experimentally and (2.958) µm at a predictable program when using hydrochloric acid (HCl) at a temperature (80) °C, time (50) min, and etchant concentration (50) %. The coefficient determination (R-sq) to predict the surface roughness is ((93.7).

Effect of Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) Parameters on Materials Removal Rate for Low Carbon Steel

Ameer J. Nader; Saad K. Shather

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 6, Pages 0-0
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i6.2123

Abrasive water jet (AWJ) is one of the most advanced and valuable non-traditional machining processes because of its massive advantages of removing metal from hard and soft metals. This paper has studied the effect of jet pressure, feed rate, and standoff distance on material removal rate throughout abrasive water jet cutting of carbon steel metal workpieces. The material removal rate was assessed using a precision balance device by performing sixteen experiments to identify the ratio of weight loss to total cutting time. The Taguchi method was introduced to implement the experiments and indicate the most influential process parameters on material removal rate. The experimental results showed that feed rate and pressure jet had the most effect on material removal rate. The best material removal rate value was 3.71 g/min at jet pressure 300 MPa, feed rate 30 mm/min, and standoff distance 4mm.

Development of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) Models for Manually Operated Rain Gauge Catchment: A Case Study of Port Harcourt Metropolis Using 50years Rainfall Data

Francis J. Ogbozige

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 627-635
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131839.1064

Hydraulic structures such as surface drainages and culverts are usually constructed in urban areas with the intention of draining runoff into nearby streams and rivers in order to avoid flooding. However, most of these structures frequently fail to serve the intended use due to the occurrence of high intensity rainfall accompanied with long duration, which produce runoff discharge higher than their designed capacities. This is common in many developing countries as drainages and culverts are most times constructed without considering hydrological analysis of the catchment. Hence, this research considered Port Harcourt city as a case study by utilizing 50years rainfall data to develop rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves that will be used for subsequent design of drainages and culverts within the city and its environs. The IDF curves were developed using Gumbel, Pearson type III and Log-Pearson type III distributions at return periods of 2, 5, 10, 25 and 50years. However, the durations considered were 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 300, 360 and 420minutes. Results showed that the IDF equations developed for the three frequency distributions highly correlate with the observed intensities since there goodness of fit (R2) ranges from 0.9766 – 0.9865. Also, it was noted that there was no significant difference (p < 0.01) between the predicted rainfall intensities from all the IDF equations and the observed intensities. Notwithstanding, the IDF equation developed for Gumbel distribution was recommended to be given higher priority since it has the highest R2 value.

Push–out Test of Timber Concrete Composite Construction

Ihab S. Saleh; Nabeel A. Jasim; Anis A. Mohhamed Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 668-676
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i2.2175

In this study, push – out test specimen is proposed to explore the behavior of shear connectors in timber–concrete composite beams. Since there are no standard shapes and dimensions for determining the strength of connectors, push–out specimens such as those used for steel-concrete composite beams are suggested to study the behavior of connectors in timber concrete composite beams. Four specimens are tested. Two of these specimens are with one connector per side. The other two are with two connectors per side. The load and slip are recorded during testing. The results show that the ultimate load per connector ranges from 24.9 kN to 29.4 kN, with an average value of 26.9 kN. An equation is proposed to determine the ultimate load of the connector. Good agreement is achieved between the theoretical and experimental results. An average value of 0.98 is obtained for theoretical to experimental results.

Effect of Partial Saturation on Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Skirted Foundations

Mahmood R. Mahmood; Saad F. A. Al-Wakel; Muthana S. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 710-721
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i5.2259

Skirted foundations are one of the solutions proposed to increase the bearing capacity of the soil. They assist in increasing the load and depth of failure in weak ground or soils with low shear resistance and reducing the foundation settlement if a soil improvement method cannot be applied or the cost of implementing deep foundations increases. This study examined and investigated the extent of soil bearing of skirted foundations on sandy soils and studied the effect of soil saturation cases and three cases of water content reduction to measure the matric suction value of unsaturated soil. A physical model was created to simulate the strip foundation and compare these cases (dry-fully saturated-partially saturated). It was found that the soil load carrying capacity in the case of unsaturated soil is the highest, where matric suction is at a depth of 450 mm, followed by the dry case and then the saturated case as it represents the weakest state of the soil.

3D Numerical modeling of Soft soil Improved by Rigid Inclusions Supported an Embankment

MESSIOUD Salah; NEGHMOUCHE Yassamina

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 636-648
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.132023.1083

Abstract
A three-dimensional finite element model suggested to determine the settlements and stresses of an embankment placed on soft soil reinforced by rigid inclusions. To make it simple the layers of soil and the embankment are supposed to be horizontal in a semi-infinite medium and the base of the soft soil is supposed to be rigid (bedrock). The interacting elements of the model are supposed to be elastic. The determination of the behavior of the soil-inclusions-embankment system was realized according to the construction phases of the embankment layers. The settlements and stresses were calculated according to construction phases of the embankment layers. At the end of each calculation phase, the stress field and the displacement field are extracted. The values are then introduced into the model the beginning of the next phase. The obtained results are presented in terms of the (settlement) vertical displacements and vertical stresses for the elementary cell and the global model respectively. This study allows the observation of three-dimensional interactions; the mechanisms of load transfer and the interaction between the different zones of the embankment. The numerical calculations are much lower than those measured in situ. A verification calculation on the stresses transmitted by the rigid inclusion shows that only 90% of the total load is applied with the numerical calculation.

Assessment of Future Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources of Khabour River Catchment, North Of Iraq

Lena Haitham; Mustafa Al-Mukhtar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 695-709
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i5.1925

In arid and semi-arid areas, assessing the potential impact of climate change on water availability is of critical importance for achieving better management of future water resources. Iraq as one example of those areas is expected to experience more stress on water due to the climatological characteristics and to the rapid population growth in addition to the policy of the riparian upstream countries. Therefore, the present study aims to quantify the impacts of climate change on the Khabour River catchment north of Iraq, which is one of the riparian catchments between Iraq and Turkey. The HEC-HMS model was firstly calibrated and validated against daily streamflow data measured for the period 01Jan2004-30Jun2009 near the catchment outlet at Zakho station. Thereafter, the future climate changes data from the HadGEM2_ES model was fed into the calibrated HEC-HMS model to quantify the future water resources availability. The impacts of climate change on the water under four possible scenarios of RCPs (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6, and RCP8.5) of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations for three future slice periods (2021-2030), (2041-2050), and (2061-2070); was assessed in attribution to that from the period (2000-2009). Results show that the implemented HEC-HMS model was superior in modeling the streamflow data. NSE, R² and RMSE value was 0.871, 0.89 and 26.7, respectively, for calibration and 0.936, 0.9364 and 18.0, respectively for validation. The results also suggest that annual river runoff will likely decrease under all scenarios of RCPs and time stages of the future period.

Finite Element Simulation of Repeated Loading Test of Asphalt Concrete

Noor S. Hatem; Miami M. Hilal; Mohammed Y. Fattah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 661-667
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i5.2128

In this paper, the Abaqus 6.14 version program was used to carry out a three-dimensional finite element analysis to predict the rut in the asphalt laboratory model. In a previous study, a cylinder model of asphalt was tested under the influence of traffic loads and temperature. The test was simulated using the finite element method considering the boundary conditions, load steps, and temperature. The cohesive zone model (CZM) approach was used in the Abaqus program to analyze the spread of the rutting in the model to simulate the fracture and improve the sample structure and the materials used. The Abacus program analysis showed satisfactory results when compared with the experimental results. The numerical and experimental displacement results indicate that the program can simulate the rut that occurs in the model. Using a temperature of 55 ° C showed that the effect of the temperature was not noticeable. XFEM-CZM coupled model provides a suitable numerical tool to represent the rutting tests.

SWOT-Based Assessment of the Maintenance Management of the Wastewater Treatment Plants in Iraq

Reem Tareq Al-Attar; Faris H. Al-Ani; Mahmoud Saleh Al-Khafaji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 677-694
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i5.2146

In Iraq, due to WWTPs being old and outdated, an evaluation of the maintenance management is needed to highlight the points of weaknesses and strengths of the plants. In this paper, the strength, weakness, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis model is designed with the Delphi Technique and Liker-scale and applied to the old Rustumiya project in Iraq (ORP). The design and application of this model are based on the design, operation and maintenance drawings and reports, and field visits to the ORP. In addition, three rounds of the questionnaire were sent to more than 80 experts varied in qualification and experience, considering the SWOT elements of the methods, materials, and human resources issues. The weight, relative importance, and implementation of each item in each SWOT element and the SWOT elements and issues were computed. The results showed that in the internal elements, the degree of importance of the weakness has a higher value of importance than the strength. In the external elements, the opportunities are considered more important. For the four issues, methods have the lowest weight while the materials have the highest. This alerts the major development required in this sector for a new plan for selecting and preparing maintenance materials. However, human resources come after the materials in terms of importance. The developed SWOT analysis model is beneficial for evaluating WWTPs with simplified and realistic results. Further, it can evaluate other projects like irrigation projects and water treatment plants.

Curcumin Loaded onto Magnetic Mesoporous Material MCM-41 for Controlled and Released in Drug Delivery System

Nidhal A. Atiyah; Mohammed A. Atiya; Talib M. Albayati

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 472-483
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i3.2174

In this work, the mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) of type MCM-41 were manufactured and modified with Fe3O4 to load curcumin (CUR) CUR@Fe3O4/MCM-41 as an efficient carrier in drug delivery systems. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms were used to characterize the three samples: pure MCM-41, Fe3O4/MCM-41, & CUR@Fe3O4/MCM-41. Adsorption processes tests were carried out to determine the impact of various variables on the CUR load efficiency. These variables were the carrier dosage, pH, contact time, and initial CUR concentration. The maximal drug loading efficiencies (DL %) were 15.78 % and 22.98 %, respectively. According to the data, The Freundlich isotherm had a stronger correlation coefficient R2= 0.999 for MCM-41, while the Langmuir isotherm had a greater R2 of 0.9666 for Fe3O4/MCM-41. A pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits well with R2=0.9827 for MCM-41 and 0.9994 for Fe3O4/MCM-41. Phosphate Buffer Solution (PBS) with a pH of 7.4 was utilized to study CUR release behavior. According to the research, the maximum release for MCM-41 and Fe3O4/MCM-41 might be 74.1 % and 25.19 % after 72 h, respectively. Various kinetic release models were used, including First-order, Korsmeyer-Peppas, Hixson and Crowell, Higuchi, and Weibull. After 72h, the drug release data were fit using a Weibull kinetic model with an R2 of 0.944 and 0.764 for MCM-41 and Fe3O4/MCM-41, respectively.

The Use of Inexpensive Sorbents to Remove Dyes from Wastewater - A Review

Firas Ahmed; Adnan A. Abdul Razak; May A. Muslim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 498-515
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i3.2281

Dyes are utilized in various industrial applications, and some businesses' effluents include hazardous dyes. Humans, aquatic creatures, and the environment are all harmed by dyes. As a result, adequately treated dyes that manage wastewater must be before being discharged into nearby bodies of water. Adsorption has proven to be high and cost-effective in removing dyes from wastewater. The sorbent material for dye removal from industrial effluent is activated carbon, but its high cost limits massive-scale utilization. The use of cost-effective adsorbents for wastewater discharge dye elimination is discussed and analyzed in this paper. This review underlines and displays a preview of these IASs, including natural, industrial, and made-up materiality/wastes and their utilization in removing dyes. Experiments have shown that various inexpensive non-traditional adsorbents lead to effective dye removal. Accordingly, studies dealing with the search for effective and affordable sources from current resources are becoming increasingly crucial for eliminating dye. The excess desire for functional and affordable processing modes and adsorption significance has led to inexpensive alternative sorbents (IASs). The isotherm analysis and adsorption kinetics indicate that Langmuir / Freundlich, besides the pseudo-second-order model, is the most used pattern for convenient empirical adsorption datum. Low-cost by-products from the agricultural, residential, and industrial sectors have been identified as viable wastewater treatment alternatives. They make it possible to remove contaminants from wastewater while also contributing to waste minimization, recovery, and reuse. This review revealed that some IASs, have ratable adsorption capabilities and rapid kinetics, besides having vastly available.

Air-lift Reactor's Characterization via Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD): Review

Marwa M. Jasim; Thamer J. Mohammed; Laith S. Sabri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 484-497
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i3.2261

Airlift reactors are seen as the most promising reactor for many valuable productions such as algae culturing. However, this kind of reactor still needs more information and data to understand its phenomena due to limited studies. Also, to reduce the time and offers obtained with sufficient reactor design, capable of achieving high productivities, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) could play an important role in optimizing the reactor design by analyzing the interaction of hydro-dynamics. This review presents the literature review on the recent CFD work for such a reactor that addressed the fluid dynamics parameters, such as bubble dynamics. Earlier researches find more reports utilizing uniform bubble diameter in CFD simulations. However, the latest research in the CFD modeling of multi-phase flow reactors showed that the description of the bubble has significant effects on the performance of the simulation. As a result, systematic research into the impact of bubble diameter on the simulation results of the CFD was performed. Finally, we present and discuss the CFD modeling approaches, a Governing equation such as Eulerian-Eulerian (E-E), and closure such as the drag force.

A Review of the Natural Gas Purification from Acid Gases by Membrane

Dheyaa Jasim; Thamer J. Mohammed; Mohammad F. Abid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 441-450
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i3.1983

This study aims to shed light on natural gas as an important and promising energy source. This energy source is the fastest-growing source in the world due to the increasing global demand. In this paper, the rates of growth in global demand for natural gas according to the latest reports since 1984, as well as the gas specifications required for transport and storage, acid gases, including absorption, desorption, Cryogenic and separation by membranes, are discussed with the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Focusing are presented. In addition to the primary treatment processes that take place on the gas, the most important of which is the removal of acid gases. Processes for removing on the membrane separation process as the most promising process in this field and reviewing all the research that is discussed in details of this process.

Experimental Exergetic And Energetic Analysis of Different (PV) Array Configurations

Dalya A. Omer; Mahmoud M. Mahdi; Ahlam L. Shuraiji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 82-89
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2052

It is well known that photovoltaic (PV) can be connected in parallel, series, and parallel series. In this study, four PV panels are connected in four different ways, i.e., 4panels parallel (4p), 3panels parallel*1panel series (3p*1s), 2panels parallel*2panels parallel (2p*2p) connected in series, and 2panels series *2panels series (2s*2s) connected in parallel, to determine the best PV panels configuration for supplying DC power to the Variable Speed Compressor (VSC) with the highest average exergy efficiency and minimum exergy losses under sunny daylight hours. Experimental data is used to calculate the exergy efficiency of the mentioned configurations. The best results are delivered by (2p*2p) configuration with average exergy efficiency of 43.77% and exergy efficiency of 88.05%. Whereas the percentage of improvement for the average exergy efficiency of this configuration compared with the (2s*2s), (4p), and (3p*1s) are (55.93%), (63.69%) and (78.9%) respectively.

Design and Implementation of Remote Real-Time Monitor System for Prosthetic Limbs

Hussein A. Mansoure; Hadeel N. Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 60-65
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2187

Persons with Lower-limb amputations experience movement restrictions resulting in worsening their life quality. Wearable sensors are often utilized to evaluate spatial and temporal qualities and kinetic parameters that provide the mechanism to create interactive monitoring of the amputee prosthesis system. Gait events and detection of the gait phase of amputee movement are essential to control the prosthetic devices of lower limbs.  This paper presents real-time monitoring to individuals with lower limb amputation by using a medical wireless sensor. However,  the proposed system used four medical sensor nodes (such as gait, temperature, the pressure of blood, blood oxygenation (SpO2) )for transmitted medical data by the   RFB 24  to the sink node to collected data and upload by   ESP32  to the Local cloud ( Raspberry pi 4)   by using   Wi-Fi network, then design the web application for enable the doctor monitor the patient (lower-limb amputation (LLA))  and provide the reporter to on each patient,  where local cloud provides the data to the web application. The conduction of this work is using one sink node to four nodes (patient) to reduce the data rate and the energy consumption. In this work, one IP to four medical sensor nodes lowers the data rate to 60%, and the energy consumption by the sensing nodes is lowered by 20% that using one IP instead of using five IP reduce the size of the transmitted packet.

Development the Mechanical Properties of the Acrylic Resin (PMMA) by Added Different Types of Nanoparticles, Used for Medical Applications

Sura H. Ahmed; Waffa M. Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 166-171
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2017

This research is studying the effect of reinforcement the acrylic resin (PMMA) by two types of nanoparticles, which included: Walnut shell (WSP) and Talc particles (TP) that practical sizes are (40.8 and 29.2 nm) in individually form, and utilize at three various concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3wt.%), to improve in the mechanical properties of composite materials. The results showed that the Tensile and Hardness shore D properties became better with increasing the concentration of nanoparticles. The highest value of (tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and elongation at break) was (28 MPa. 1.28 GPa and 2.35%) for (PMMA: 0.3% WSP) composite specimens. And the highest value of hardness shore D was (77) for (PMMA: 0.3% WSP) composite specimen.

The Effect of Process Parameters on the Compression Property of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Produced by 3D Printer

Sabreen A. Oudah; Hind B. Al-Attraqchi; Nassir A. Nassir

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 189-194
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2118

Additive manufacturing (AM) by Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) provides an innovative manufacturing method for complex geometry components. 3D printers have become easily accessible to the public. The technology used by these 3D printers is Fused Deposition Modelling. The majority of these 3D printers mainly use acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) to fabricate 3D objects. This study aims to investigate the influence of some printing parameters like infill pattern (Tri-Hexagon, Zig - Zag, and Gyroid), infill density (25%, 50%, and 75%), and layer thickness (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mm) on the compressive strength of ABS materials. The design of the experiment was achieved by Taguchi method. A total of nine specimens were fabricated with different processing parameters using a commercial FDM 3D printer and then were tested according to the ASTM D695 standard. Findings presented in this research showed that the compressive strength of printed parts depends on the printing parameters employed. Analysis of variance revealed that the infill density is the most sensitive parameter among the three parameters examined. The optimal printing parameters were (0.3 mm 75 %, Gyroid) for improving compression strength according to signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio analysis. Experiment number (9) showed the highest compression strength with a value of 44.64 MPa.

Solving Mixed-Model Assembly Lines Using a Hybrid of Ant Colony Optimization and Greedy Algorithm

Huthaifa Al-Khazraji; Sohaib Khlil; Zina Alabacy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 172-180
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2153

The assembly line balancing problem deals with the assignment of tasks to work stations. Mixed-model assembly line problem is a type of assembly line balancing problem at which two or more models of the same product are assembled sequentially at the same line. To achieve optimality and efficiency of solving this problem, tasks at each work station have to be well balanced satisfying all constraints. This paper deals with the mixed-model assembly line balancing problem (MALBP) in which the objective is to minimize the cycle time for a given number of work stations. The problem is solved by using a hybrid of an ant colony optimization and a greedy algorithm (Ant-Greedy). MATLAB Software is used to perform the proposed method. Then, the proposed method is applied to a real case problem found in the literature for the assembly line of automatic changeover in the Electronic Industries Company in Iraq. The results of the proposed method are compared with the performance of the Merging Shortest and Longest Operation (MMSLO) method. The comparison shows that the Ant-Greedy optimization method is more efficient, where the efficiency increased from 93.53% for MMSLO method to 97.26% for the Ant-Greedy method.

Modeling and Simulation of Telescopic Hydraulic for Elevating Purposes

Istabraq H. Abed Al-Hady; Farag M. Mohammed; Jamal A.K. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 226-232
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2253

The hydraulic cylinder is widely used in industry as the load lifting structures. A telescopic hydraulic cylinder is a special design of a cylinder with a series of gradually smaller diameter tubes overlapping each other. Three-stage telescopic cylinder performance analysis is performed with the help of the Finite Element Method. Also, MATLAB Simulink is used to create a complete design of the dynamic model of the telescopic cylinder. The analysis results of characteristic curves for telescopic cylinder position, velocity, and acceleration show the simulation model's accuracy and plausibility. This package will provide a basic reference for analyzing and designing the hydraulic cylinders with any number of stages. Simulation results show that a sudden change of pressure upon phase change will lead to multi-phase vibration.

Flow Improvement and Viscosity Reduction for Crude Oil Pipelines Transportation Using Dilution and Electrical Field

Noor I. Jalal; Raheek I. Ibrahim; Manal K. Oudah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 66-75
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2192

One of the great challenges in pipeline transportation of heavy crude oil is the effect of viscosity on flow rate. By using viscosity reduction techniques, crude oil flow ability can be enhanced. However, the dual effect of dilution and electric fields on crude oil flow ability is still not well addressed. The main goal of this study is to reduce viscosity and improve the flow rate of heavy crude oil through pipelines using dual techniques of electrical field and dilution. The optimization technique was used to investigate the interaction effects of experimental variables on the objective function. As compared to crude oil treated solely by dilution or electrical field, the dual treatment could result in more substantial reductions in viscosity. In this experiment, at first, the dilution's impact is studied. Acetone was used as a diluent in different concentrations. The great viscosity reduction is about 21.98% when adding 20 wt. % of acetone. Secondly, when the effect of the electric field has been studied, a reduction in viscosity of about 35.6% was observed when 36.67(v/cm) is applied. Lastly, the effect of combined treatment (dilution and electric field) has been investigated according to factorial design. The optimum viscosity reduction is about 61.856% at 11 wt. % acetone and 36.67 (v/cm) of the electric field.

Manufacturing and Calibration of Conical Springs Lateral Stiffness Meter

Muhammad S. Tahir; Shakir S. Hassan; Jumaa S. Chiad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 76-81
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2201

The spring is an important mechanical part of which widely used in many industrial applications. There is an urgent need to know its stiffness property before use in any application. Since the stiffness varies according to the method of using the spring in this research, it is suggested to calculate the lateral stiffness of spring by the moment effect. the device meter of the lateral stiffness of conical springs has been designed and manufactured working principle applying a torque to the head of the spring and calculating the angle of inclination. This research includes an experimental aspect (tensile test of steel wires, manufacture of the device lateral hardness meter, manufacture of four conical springs from steel wire inspected with diameters of 3.4, 3.8, 4, and 5 mm, and testing the springs with the manufactured device). As for the simulation aspect, it comprises calculating the lateral stiffness by numerical analysis using the solid work program. After extracting the hardness values practically by the device and comparing them with simulation values, the device proved its efficiency for small diameters after the experimental results have been compared with the results of the simulation, as the error rate increased with the increase in the diameter of the spring wire, so the highest acceptable error that could be reached by the device was 5% for the diameter 4.36 mm and zero error at the diameter 1.2 mm.

Electromechanical Design and Manufacturing of Dynamic Buckling Test Rig Under Various Temperature Conditions

Shaymaa M. Mshattat; Hussain J.M Al-Alkawi; Ahmed H. Reja

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 233-240
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2276

A column is a structural member that bears an axial compressive load and is more likely to fail due to buckling compared to material strength. Some of these columns work at a high temperature and this temperature affects the behavior of buckling. Therefore, the designer must take this factor (temperature) into consideration. For the purpose of studying the effect of different temperatures on the phenomenon of buckling under compression dynamic loads to evaluate the state of failure for different types of columns, the thermal buckling test device has been designed and manufactured. Using this rig, practical tests can be conducted on solid and hollow columns of different metals and diameters, and thus the safe critical load for the column can be predicted. This device was successful in evaluating the life of the columns made of aluminum alloy (6061-T6) when the buckling interacts with heat. The current study found that rising the temperature increases the failure under the buckling phenomenon.

Elevated Temperature Corrosion of Mechanical Properties and Fatigue Life of 7025 Aluminum Alloy

Mohammed H. Alwan; Hussain J. Al-Alkawi; Ghada A. Aziz

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.1587

Aluminum alloys are widely used in aircraft industry where good corrosion resistance, light weight and high strength are the primary requirements.
In the present study, attempts have been made to extend the application of mechanical and fatigue properties of AA7025 in laboratory with corrosive environment of media and combined corrosive at elevated temperature (ET) 150⁰C. The experimental results and analysis of corrosion and corrosion - elevated temperature mechanical and fatigue behavior of the samples showed that the 3.5%NaCl corrosive media and corrosion - elevated temperature (ET) greatly decrease the properties mentioned. The Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) and Yield stress YS of AA 7025 reduced by 5.3% and 14.83% respectively due to combine corrosion and elevated temperature but these properties reduce by 8.7% and 19.35% respectively due to combined actions corrosion (ET). The Brinell hardness also reduced by 4.2% and 11.26% due to corrosion only and corrosion and (ET). Ductility was increased by 10.5% and 16.25% for corrosion and corrosion (ET). The environment and elevated temperature – corrosion have significant effect on reduction the fatigue life and strength of AA 7025. It’s clear that the combine corrosion and (ET) combination reduce safely of the mechanical properties compared with the corrosion only and room temperature conditions.

Improvement of Surface Roughness in Single Point Incremental Forming Process by the Implementation of Controlled Vibration

Reham A. Nema; Mauwafak A. Tawfik; Muthanna H. Sadoon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 217-225
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2244

Vibration implementation that assists metal forming has many advantages, such as enhancement of surface equality, reducing the forming force and decreasing the stresses. The technology of single-point incremental forming with all the above-mentioned advantages has been performed with the vibration. This paper focuses on the average surface roughness (Ra) improvement of the final product by using the vibration. The average roughness was found to be affected by vibration of the sheet metal. The combination of vibration produced a better surface quality of the forming shape by using an active damper to control the vibration.  For determining the damping ratio, which gives the necessary roughness, an artificial neural network (ANN) was created based on experimental results. A feed forward neural network with Liebenberg–Marquardt back propagation algorithm was utilized for building the artificial neural network model (3-n-1). Confirmation runs were conducted for verifying the agreement between the predicted results of ANN with those of the experimental outcomes. As a result, the product surface quality is increased where the surface roughness was reduced by (18%) from the surface roughness without vibration. The best reduction rate was in the axial forming force at (100 Hz) frequency, where the reduction rate was about (11.64%) from the force without vibration.

Effect of Temperature and Humidity Factors on Water Production Using Solar Energy with Smart Controlling

Ghusoon A. Aboud; Hashim A. Hussein; Ali H. Numan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 241-248
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2282

The aim of the current work is to study the effect of temperature and humidity factors on the production of water from humid air using clean energy, as we have noticed that both factors have an effective impact on the atmospheric air and on the amount of water that was obtained, which is useful in areas that do not have electric power sources or fresh water, and solar energy is used as the main source of energy in open areas. The motivation is to evaluate the performance of the system in light of different air flow rates and in different locations in Iraq depending on the experimental data obtained and the parameters related to the proposed system. We have noticed that high temperatures lead to the increase in evaporation and then to an increase in the percentage of water in the air, and the humidity factor is better in the range between (25 to 65) %, and when the relative humidity reaches 100%, the water vapor begins to condense to form dew, and the temperature is called the dew point when this occurs. Therefore, the water harvesting device was designed as a solution to reduce moisture considering it a source of drinking water, keeping in mind the main contribution which is to use solar energy, with a low cost, a work efficiency of up to 60%, and most importantly smart controlling.

A Modified Kalman Filter-Based Mobile Robot Position Measurement using an Accelerometer and Wheels Encoder

Ali Madhloom; Firas A. Raheem; Azad R. Kareem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 267-274
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2082

Position measurement is an essential process of mobile robot navigation. In this research, a Kalman Filter is applied to locating a mobile robot furnisher with an encoder and accelerometer. The accelerometer updates its position off-hand. It has an acceptable short period of stability. However, this stability will be decreased over time. The odometry model is utilized to measure the mobile robot's position and heading angle using encoders equipped with the wheels of the mobile robot. Moreover, the odometry model's errors exist because of the wheel rotating speed's integrative nature and non-systematic errors. In this work, the mobile robot position estimation in closed environments was studied. In order to obtain the optimal estimation, a Kalman filter was used to estimate mobile robots' position and velocity, where the Kalman filter has been designed for better assessment of the mobile robot position. The suggested configuration collects accelerometer and odometry reading to assure more delicate position knowledge than standalone odometry or accelerometer. The proposed method's position error has an acceptable level that is less than (0.2 m) for both easy and difficult paths.

The Combining Effect of Inclination Angle, Aspect Ratio and Thermal Loading on the Dynamic Response of Clamped-Clamped Pipe Conveying Fluid

Jabbar H. Mohmmed; Mauwafak A. Tawfik; Qasim A. Atiyah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 40-48
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2159

The investigation of the vibration of pipes containing flowing fluid is very essential to obtain an understanding of their dynamic behavior and prevent their catastrophic failure due to fatigue. Pipelines are subjected to environmental static and dynamic loading including self-weight, restoring, and Carioles forces. This research aims to investigate the vibrations of pipeline structures for examining their structural integrity under these conditions. A linear Euler-Bernoulli beam model is used to analyze the dynamic response of flexible, inclined, and fixed ends pipe conveying fluid made of polypropylene random-copolymer. Closed-form expression for dynamic response is presented by using combining of finite Fourier sine and Laplace transforms method. The influences of the inclination angle, thermal load, and aspect ratio (ratio of outside diameter to the length of pipe) on the dynamical behavior of the pipe–fluid system are studied. The obtained results attest to the importance of considering combining effects of the inclination angle, thermal load, and aspect ratio in analyzing and designing pipe conveying fluid. It is observed that the dynamic deflection can be significantly increased by increasing temperature, aspect ratio, and fluid velocity, while it reduced by increasing the inclination angle with the horizontal axis in the range of (0-90).

Heat Transfer in Electronic Systems Printed Circuit Board: A Review

Mustafa E. Kadum; Ahmed A. Imran; Sattar Aljabair

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 99-108
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2113

Thermal regulation has now become a staple in the design of electronic devices. As a result of technological advances in the electronic industry, component miniaturization and thermal system management are becoming more and more important. Due to the high demand for device performance and the need for better thermal management, this paper present a detailed theoretical review of heat transfer by conventional methods in electronic devices and equipment such as air cooling, water cooling, etc. to provide an ideal framework for a practical application in electronic cooling. With reference to the possibility of investing unconventional ways to reduce the energy consumed in the cooling process and preserving the environment through the possibility of replacing solid circuit boards with flexible circuits and studying their properties in improving heat transfer and deformation of P.C.B using the interaction of fluid structure under thermal and flow effects.

Control of PV Panel System Temperature Using PID Cuckoo Search

Fadi M. Khaleel; Ibtisam A. Hasan; Mohammed J. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 249-256
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2307

In this study, the PV panel behavior as a nonlinear system had been studied well. The main contribution of this work was cooling the PV panel temperature to get the optimal power using a PID-CSA controller which was never employed previously in this application. In the beginning, the system has been modeled using three artificial neural network methods which are NARX, NAR and nonlinear input output based on MSE. Then, the PID controller with the intelligent cuckoo search algorithm technique had been studied to accustom PID controller parameters () based on MSE, ASE and IAE. The results exhibited that the best modeling method was NARX with 0.2255 MSE. On the other hand, all the controlling methods were effective and showed an excellent ability to control the system; however, the best method was based on MSE with an error equal to 2.578.

Preparation of Metakaolin Based Geopolymer Foam Using a Combination of Na and K Types of Alkali Activators

mohammed S. Radhi; Ahmed M. Al-Ghaban; Imad A. Disher

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 282-289
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2188

In this research, the ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was mixed with metakaolin, activator, hydrogen peroxide, and olive oil to synthesize hybrid geopolymer foam. The obtained results indicated internal heat release throughout OPC hydration in the combination. OPC was employed as a calcium source in geopolymers (Geopolymer-Portland cement (HGPF)) to explore the curing process of geopolymers at ambient temperature. The functionality of geopolymer components and (HGPF) mixture, the elemental composition, and proportion analyses have been compared. A principal aim of this research focuses on developing geopolymer foam and conducting many tests such as physical tests related to the surface area and pores size and compression of the foam to investigate the capacity of applying this foam in different applications that require good strength. Furthermore, microstructure tests using SEM and XRD techniques have been conducted to examine surface structure components. Overall, the findings presented in this research show that the materials selected to develop the geopolymer foam were compatible with each other giving high porosity with acceptable compression via optimizing the processing parameters by RSM.

Effect of the Waste Rubber Tires Aggregate on Some Properties of Normal Concrete

Abdul Rah; Ahmed Ali; Nahedh Mahmood; Mohammed M. Kadhum

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 275-281
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2166

Waste rubber tires are considered to have substantial environmental and economic impacts, and they are non-biodegradable.  This study aims to get rid of waste tires as much as possible and study their benefits and effects on concrete using (chips and crumbs) as an aggregate substitution to fine and coarse aggregates together in making concrete (CRC) and at different percentages of (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25) % by volume. This use can reduce the risk and effect of waste tires. The tests reported a reduction in workability, compressive, and flexural values with the increase in the substitution rate of rubber. Still, other properties such as density and thermal conductivity improved. The registered highest decrease was 2013 kg/cm³ to density and 0.56 (W/m.k) to thermal conductivity with replacement of 50% from waste rubber tiers as an aggregate. The workability registered the highest decrease of 35 mm, compressive strength was 18.5 MPa, and flexural was 3.35 MPa. However, the failure of the (CRC) samples test was not as brittle and abrupt as in the control sample (NSC) in the flexural test.

Thermal Performance of an Evacuated-Tube Solar Collector Using Nanofluids and an Electrical Curtain Controlled by an Artificial Intelligence Technique

Hussam J. Rashid; Khalid F. Sultan; Hosham S. Anead

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 8-19
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2021

This paper studies the improvement of an evacuated tube solar collectors(ETSCs) performance in two way. The first is by adding a finned electronic curtain in front of the solar collector. While the second is by using a nanofluid instead of pure water. The purpose of the curtain is to increase the amount of solar radiation reflected toward the collector. The curtain is distinguished by its self-ability to track the sun's rays automatically. The electronic curtain is also closed to shade the tubes depending on the movement of the electronic curtain's fins and the nanofluid's temperatures. MATLAB algorithm has been used to design the Simulink model and control the system using Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The results showed that the system performance improved using TiO2(50nm)+PW) as a working fluid without the curtain are (3.906%,5.34%, and7.407%), while the rate of improvement in the case of distilled water only was 2.34%and3.81%. Finally, by adding the finned electronic curtain to the system and use of TiO2(50nm)+PW) as a working fluid, the efficiency increased by 7.03%,9.16%, and 11.89%. The results showed that the performance of evacuated tubes solar collectors increased by using a nanofluid and the finned electronic curtain.

Effect of Machining Parameters on Surface Roughness and Metal Removal Rate for AISI 310 L Stainless Steel in WEDM

Muayad M. Ali; Abbas F. Ibrahim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 181-188
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2060

Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is a non-traditional machining process that is widely used in the machining of conductive materials. This paper presents the investigation on surface roughness and metal removal rate of stainless steel using the wire-cut EDM process. Process input parameters wire feed (WF), wire tension (WT), servo voltage (SV), pulse on time (TON) and pulse off time (Tuff), and the output parameters surface roughness and metal removal rate. The work piece material was used stainless steel 310 L, zinc-coated brass wire of 0.25mm diameter used as a tool and distilled water is used as dielectric fluid. ANOVA used to measure and evaluate the relative importance of different factors. Experiments are designed and analyzed using the factorial design approach. The experimental results revealed that the most important machining parameter of the pulse of time has the most influence on the metal removal rate and the surface roughness. The maximum best metal removal rate is (0.052277 g/min). When the values are somewhat medium range, they are the best and the wire does not break at this range. Wire feed (7m/min), wire tension (7 kef), servo voltage (30 V), TON (30 sic), Tuff (30 sic). The expected values and measured values are well-matched as observed by additional confirmation experiments.

A Comparative Experimental Study Analysis of Solar Based Thermoelectric Refrigerator Using Different Hot Side Heat Sink

Nora F. Numan; Mahmmoud M. Mahdi; Majida K. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 90-98
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2058

The heat sink influences heat dissipation at the hot junction of the Peltier module and, hence, affects the performance of the thermoelectric refrigerator. The present work compares the performance of solar-powered thermoelectric refrigerator units with capacity (30 Liter) for two cases by employing two different heat sink types. In case (I) The Peltier module (12706) is connected with a heat sink type of Hot wall air-cooled (HWAC). In case (II) the Same Peltier is connected with a heat sink type of hot wall air-cooled with a heat exchanger (HWACHE). The exergy analysis method can help to determine the exergy losses and exergy efficiency of the thermoelectrical refrigerator unit. Despite the change of the (COP) of the thermoelectrical refrigerator throughout the day. The average value of it in two cases was approximately (0.3). Furthermore, the exergy efficiency varied from a minimum value of (0.3%) to a maximum value (0.8%)in case (I). While it varies from the minimum value of (0.4%)to a maximum value of (1%) in case(II). Whereas the average exergy efficiency was 0.5% and 0.62% in case (I) and case (II) respectively This means that there is a percentage improvement in the average exergy efficiency of 19.4% in case (II) compared to the case (I).

Experimental Investigation of Artificial Cavities Effect of Single-Phase Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Single Microchannel

Qahtan A. Al-Nakeeb; Ekhlas M. Fayyadh; Moayed R. Hasan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 109-119
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2122

In this paper, an experimental study has been conducted to investigate the influence of artificial cavities (artificial nucleation sites, ANS) in a single microchannel on the characteristics of flow and heat transfer at a single-phase flow. The experiments were performed with deionized water as a working fluid at 30OC inlet temperature with a range (108.6-2372) of Reynolds numbers. Three models of the straight microchannel (model-1, model-2, and model-3) were manufactured of brass having a rectangular shape with a hydraulic diameter of (0.42 mm). Model-1 has a smooth surface, while model-2 has artificial cavities with a number of 40 ANS located on the base of the microchannel; along a line adjacent to one of the sidewalls. Also, the artificial cavities of model-3 exist at the base of the microchannel; along a line that is nearest to each sidewall for the microchannel. The number of ANS at each sidewall is 40 (i.e. the overall number of artificial nucleations is 80). The results manifested the enhancement of heat transfer by the presence of ANS for model-2 and model-3 as compared to model-1 by 15.53% and 16.67%, respectively. Also, the results proved that the fanning friction factor correlation for laminar and turbulent flow can predict very well the results (MAE=6.6-7.2%) and (MAE=4.1-7.7%), respectively. Also, the Nusselt number increases with increasing Reynolds number. However, the conventional correlation that predicted the experimental results is lower than the correlations (MAE=30.1%, 13.2% and 12.6%) for Model-1, -2 and -3, respectively.

A-Review for the Cooling Techniques of PV/T Solar Air Collectors

Wisam H. Saleh; Abdullateef A. Jadallah; Ahlam L. Shuraiji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 129-136
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2139

A solar thermal collector is one of the most popular applications of solar energy. It is a photovoltaic (PV) cell system with a thermal collector system, this system is utilized in the production of electrical energy and many applications. The system is able to produce electrical energy directly from the sunlight using the photoelectric effect. Meanwhile, it also extracts heat from the PV and heats the fluid (airflow) inside the collector. In this review, the solar PV system and solar thermal collectors are discussed. Usually, solar collectors are exposed to damage and their efficiency decreases when the temperature rises. Need constant cooling. In addition, the methods utilized to cool the solar collector are presented, including cooling with air, water, and others methods. It has been shown that the water-based cooling system was at a rate of 48%, while the air-based cooling system was at a rate of 26%, and that cooling by other methods was at a rate of 26%. These methods were applied to the enhancement of the photovoltaic cell efficiency under different conditions. The study revealed the important role being played with the application of solar energy.

Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Adding Butanone to Gasoline in SI Engine Emissions and Performance

Abed Al-Khadhim M. Hassan; Sadeq A. Jassam

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 148-158
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2207

This research is performed to study and investigate the influence of adding some ketone compounds on performance, emissions, and heat balance of spark ignition engine. The compound used in this study is butanone (C4H8O). The importance of the research lies in increasing the octane number by adding specific percentages of butanone and showing its impact on improving the combustion process, performance and reducing pollutants. This ketone has been added to the basic fuel (gasoline) with three concentration ranges (3, 6 and 9%), respectively.  All experimental tests were carried out on gasoline engine type (Nissan QG18DE), four cylinders, and 4-stroke. The acquired results showed that adding of ketones affects the physical properties of gasoline, where the density changed from (710 kg/m3) for net gasoline to (724 kg/m3) for butanone at an adding ratio of (9%). The octane number also increased for all types of ketones compared with pure fuel, and it will be improved from (86) for pure gasoline to (93.1) for butanone at an adding ratio of (9%). While the calorific value will be decreased from (43000 kJ/kg) for gasoline to (41665.44) for butanone at an adding ratio of (9%). The addition of ketones improves the emissions characteristic of the engine. The best reductions of (UHC, CO2, CO and NOx) were (47.51, 24.9, 27.35 and 35.91%), respectively recorded by butanone addition at a ratio of (9%). In the case of performance, the best increments of brake power, brake thermal efficiency and volumetric efficiency were (14.5, 7, 14.94 and 11.64%), respectively, which is achieved by adding (9%) of butanone.

Corn Oil Performance’s A Bio Cooling Fluid in Electric Distribution Transformer

Ahmed A. Khudhair; Mohammed H. Jabal; Samar J. Ismail

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 20-30
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2031

Biodegradable (Vegetable) fluids are considered as environmentally friendly fluids and possess an abundant benefit, they are wildly available by means of renewable sources compared to different kinds of mineral-oil.  Given the occurrence of environmental pollution and health problems from mineral oils.  This paper investigates the effect of utilizing the corn oil for the cooling performing features of distribution electric transformer, and making a comparison with the cooling performance of the electric transformer whith cooling by the commercial mineral fluid. This investigation is done by using the four- ball machine and electric transformers. Each experiment that was executed complies with ASTM D4172-B under different electrical loads (200-1600W). Depending on the outcomes of the four-ball machine and electric transformer, it has been noticed that the corn oil has the adequate cooling behavior compared to the commercial cooling fluid. It maintains the insulation housing between the coils, and maintains the coils when overloaded at peak time.

The Effect of Secondary Slow on Droplets Behavior in Gas-Liquid Mixing Process Downstream of a Curved Duct

Abdulsattar J. Mohammed; Akeel A. Nazzal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 195-206
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2152

Experimental and numerical investigations are carried out on water injection in a humidification process of air traveling steadily through the curved part with a constant cross-section. A principal aim is to study the flow behavior through the curved duct and the generation of secondary flow. The effect of bend angle on the development of secondary flow and flow structure intensities and enhancement of the heat and mass transfer downstream the curved duct. Moreover, the influence of the mixing process between liquid and gas in an air humidification process was examined. Experiments were performed with an average air velocity range from (2.5 to 5 m/s) while keeping the water injection rate of (19 kg/h) through (50) cm square wind tunnel includes three bend angles of (45º, 90ºand 135º) along with three sets of nozzle tilt angles of (-45º, 0º and 45º) to the axial flow direction. The study also implies a numerical analysis using ANSYS FLUENT 2019 R3 with the turbulent model of RNG using (k-ε). Experimental results showed that the optimum operating condition (greater extent of cooling and humiliation) was obtained with a bend angle of 135º at axial water injection, i.e., 0º nozzle tilt angle at the lowest air velocity of 2.5 m/s. This could be attributed to the strong identical vortices developed and better droplet distribution across the duct, and more time available for heat exchange between water droplets and the air stream. The maximum reduction in treated air temperature was 28 %, with 219% in the relative humidity of the air stream. This condition gave corresponding cooling effectiveness of 58%.      

Optimization of Design Parameters for Manufacturing a Radial Active Magnetic Bearing with 12-Poles

Mohamed N. Hamad; Muhannad Z. Khalifa; Jamal A. K. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 207-216
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2202

This research aims to design an Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) after performing an optimization process via reducing the number of poles and by reducing air gap, Dia. Yoke, and Z-length (deep of model). To increase the performance of a radial Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB), all particular equations of design based on the Genetic Algorithm method by using ANSYS Maxwell (Version 17.1) program of electro-magnetic have been studied. Manufacturing an active magnetic bearing standing for two counts, each one containing 12 poles instead of 16, led to a significant improvement in the performance. Some conclusions were obtained, including the complications in the control system will be reduced when they are linked in AMB. The complexities of the control system are inversely proportional to the number of poles and the model covered in this study is made of a material with good engineering and magnetic characteristics steel 37-2.

Evaluating the Adhesive Properties of Four Types of Conventional Adhesives

Muhanad H. Mosa; Mohsin N. Hamzah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 120-128
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2137

The development of manufacturing technology led to the appearance of various products that need effective types of adhesives with good strength and durability in different types of joints. Accordingly, the issue is how to choose the appropriate adhesive for the specific application relying on the properties of adhesive besides, the work conditions. This work deals with the experimental testing of four types of an adhesives that have been prepared to test by the two types of joints to comprehend the behavior of adhesives then choose the most effective and optimum type. The Butt and single lap joint tests were achieved according to the ASTM standard D2095–96 and D-1002-99 respectively. The adhesives that were used were epoxy Resins, MS Hybrid Polymers, Polyvinylester, and R.T.V Silicon Rubber, also, used a steel material as adherents. The study concluded important points about these adhesives and the recommendation suggested essential points to select satiable adhesive.

Experimental and Numerical Flexural Properties of Sandwich Structure with Functionally Graded Porous Materials

Emad Njim; Sadeq H. Bakhi; Muhannad Al-Waily

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 137-147
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2184

Functionally graded porous materials (FGPMs) are porous structures with a porosity gradient distributed over the entire volume. They have many applications in the aerospace, marine, biomedical, automotive, and shipbuilding industries. High strength to weight and excellent energy absorption is the most important features that make these structures unique. In this paper, the flexural properties of simply-supported sandwich beams with functionally graded porous core under flexural load were evaluated experimentally and numerically based on various parameters. A three-point bending test for 3D printed sandwich specimens with porous metal core bonded with aluminum face sheets using various porosity parameters and core heights has been performed to measure the peak load and maximum deflection and explore the sandwich structure's strength. To validate the accuracy of the experimental solution, a finite element analysis (FEA) is carried out using ANSYS 2021 R1 software. Tests and FEM show that the sandwich beam behavior is closely related to porosity, power-law index, and FG porous metal core thicknesses. Experimental results indicated that at a porosity ratio of 10 %, FG core height 10 mm the maximum bending load was 573 N and maximum deflection 13.8 mm respectively. By increasing porosity to become 30% using the same geometrical parameters, the bending load was reduced by 15.4 % while the deflection exhibited a 1.4 % increase. The Numerical results for the three-point bending are compared with experimental measurements, showing a fair agreement with a maximum discrepancy of 15%.

Blind Assistive System based on Real Time Object Recognition using Machine learning

Mais R. Kadhim; Bushra K. Oleiwi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 159-165
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.1933

Healthy people carry out their daily lives normally, but the visually impaired and the blind face difficulties in practicing their daily activities safely because they are ignorant of the organisms surrounding them.  Smart systems come as solutions to help this segment of people in a way that enables them to practice their daily activities safely as possible.  Blind assistive system using deep learning based You Only Look Once algorithm (YOLO) and Open CV library for detecting and recognizing objects in images and video streams quickly. This work implemented using python. The results gave a satisfactory performance in detecting and recognizing objects in the environment. The results obtained are the identification of the objects that the Yolo algorithm was trained on, where the persons, chairs, oven, pizza, mugs, bags, seats, etc. were identified.

Design and Implementation of an Electromechanical Brake System

Haider N. Faisal; Farag M. Mohammed; Jamal A. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 31-39
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2150

Nowadays, hydraulic brakes are already being replaced by electromechanical brakes (EMB) to improve quick-response brakes, efficient fuel consumption, environmentally sound, simple maintenance, and enhanced safety design. It is suggested that the electromechanical brake will be one of the most important brake systems in the future. This study focuses on designing and implementing an electromechanical brake based on a brushless DC (BLDC) motor and position controller to generate and control the required braking force at a variable friction coefficient between disc and pad. A feedback controller equipped with a measuring sensor is usually utilized to control this type of brake. Thus, three controllers for current, speed, and position were implemented in successive loops to control the motor movement. This system has current, speed, and force sensors. Due to implementation difficulties and cost issues of braking, the clamping sensor should be replaced with a position sensor with some modification where a position controller has been designed and implemented. The results showed that the clamping force of the brake system can follow the target accurately and it has good performance. Also, it is shown that this system can adjust the brake force more accurately and quickly compared with the traditional.

Design of a Sliding Mode Controller for a Prosthetic Human Hand’s Finger

Hussein Sh. Majeed; Saleem K. Kadhim; Alaa A. Jaber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 257-266
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.1943

In this research paper, the modeling and control of a tendon-driven, instead of joint motors, the prosthetic finger that mimics the actual human index finger were deliberated. Firstly, the dynamic model of the prosthetic finger is developed based on a 3-degree of freedom (DOF) articulated robot structure and utilizing the Lagrange equation. Then, the classical sliding mode control (CSMC) strategy was implemented to control the finger motion. To overcome the cons of CSMC, such as the chattering problem, an adaptive sliding mode controller (ASMC) was developed.  MATLAB Simuphalange was used to perform the simulation after the necessary equations were derived. The results showed that the ASMC was superior to the CSMC in depressing the chattering and fast response.

Improve the Corrosion Resistance of the Copper-Zinc Alloy by the Epoxy-WO3 Nanocomposite Coating

Ban D. Abbass; Kadhum M. Shabeeb; Ayad K. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 11, Pages 1669-1673
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i11.2225

Metal corrosion is one of the most critical challenges in industrial processes. In this research, nanocomposite coating was synthesized by blending tungsten trioxide (WO3) nanoparticles with Epoxy resin and applied on brass samples to evaluate the performance of corrosion protection under stressed environments. A dip-coating method was adopted to coat the brass sample's surface. Coated and uncoated brass samples have been subjected to corrosion tests to study the corrosion behavior when exposed to corrosive media. Obtained results indicated that the brass coated samples with mixed epoxy\tungsten trioxide (WO3) exhibited reasonable corrosion resistance because of the ceramic protective barrier on the surface of the metal. Therefore, the proposed methodology could be considered as a promising surface coating that promotes corrosion resistance under stressed industrial conditions.

Preparation and Characterization of Polymer Blend and Nano Composite Materials Based on PMMA Used for Bone Tissue Regeneration

Sally A. Kadhum Alsaedi; Sihama I. Salih; Fadhil A. Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 501-509
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i4A.383

As the elderly population increases, the need for bone loss treatments is increasing. Vital substances used in such treatments are required to continue for a longer period and work more effectively. The particularly important biological material is poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement, which is widely used in damaged bone replacement surgery. So, this study focused on the role of added some nanoparticles consist of zirconia (ZrO2), and magnesia (MgO) on the binary polymeric blend (Acrylic bone cement: 15% PMMA) for a bone scaffold. Where, ZrO2 and MgO nanoparticle was added with selected weight percentages (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 wt.%), which were added to the polymer blend matrix. Some mechanical properties were studied including the tensile strength and young modulus for all the prepared samples. The chemical bonding of nanoparticles and synthetic binary polymeric blend composites was evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Tensile strength and young modulus of binary polymeric blend reinforced with 1.5 wt.% ZrO2, and 1 wt.% MgO, significantly increased. The surface morphology of the fracture surface of tensile specimens was examined by Scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM images confirmed that the homogenous distribution of nanoparticles (ZrO2, and MgO) within the polymeric blend matrix.

Characterizations of Synthetic 8mol% YSZ with Comparison to 3mol %YSZ for HT-SOFC

Abeer F. Al-Attar; Saad B. H. Farid; Fadhil A. Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 491-500
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i4A.351

In this work, Yttria (Y2O3) was successfully doped into tetragonal 3mol% yttria stabilized Zirconia (3YSZ) by high energy-mechanical milling to synthesize 8mol% yttria stabilized Zirconia (8YSZ) used as an electrolyte for high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (HT-SOFC). This work aims to evaluate the densification and ionic conductivity of the sintered electrolytes at 1650°C. The bulk density was measured according to ASTM C373-17. The powder morphology and the microstructure of the sintered electrolytes were analyzed via Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The chemical analysis was obtained with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Also, X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to obtain structural information of the starting materials and the sintered electrolytes. The ionic conductivity was obtained through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the air as a function of temperatures at a frequency range of 100(mHz)-100(kHz). It is found that the 3YSZ has a higher density than the 8YSZ. The impedance analysis showed that the ionic conductivity of the prepared 8YSZ at 800°C is0.906 (S.cm) and it was 0.214(S.cm) of the 3YSZ. Besides, 8YSZ has a lower activation energy 0.774(eV) than that of the 3YSZ 0.901(eV). Thus, the prepared 8YSZ can be nominated as an electrolyte for the HT-SOFC.

Comparative Study of Perturb & Observe, Modified Perturb & Observe and Modified Incremental Conductance MPPT Techniques for PV Systems

Mohanad H. Mahmood; Inaam I. Ali; Oday A. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 478-490
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i4A.329

This paper presents a modified maximum power point tracking algorithm (Modified MPPT) for PV systems based on incremental conductance (IC) algorithm. This method verified with the dynamic irradiance and sudden change of irradiance, the comparisons with conventional methods, for example, the perturbation and observation (P&O) and Modified perturbation and observation (Modified P&O) were performed. A photovoltaic (PV) panel was simulated and tested using MATLAB/Simulink based on PV panel at Power Electronics Laboratory. The results show that this method capable to find the maximum power point (MPP) under dynamic behavior faster than ( P&O) and Modified P&O). Reduced oscillation of MPP indicates enhanced efficiency, providing maximum power transfer to load

Random Forest (RF) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Algorithms for LULC Mapping

Tay H. Shihab; Amjed N. Al-Hameedawi; Ammar M. Hamza

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 510-514
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i4A.399

In this paper to make use of complementary potential in the mapping of LULC spatial data is acquired from LandSat 8 OLI sensor images are taken in 2019. They have been rectified, enhanced and then classified according to Random forest (RF) and artificial neural network (ANN) methods. Optical remote sensing images have been used to get information on the status of LULC classification, and extraction details. The classification of both satellite image types is used to extract features and to analyse LULC of the study area. The results of the classification showed that the artificial neural network method outperforms the random forest method. The required image processing has been made for Optical Remote Sensing Data to be used in LULC mapping, include the geometric correction, Image Enhancements, The overall accuracy when using the ANN methods 0.91 and the kappa accuracy was found 0.89 for the training data set. While the overall accuracy and the kappa accuracy of the test dataset were found 0.89 and 0.87 respectively

Cyclic Settlement of Footings of Different Shapes Resting on Clayey Soil

Aseel N. Najim; Mohammed Y. Fattah; Makki K. Al-Recaby

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 465-477
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.483

An experimental investigation is carried out to investigate the impact of the footing shape, when rested on clayey soil under cyclic loading condition. The model footings used in this study are circular, square and the area of footings is fixed. Cyclic load test is carried out on the cohesive soil with three undrained shear strengths (20 kPa, 40 kPa and 70 kPa). Two depths of foundation embedment (at surface and 5 cm) to know the effect of the depths of the foundations on the change of settlement and total vertical stress and two rates of loading (3 mm/sec and 6 mm/sec) are used. It has been observed that the bearing capacity varies in increasing order as Solid, Circular and Square. It is found that the cyclic settlement in the square foundation is less than the circular foundation. The results reveal that the shape of the footing has a significant effect on its bearing capacity and the settlement characteristics. The vertical stress reaches a constant value which is greater below circular footing and it is about (70.9 - 92.7) % greater than below square footing.

Comparative Study of Different Organic Molecules as an Anti-Corrosion for Mild Steel in Kerosene

Eva A. Yaqo; Rana A. Anaee; Majid H. Abdulmajeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 423-430
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.507

The investigation on the efficiency of three organic derivatives was done as inhibitors for carbon steel using electrochemical methods at four temperatures (303, 313, 323, and 333 K) and 100 ppm. The results showed that these prepared compounds gave good efficiencies at experimental conditions by adsorption process and they act as mixed-type inhibitor, the data of corrosion were measured and debated. Using SEM, the inhibited surface of specimens was characterized. In addition, for display the interaction between these compounds and the metallic surface, the Fourier transform infrared spectra was used. In addition, the activity of antibacterial of the inhibitors against some types of bacteria was tested.

Reducing Roof Solar Heat Gain by Using Double-Skin Ventilated Roofs

Mohannad R. Ghanim; Sabah T. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 402-411
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.462

Double skin ventilated roof is one of the important passive cooling techniques to reduce solar heat gain through roofs. In this research, an experimental study was performed to investigate the thermal behaviour of a double skin roof model. The model was made of two parallel galvanized steel plates. Galvanized steel has been used in the roof construction of industrial buildings and storehouses in Iraq. The effect of inclination angle (ϴ) from the horizontal and the spacing (S) between the plates was investigated at different radiation intensities. It is found that using a double skin roof arrangement with a sufficient air gap (S) can reduce the heat gain significantly. The higher the inclination angle (ϴ) the higher the ventilation rate, the lower the heat gain through the roof. In this study, increasing the air gap from 2 cm to 4 cm reduced the heat gain significantly but when the gap was further increased to 6 cm, the reduction in the heat flux was insignificant. A dimensionless correlation was also reduced between Nusselt number ( ) and the single parameter ( ⁄ ) where L is the channel length. This correlation can be handily utilized for designing of engineering applications dealing with high temperature difference natural convection heat transfer.

Air Temperature Modelling Depended on Remote Sensing Techniques

Zainab T. Mohammed; Riyad H. Al-Anbari; Oday Z. Jasim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 352-360
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.398

Air temperature (T air) near the land surface is a fundamental descriptor of physical environmental conditions and one of the most widely used climatic variables in global change studies. In this study, the researcher trying to suggest a model for estimating air temperature in summer season for any region through integrating of Iraqi Agrometeorological network
daily (T air) with the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST), Duration Day Length (DDL) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM). In this model, using satellite images for the study area and data of air temperature for four weather stations located in Babylon governorate from 1- June to 30- September on year 2017 for modeling and accuracy assessment air temperature estimation. The standard error of this model is 1.72887° C, and the correlation equal to 0.69698.

Multiwall Carbon Nanotube / Polyvinyl Alcohol Nanofibers Film, Electrical Conductivity Improvement

Akram R. Jabur

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 431-439
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.530

Conductive polymer films were prepared of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10) wt. % multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by electrospinning technique. The morphologies of the synthesized films were tested by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Average fiber diameters gauged statically was (115nm) for (PVA/10 wt. % MWCNT film) while (170nm) for pure PVA electro spun film. Electrical conductivity (EC) of Polymeric nanofiber films improve by increasing MWCNT addition concentration from (3.69 × 10-7 S/ cm) for the pure (PVA) film to (1.24 ×10-2 S/cm) for the film with 10 wt. % MWCNT. The maximum stress of PVA film were increased by adding MWCNTs concentration, the modulus of elasticity was enhanced from 12.87 MPa for pure PVA to 49.89 MPa for PVA/8wt% MWCNT.

Influence of Cutting Speed on Residual Stresses by Machining of AISI 316L

Safa M. Lafta; Maan A. Tawfiq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 394-401
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.459

RS have an important role in the performance of components and machined structures. The objective of this paper is to study the influence of cutting speed on RS in workpieces that are formed in orthogonal cutting. AISI 316L stainless steel since it has been used in many important industries such as chemical, petrochemical industries, power generation, electrical engineering, and food and beverage industry. Four cutting speeds are selected: (44, 56, 71 and 88) m/min. The alloy was machined by turning at constant depth of cut and various feed rate from (0.065 to 0.228) mm/rev. Residual stresses are examined by X-ray diffraction. The best results of RS obtained are (-3735.28, -1784.95, -330.142, -218.747, -890.758, -2999.632, -2990.401) MPa. Increasing the cutting speed from (44-56) m/min. reduces the compressive residual stress by (21.4 %), while from (71-88) m/min the RS is reduced by (19.3 %). Finally, the RS at cutting speeds are changed from compression to tension

Kinematics Analysis of 5 DOF Robotic Arm

Tahseen F. Abaas; Ali A. Khleif; Mohanad Q. Abbood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 412-422
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.475

This paper presents the forward, inverse, and velocity kinematics analysis of a 5 DOF robotic arm. The Denavit-Hartenberg (DH) parameters are used to determination of the forward kinematics while an algebraic solution is used in the inverse kinematics solution to determine the position and orientation of the end effector. Jacobian matrix is used to calculate the velocity kinematics of the robotic arm. The movement of the robotic arm is accomplished using the microcontroller (Arduino Mega2560), which controlling on five servomotors of the robotic arm joints and one servo of the gripper. The position and orientation of the end effector are calculated using MATLAB software depending on the DH parameters. The results indicated the shoulder joint is more effect on the velocity of the robotic arm from the other joints, and the maximum error in the position of the end-effector occurred with the z-axis and minimum error with the y-axis.

Analysis of Thermal and Insulation Performance of Double Glazed Window Doped With Paraffin Wax

Jalal M. Jalil; Salih M. Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 383-393
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.448

In this paper, a numerical investigation has been performed to study the effect of varying the thermal properties of the paraffin wax on the performance of a double glazed window doped with it during the summer climate of Baghdad (33.3 °N, 44.4 °E). Using FORTRAN (f 90) constructed computer program, finite difference combined with the enthalpy method was utilized to deal with the conduction with phase change problems within the wax. Results obtained show that increasing the density, latent heat, and thickness of the paraffin wax PCM) would increase the temperature-time lag and reduce the temperature decrement factor of the double glazed window, and as a result, improve comparatively the performance of the unit. In contrast, changing the specific heat capacity of the paraffin wax is not a productive (inefficient) technique to develop the performance of the unit. Besides, the recommended thickness of the window (thickness of the PCM) under the ambient condition of Baghdad should be 20 mm or higher.

Design and Implementation of a Fuzzy Logic Controller for Inverted Pendulum System Based on Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms

Ahmed F. Ghaliba; Ahmed A. Oglah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 361-374
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.400

The inverted pendulum is a standard classical problem in the branch of
control and systems. If a cart is bushed by force then its position and angle
of the pendulum will be changed. Several controllers may employed,
keeping the pendulum arm upright by controlling at the cart location. In
this search paper, the fuzzy-like PID (FPID) controller has been used to
control the inverted pendulum, and the parameters of the controller are
tuned with several evolutionary optimization algorithms like a genetic
algorithm (GA), ant colony optimization (ACO), and social spider
optimization (SSO.) The result of tuned FPID with evolutionary
optimization is compared with conventional PID, and it shows that FPID
with SSO has been given the best result.

Characteristics of Exhaust Emissions for a Diesel Engine Fuelled by Corn Oil Biodiesel and Blended with Diesel Fuel

Abdulrahman S. Mahmood; Haqi I. Qatta; Saadi M.D. Al-Nuzal; Talib K. Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 457-464
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.446

Environmentally friend biodiesel fuel from corn oil was tested in single-cylinder 4-stroke diesel engine operated. Three blends of fuels were prepared from corn oil and diesel fuel viz. 7, 15, and 20 % (designated as B7, B15, and B20, respectively). Tests were conducted on this engine using these blends at a constant speed (1500 rpm) and varying loads (0 % to 100 %). The emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, unburned hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NOX) and smoke opacity were measured. In all engine loads, results showed that the emission of CO, HC, and smoke emissions were reduced, while that of NOX and CO2 were increased. Biodiesel blend (B20) showed the highest decrease of the CO and HC and smoke emissions by 22.13 %, 18.5 %, and 25.8 % respectively. While that of NOX and CO2 emissions were increased by 22.3 % and 22%, respectively. It can be recommended as a sound environment friend and renewable for use in diesel engines and can be used without any significant modifications in the engine design

Discontinuous Control and Stability Analysis of Step-Down DC-DC Voltage Converters

Bashar F. Midhat

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 446-456
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.567

Step down DC-DC converters are power electronic circuits, which mainly used to convert voltage from a level to a lower level. In this paper, a discontinuous controller is proposed as a control method in order to control Step-Down DC-DC converters. A Lyapunov stability criterion is used to mathematically prove the ability of the proposed controller to give the desired voltage. Simulationsl1 are performedl1 in MATLABl1 software. The simulationl1 resultsl1 are presentedl1 for changesl1 in referencel1 voltagel1 and inputl1 voltagel1 as well as stepl1 loadl1 variations. The resultsl1 showl1 the goodl1 performancel1 of the proposedl1 discontinuousl1 controller.

State Space Parallelization Method for a 16-Bit Turbo Encoder

Maha A. Fleah; Qusay F. Al-Doori

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 553-557
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.9

Turbo codes are widely used in digital communication systems. Their ability to reach the Shannon channel capacity made it the choice for most of the communication systems. Due to the huge amount of the transmitted data, there is a need to increase the processing speed of the encoders. The researchers used the state space technique to enhance the throughput of the turbo encoder. They apply it to increase the turbo encoder throughput from one bit per cycle up to 8 bit per cycle. The researchers applied the state space method to a three-flip flop, eight state Recursive Systematic Convolution Code circuit to achieve their goal. In this paper, we explored the state space technique and applied it to a four flip-flop Recursive Systematic Convolution Code circuit so that we can achieve a throughput of 16 bit per cycle. The circuit was designed and tested using MATLAB then implemented using FPGA to verify its operation.

Design PID Neural Network Controller for Trajectory Tracking of Differential Drive Mobile Robot Based on PSO

Mohamed J. Mohamed; Mohammed K. Hamza

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 574-583
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.12

This paper introduces a nonlinear (Proportional-Integral-Derivative Neural Network) (PID NN) controller for a differential wheeled mobile robot trajectory tracking problem. This neural controller is built based on the principles of neural network (NN) and the equation of conventional structure of PID controller and is applied on kinematic model of the mobile robot. The particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) is utilized to find the best values of three PID NN parameters and connection weights that minimize the error between the reference path and the actual path. The results illustrate that the PID NN controller has a satisfied ability to make the mobile robot tracking any path with good performance, high accuracy and acceptable robustness.

Evaluation of Predictive Equations for Local Pier Scour in Cohesive Soils

Zahraa F. Hassan; Ibtisam R. Karim; Abdul- Hassan K. Al-Shukur

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 584-591
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.436

Wavelet analysis has become a powerful tool for denoising images. It represents a new way to achieve better noise reduction and increased contrast. Here,  experimentally demonstrate the abilities of the discrete wavelet transform with Daubechies basis functions for improving the quality of noisy images. In this research, two methods have been compared to modify the coefficients using a soft and hard threshold to improve the visual fineness of noisy images depending on the Root-Mean-Square error (RMS). The low RMS value and better noise reduction are found in the soft threshold methods based on Daubechies wavelet (db8) for the first image RMS=0.101 and the second example RMS=0.109.

Influence of Steel Fiber and Spacing of Stirrups on the Torsion Capacity of Hybrid Beams

Alyaa H. Mohammed; Qais A. Hasan; Kaiss F. Sarsam

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 506-511
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.2

This paper investigates experimentally the torsional behaviour of hybrid reinforced concrete beams composed of reactive powder concrete (RPC) at the outer edges of the cross-section and conventional concrete (CC) at the inner parts of the cross-section. Hybrid reinforced concrete members are used extensively to deal with the members strength requirements related to flexural, shear and torsion in structural systems. The torsion failure is undesirable because of its brittle nature, it is obligatory to avoid this kind of failure in the earthquake areas. Seven reinforced concrete beams, with dimensions (100X200X1500 mm), the interior dimensions of hybrid beams of the cross-sectional area (20mm width and 120mm height) with 1500 mm length were cast and tested to failure using two opposite cantilevers steel arms that contribute to transferring the torque to the centre of the beam. The first beam was RPC, the second beam was CC and the other five beams were all poured as hybrid ones. Experimental data of the ultimate capacity, cracking torsional loads, the failure pattern and twisting angle for each beam were gained. Experimental results showed higher value of ultimate torsional strength of hybrid beams than CC ones by about (50) % and lower than reactive powder concrete specimen by about (16.67) % for both varying steel fibre and spacing of stirrups.

Effect of Weather Conditions on the Properties of Cement Rendering

Ayad H. Mseer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 536-541
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.7

The cement mortar used in rendering external walls, in Iraqi hot weather summer, suffers from appearance of many cracks on surface during and after its setting. So, this research aims to study the effect of different factors that can affect those cracks. The studied variables include mix proportions of mortar, grading of the used sand, method of curing, and environmental temperature (rendering during winter or summer). The rendering was laid on two types of walls build from clay bricks or concrete blocks. Tests were carried out on the mortar mixes of the different variables including flow test and drying shrinkage. Results indicate that the suitable flow of cement mortar for rendering should be 190±10%, which means the water content should be higher than that required for standard flow of 110±5% by 10%. Also, found that the amount of cement and water content and fineness of sand have an important role in the appearance of cracks on the cement rendering. Those cracks can be reduced to large extent by a continuous water spraying twice daily for seven days.

Experimental Study of Vibration on Pipe Conveying Fluid at Different End Conditions for Different Fluid Temperatures

Kayser A. Ameen; Mustafa J. Al-Dulaimi; Ali A. Hatem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 512-515
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.3

Dynamic behavior of a copper pipe conveying fluid at different fluid temperatures is investigated experimentally. Three types of supports are used, which are simply support - simply support, fixed – fixed support and fixed – free support. The effect of the support's types on the frequency and the amplitude of vibration for the pipe conveying the fluid are studied for various flow temperature. These vibration characteristics were tested at temperatures 50, 65 and 80 ºC

Numerical Investigations on Seismic Response of Structures under the Effect of Infinite Boundary of Soil-Structure Interaction

Qais A. Hasan; Saad F. Al-Wakel; Zahraa R. Zaidan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 516-521
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.4

The damage caused by large earthquakes is not only due to structures but also due to the soil failure, where the dynamic response varies considerably from the fixed base state because of the interaction between the ground and the structure. The main objective of this paper is to study the effect of the infinitely extended soil on the dynamic response of the structure. A three-dimensional dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete building
considering the effect of soil-structure interaction is performed. Building with a different number of stories rest on soil with various characteristics have been taken into consideration. For simulation of wave propagation due to far-field effects, coupled finite-infinite elements is presented for modeling the soil. The infinite boundary provides a powerful tool for dealing with wave propagation problems. The analysis is performed through a finite element method which is implemented in ABAQUS program. An earthquake load is applied in the horizontal direction with various boundary conditions such as; free, and infinite boundary. The effect of boundary on the dynamic response of structure are investigated. The significant difference in dynamic response is observed when infinite boundaries are used, especially in the case of soft soil, where the existence of infinite elements leads to absorption of energy and thus greatly reduce the lateral displacement of the structure.

Enhancement of Surface Crack Density Produced by EDM Using Hybrid Machining

Saad K. Shather; Shukry H. Aghdeab; Waqass S. Khudier

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 566-573
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.11

The present work is aimed to improve the surface cracks density of electrical discharge machining (EDM) by Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM)/Electrochemical Machining (ECM) EDM/ECM hybrid process. A hybrid method of EDM-ECM combined processing involve EDM shaping as well as electrochemical machining (ECM) finishing, also, they are conducted in sequence one same machine tool, same electrode, yet on the different dielectric. In this study, the used workpiece material is the A2-Tool Steel material, while the electrode material is copper. The influence of controllable parameters could be identified via response surface methodology (RSM), these controllable effects include: pulse current, pulse on time, pulse off time, gap, voltage, and electrolyte concentration on surface cracks density (SCD). It has been noticed that model has been developed by RSM adequacy is acceptable because the coefficient of determination is closest to one for SCD, whereas the optimal solution achieved by Desirability Function Analysis (DFA) are (current =42 A, pulse-on time =100 , and pulse-off time =50 )in addition to that, the generated surface doesn’t have any crack which has been generated via EDM are removed entirely through ECM finishing.

Design a Second Order Sliding Mode Controller for Electrical Servo Drive Systems

Shams A. Hashim; Ahmed K. Hamoudi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 542-552
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.8

The aim of this paper is to design and study a powerful second-order sliding mode controller for electrical servo drive systems. The suggested controller can successfully overcome the chattering problem that was usually facing such systems during operation. The first (1-SMC) and second (2-SMC) sliding mode controllers are nonlinear controllers’ techniques capable of stabilizing the output of a plant, even though a disturbance and parameter uncertainty is present. The asymptotically stable is the significant property of 1-SMC as well as 2-SMC. Despite the robustness of the 1- SMC, in real-time but it suffers from a large settling time and a chattering (undesirable rapid oscillations) of system trajectory close to the sliding surface. The chattering must be reduced because of its negative impact on system stability. The chattering can be reduced by replacing the sign function, used in classical sliding mode, by a saturation function. In the current study, the Second Order Sliding Mode Controller (2-SMC) is used to overcome the drawbacks of 1- SMC by reducing both the chattering and the settling time of the control action. The Electrical Servo drive system was adopted in this paper for testing; both, the 1-SMC as well as the 2-SMC. The comparison of results between the two controllers indicated smaller chattering and settling time in the 2-SMC than that in the 1-SMC. The simulation results of this work were obtained by using the Matlab programming.

Numerical Study of Bond Stress-Slip Relationship in Large Scale Reactive Powder Concrete Beams

Eyad K. Sayhood; Sameh B. Tobeia; Ammar A. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 496-505
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.1

As the reactive powder concrete (RPC) represents one of the ultra-high performance concrete types that recently used in public works and in the presence of several attempts that aims to examine the behavior of RPC, this work aims to theoretically study the bond stress between RPC and steel bars and the corresponding slip for large reactive powder concrete beams by using finite element models done by ANSYS 16.1 software. Where, these numerical models were verified through several comparisons between their results, and the experimental one from previous work, in which good agreement were achieved. The effects of several parameters on the bond stress were studied, the parameters include concrete compressive strength, and steel fibers content, bar diameter, length of the developed bar and concrete cover thickness.

Study Compression, Hardness and Density properties of PMMA Reinforced by Natural Powder Used in Denture Base applications

Jawad Oleiwi; Q. A. Hamad; N. N. Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 522-527
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.5

 This research had been done to investigate the effect of adding natural powder of Pistachio Shell to PMMA, which popularly used in denture applications. The powder added in different weights fraction (3%, 6%, 9%, and 12%), and different average particle size (53µm, 106 µm, 150 µm, and 212µm %), and studying Compression Strength, Surface Hardness, and Density properties. Hand Lay-Up represented the method used to prepare the specimens in this research. The results were statistically analyzed by SPSS (one-way ANOVA) to determine the mean value and showed a significant difference for each particle size. The highest value of compression strength and surface hardness of PMMA composite specimens happened at (9%wt.) of the filler particles. Also the results represented that the density values for the composite specimens are increased with increasing the weight fraction of the filler particles.

Development of Surface Roughness and Mechanical Properties of PMMA Nanocomposites by Blending with Polymeric Materials

Hussein M. Sadeq; Sihama I. Salih; Auda J. Braihi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 558-565
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.12A.10

This work aims to a development of mechanical properties of PMMA that is utilized in denture material, by using two types of polymers; blends (PMMA:2%NR) and (PMMA:2%SR) as a matrix materials strengthen with natural nanoparticles from the pomegranate peel powder (PPP) that were added at different weight fractions (0.0, 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7%). Two groups of bio nanocomposites specimens were prepared, using (Hand Lay-Up) method. Experimental tests were carried out on surface roughness, hardness and wear rate as well as analyzing of FTIR test. The minimum values of surface roughness and wear rate were reached 1.51 nm and 0.317×10-8 g/cm respectively for polymer blend nanocomposite ((PMMA:2%NR): 0.7% PPP). Whereas, the maximum value of Shore D hardness reached 90 for the same sample of nanocomposites. According to these results, it can be a concluded that the addition of Nano pomegranate powder and natural rubber can develop the mechanical properties of PMMA material used in medical applications.

The Synergic Effect of Fly Ash and High Reactivity Attapulgite in Ternary Blended Cement

Shubbar J. Al-Obaidey

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 12A, Pages 528-535
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v37i12A.456

The main objective is to study the synergic effect of fly ash (FA) and high reactivity Attapulgite (HRA) together in ternary blended cement of (OPC+FA+HRA) and evaluate the efficiency factor of FA and HRA in binary blended cement and (FA+HRA) in ternary blended cement. To achieve this objective compressive strength of binary blended cement mixes of (OPC+FA) with FA replacement percentages of (20 %, 30% and 40%), (OPC+HRA) with HRA replacement percentages of (5 and 10%) by weight of cement and ternary blended cement mixes of (OPC+FA+5% and/or 10%HRA). Were tested and compared with that of reference mix at ages of (7, 28, 56 and 90) days to assess the synergic effect of FA and HRA in ternary blended cement. The results showed that using ternary blended cement of (OPC+FA+5% and/or 10%HRA) led to increasing compressive strength relative to binary blended cement mixes of (OPC+FA) at the same replacement percentages by weight of cement. More significant increments in compressive strength were noticed at the age of 7 days. The results also showed that the efficiency factors calculated according to the modified bolmoy΄s equation for ternary blended cement were always higher than their corresponding binary blended cement of (OPC+.FA).

Ethical Responsibility in the Practice of Architecture

Abdullah S.S. Almaamouri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 11A, Pages 488-495
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.11A.6

The research deals with the concept of ethical responsibility as one of the most influential concepts in the process of practicing architecture. It is defined as “systems of ethical principles and engineering rules governing the architect in making decisions of design practice, making them sound, preventing them from making mistakes during the stages of design, and the maintenance “by the commitment to them, result in creative architectural texts benefit the individual and society,” and thus determine the research problem in (Lack of cognitive perception of the role of moral responsibility in the practice of architecture). Therefore, the research aims at clarifying the standards, elements and principles of the practice of architecture according to the moral responsibility of the architecture, and accordingly the research assumes that the indicators of moral responsibility have a positive impact in the formulation of creative architectural productions. For the purpose of addressing the issue of research and achieve the objectives of the research and verification of the hypothesis was first build a framework of knowledge, and a comprehensive theoretical framework of moral responsibility deduced from the architectural propositions and proposals to materialize as Chock final in three main indicators: “Standards of the practice of architecture morally, and the ingredients of the practice of architecture morally, and the foundations of the practice of architecture morally”. 

Investigation the Creep-Fatigue Behavior and A.C. Electrical Conductivity of AA 6061 Under Ultrasonic Peening

Hussain J. Al-Alkawi; Ahmed H. Reja; Mahmood F. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 11A, Pages 453-459
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.11A.1

Ultrasonic peening is an innovative surface improvement process used to increase the resistance of aircraft metals and enhance high cycle fatigue life. The process creates residual compressive stresses deep into part surfaces. These compressive surface stresses inhibit the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. Aluminum alloys are relatively new materials used in aerospace, marine, automobile, and bridges due to low weight, which has significant advantages compared to the other materials. A major concern in the design of Aluminum alloys subjected to variable loads is fatigue strength and life. In this paper mechanical properties, fatigue strength, fatigue life and A.C.. electrical conductivity were studied for AA6061-T6 to assess the effects of ultrasonic peening (UP) on mechanical properties, fatigue at room temperature (RT), creep-fatigue (CF) at 250 ͦC and A.C.. electrical conductivity. Test results showed that after UP, the mechanical properties; ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and yield stress (Ys) were noticeably improved. The improvements in UTS and Ys were enhanced by 5.7% and 1.5% respectively while the ductility was reduced from 16.5% to 15.7%. Fatigue strength was enhanced by 8.37% compared to strength at RT. The results of UT before creep-fatigue CF showed increasing in fatigue strength 147 MPa at CF 250 ̊C and improved to153 MPa after applying UP, indicating 4% improvement in strength. The fatigue life was improved after UP for both RT and CF. It was found that the A.C. electrical conductivity increase as the frequency increase for all the cases above.

An Experimental Investigation on Thermal Efficiency of Flat Plate Tube Solar Collector using Nanofluid with Solar Tracking Mechanism

Saad T. Hamidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 11A, Pages 475-487
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.11A.5

In the present work, flat-plate solar collector (FPSC) in terms of various parameters as well as in respect of lower (Area of FPSC, volume fraction concentration of nanofluids, and mass flow rate) has been studied in this work. The FPSC has been fabricated with 0.192 m2, Dioxide silicon SiO2 (40nm) with the volume fraction of SiO2+Distilled water (0.05, 0.075, and 0.1%) and varying of flow rate (10, 15, 20L/h). These technological devices operate under forced circulation mode of fluid under varying climate conditions. The tracking mechanism has been used in the experiment of FPSC for tracking the sun position during the daytime. As per the ASHRAE standard. The results showed that at volume fraction 0.10 % and flow rate of 20 L/h, the highest increase in the absorbed energy parameter FR(τα) was 7.3 %, and the removed energy parameter FRUL was 11.9 % compared with distilled water. The changes in absorbed energy parameter FR(τα) they vary from 4.4% to 7.3% while in removed energy parameter FRUL, the vary from 1.3% to 11.9% as compared with the distilled water case. The maximum efficiency was about 70 % as the decreased temperature parameter [(Ti–Ta)/GT] is equal to zero at a volume fraction of 0.10 % and flow rate of 20 L/h

Toxic Effect of Inhalation Polyurethane in Lungs, Liver, and Kidneys Fume in White Male Mice

Sura M. Ahmed; Amel A. Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 11A, Pages 460-463
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.11A.2

In this study, the toxic effect of exposure to inhalation of polyurethane resin fumes by White Male Mice was evaluated over 36 days. The study included the use of the inhalation method in an exposition room filled with the fume chemical to a period of 10, 20 and 40 minutes per day, and were then transferred to the fumigant section of the animal house. The organs of the mice was dissected, and the change of the weight determined. The lungs, liver, kidneys tissues of the exposed mice showed typical structural structures when compared with the control group. The liver cells of the mice group exposed to polyurethane were revealed to expose to some hydrolysis and led to an increase in their size. In terms of lung, tissue was characterized by the presence of interstitial infiltration and bloody congestion. It was observed that water degeneration of the lining cells of the parts of the urinary tracts of the kidney with the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the interstitial tissue. These results suggest that exposure of white mice to polyurethane coating fumes may cause observed harmful effects and cause serious health problems to their liver and lung.

Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan- Polyvinyl alcohol Blend Modified by Genipin and Nanohydroxyapatite for Bone Tissue Engineering

Ishraq A. Kadhim; Zuhair J. Abdul Ameer; Assel B. Alzubaidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 11A, Pages 470-474
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.11A.4

Use nanohydroxyapatite into the polymeric matrix as bioactive material for bone tissue engineering has enormous therapeutic potential because beneficial properties biocompatibility, biodegradability, and consider a major inorganic constituent of the bone matrix. The blended films of Chitosan and Polyvinyl alcohol with Genipin as cross-link agent were studied with and without addition Nanohydroxyapatite. Samples were prepared by solvent casting. The resulting films blended composite were characterized by Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, degradation behavior, swelling degree and tensile strength. Degree of swelling, and weight loss of the films blended composite was decreased with an increase of genipin and nanohydroxyapatie concentrations while tensile strength was increased with an increase of genipin and nanohydroxyapaite concentrations. The results showed that the chitosan composite could be used as effective biomaterials for bone regeneration engineering with different degradation rates.

Deep CNN Based Skin Lesion Image Denoising and Segmentation using Active Contour Method

Hadeel N. Abdullah; Hala K. Abduljaleel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 11A, Pages 464-469
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.11A.3

Automatic skin lesion segmentation on skin images is an essential component in diagnosing skin cancer. Image de-noising in skin cancer lesion is a description of processing image which refers to image restoration techniques to develop an image in predefined touch. Then de-noising is the crucial step of image processing to restore the right quality image after that which can use in many processes like segmentation, detection. This work proposes a new technique for skin lesion tumor denoising and segmentation. Initially, using Deep Convolution Neural Network (CNN) to eliminate noise and undesired structures for the images. Then, a new mechanism is proposed to segment the skin lesion into skin images based on active_contour straight with morphological processes. Different noise removal and segmentation techniques on skin lesion images are applying and comparing. The proposed algorithm shows improvement in the results of both noise reduction and segmentation

Experimental Investigation of Sub-Cooled Flow Boiling in Metallic Microchannel

Suha A. mohammed; Ekhlas Mohammed Fayyadh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 408-415
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.5

Experiments in microchannel heat sink were carried that examine the deionized water two-phase boiling heat transfer. The heat sink consisted of a single microchannel having 300μm wide nominal dimensions and 300μm height (hydraulic diameter of 300μm). The heat sink formed of oxygen-free copper with 72mm length and 12mm width. Experimental operation conditions spanned the heat flux (78-800) kW/m2, mass flux (1700 and 2100) kg/m2.s at 31K subcooled inlet temperature. The boiling heat transfer coefficient is measured, and compared with existing correlations. The results show that higher mass flux leads to a higher boiling heat transfer coefficient and the dominants mechanism is convective boiling. In addition, it was found that an existing correlation provides a satisfactory prediction of the heat transfer coefficient.

The Air Bubbles Effect for Underwater Optical Wireless Communication Using 650 nm Wavelength

Salah A. Adnan; Mazin A.A. Ali; Fatima S. Hakwar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 398-403
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.3

In this research, texts were sent by pulse width modulation
(PWM) in the channel of clean water using
Arduino hardware and software for an underwater wireless optical
communication system (UWOC). The air bubbles device utilized the
disturbance at different distances from the transmitter source within the
channel of clean water. The total length of the channel is (1) m. In this
study, the source of transmitter wavelengths 650 nm was used with the
power of 80mw. The results showed that the received power was 32 mW
in the clean water, while when air bubbles pump within the channel of
clean water at 0.2m, 0.5m and 0.8m away from the transmitter source,
the received power was 28 mW, 27.5 mW, and 27 mW respectively. This
paper shows that max. Signal to Noise Ratio (S/N) and min. attenuation
(α) in the clean water were (24.637dB) and (3.979dB/m) respectively.
The practical results showed that the Symbol Error Rate (SER) in the
case of the air bubbles pump was maximum (0.03) when the value of
(S/N) was minimum (23.899).

Effect of laser Peening on the Microhardness and Roughness of Al-7277 alloy

Mays O. Hashim; Abdul Hadi K. Judran; Razi J. Al Azawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 404-407
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.4

The purpose of the study conducted was an analysis of the influence of pulse density per area unit of LSP on (7277AL Alloy) regarding the surface characterization, roughness achieved and microhardness. The samples, which were used in this investigation, are 7277Al Alloy. Specify the laser parameter used in this study effect on sample surface properties were studied. Such as laser energy, and laser pulses number the results reveal that the microhardness enhancement by 80%, while the surface roughness increased by 69% when laser energy of 360mj and the number of laser pulses of 100 pulse were applied. X-ray fluorescence analyses and optical microscope were carried out for all samples.

Survey of User to User Recommendation System in Online Social Networks

Sammer A. Qader; Ayad R. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 422-428
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.7

The widespread use of online social networks (OSN) and their applications by users lead to the lack of knowledge identification of their needs across the vast amount of data, which made the need to create systems that help people to solve the problems and make decisions with more accuracy, an example of these systems is the Recommendation system (RS), which helps users to make decision and save time in search on a commercial or personal level, one of the most critical types of recommendation systems is the friends recommendation system (FRS) . In this survey, several studies have been suggested to solve the problem of FRS and its mechanism, techniques, and algorithms used to create them Also, the RS types and techniques, a variety of dataset that deals with a specific system, are explained. Moreover, the challenges they face to determine the needs of people in terms of the choice of items or at the level of social networks are included.

An Overview on Most Effective DRAs in Crude Oil Pipelines

Raheeq I. Ibrahim; Manal K. Odah; Dhoha A. Shafeeq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 391-397
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.2

The flow of crude oil in pipelines suffers from a problem of fluid flow pressure drop and high-energy consumption for pumping especially in low temperatures environment. Flow can be enhanced using viscosity either reduction or drag reduction techniques. Drag reduction is considered as the most effective and most applicable method. The technique contributes in reducing the frictional energy losses during the flow by addition of little doses of materials knowing as drag-reducing agents. The present work focuses on more recent and most applicable drag-reducing agents used in crude oil flow enhancement via pipelines.

Structural and Morphological Investigation of Cr2O3/WO3Oxides Films Composite Using Modified Spray Pyrolysis Technique

Zena A. Salman; Farhad M. Othman; Alaa A. Abdul-hamed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 435-441
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.9

Cr2O3/WO3 oxides film composite was successfully synthesized via advanced controlled chemical spray pyrolysis deposition technique using two nozzles. Two solutions of tungstic acid and chromium chloride was sprayed separately at various ratios of (W: Cr) at the same time on a silicon substrate at 500 °C, the film then heat-treated at 400 °C for the 60s. The crystal structure, microstructure and morphology properties of prepared films were studied. Based on characterization techniques, crystallized Cr2O3/WO3 mixed oxides films were investigated by X-ray diffraction after the annealing process, with film thickness of about 500 nm. The SEM and AFM revealed that rough and porous microstructures of Cr2O3/WO3 were formed. The obtained microstructure has been known as one of the most effective microstructures due to having high surface area particularly in gas detection applications

Investigation the Morphological Characteristics of the Particulate Matter Emissions from the Oxygenated Fuels Combustion in Diesel Engines

Mohammed A. Fayad; Bashar R. AL-Ogaidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 384-390
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.1

Understanding the size and morphological properties of particulate matter (PM) is essential to improve analysis of the process of PM formation in diesel engines. These will help to reduce undesirable environmental impact and health effects. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to study the changes in size characteristics of PM/soot and soot reactivity. Furthermore, improve the oxidation of soot particles in diesel engines is necessary under the range of different fuel combustions. Oxygenated fuels (e.g., ethanol blend, E10 and butanol blend, B16) were used in this experimental study to show how insignificant changes in morphological characteristics and activity of PM.
The oxidation and activation energy of PM was achieved at the lower temperature from the combustion of oxygenated fuels compared with diesel fuel combustion. Besides, it was found that both the size of soot particulate and the number of primary particles are reduced with increasing the oxygen content in oxygenated fuels than the diesel fuel. The shape of primary soot particle for PM is a bit more spherical in the case of diesel fuel than to the oxygenated fuels.

Design and Control of a Full-Scale Quarter Car Test Rig for Semi-Active Suspension System

Bahaa-Aldin R. Abdullah; Mohsin N. Hamzah; Ammar S. Merza

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 416-421
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.6

Passive hydraulic dampers are commonly used in the automotive suspension system. Nevertheless, they are suffering from a significant drawback owing to the changing of its characteristics at high-frequency; as a result, decreasing the ride quality due to the increase of the transmitted force, especially at high frequency excitations. The present work developed a semi-active suspension system to solve this problem with its effect. A Sky-hook control strategy is used to suppress the positional oscillation of the sprung mass in the presence of road irregularities via the use of the electrohydraulic (EH) damper, as an objective. In order to apply the control strategy used herein, a full-scale quarter-car test platform has been designed and constructed to offer increased testing flexibility at a reasonable cost not found commercially. MATLAB Simulink is applied for modeling the semi-active suspension system. The control strategy using a Sky-hook control was used to enhance the comfort due to the simplicity of this method that can easily be implemented in a real-time embedded application. The control strategy is evaluated for its performance under the road bump excitation. The experimental results were compared with the simulated ones for both passive and semi-active suspension systems, the comparison includes time response analysis of body vertical displacement, and vertical displacement of quarter car structure.

Modelling the Ecosystem Behavior of Abu-Ziriq Marsh in South of Iraq Under Different Water Discharges Scenarios

Fuaad H. Al-Yaseen; Mustafa M. Al-Mukhtar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 442-452
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.10

The marshlands are of fundamental importance to Iraq, a unique ecosystem providing local inhabitants with an essential source of habitat and livelihoods. This paper aims to study the ecosystem behavior of Abu-Ziriq Marsh in the south of Iraq under different scenarios using the Ecosystem Functions Model Program (HEC-EFM) and Hydrologic Engineering Center Data Storage System Visual Utility Engine (HEC-DSSVue). To this end, data was converted from tri-monthly and semi-monthly to daily data using the HEC-DSSVue program. The daily data natural(flow, stage) was used for five years between 2013 and 2018. The prediction process was evaluated using three criteria: correlation coefficient (R), root mean square error (RMSE), and the Nash–Sutcliffe effectivity coefficient (NSE). Results of R, RMSE and NSE for the daily inflow discharge (stage) of natural were 0.98 (0.93), 1.55 (0.19) and 0.95 (0.73). Five scenarios of a percentage decrease in gage(flow, stage) with 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% were investigated. Results showed that the decrease in discharge from 2% to 8% did not significantly affect environmental relations and could be used by the competent authorities. However, when the discharge was reduced to 10%, the environmental relations were greatly affected and threatened the life of the organisms. In addition to that, results for wetland health reverse lookup at the fifth scenario show that Abu–Ziriq Marsh need (70.2%) as a percent of the time, when flows equal or exceed four m3/sec. This discharge was chosen because it can be supplied on most days of the year, which is the time needed to be revived when flows equal or exceed 4 (m3/sec).

Hydraulic Analysis of Irrigation Network for the Proposed Taq-Taq Dam Using EPANET Software

Ibtisam R. Karim; Sarmad A. Sahib

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 429-434
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.8

Analysis of pipe network is the fluid flow through hydraulics network containing inters connected branches, whose aim is to determine the pressure drops and flow rates in the individual parts of the network. In the study using specialized software such as EPANET for automatically solving problems of network. The main objective of this study is to analysis the irrigation network of the proposed Taq-Taq dam using hydraulic simulation software, in order to study the distribution of pressure, velocity and head on the pipe network for the purpose of ensuring the operation of the network efficiently and improve quantity and quality of water that distributed through the pipelines system. Finally, the study showed velocity distribution, pressure distribution and head distribution along the pipeline in the irrigation project. All the results that the simulated model seems to be reasonably close to an actual same network.

Recycling of Waste Paraffin Wax by the Addition of SiO2 Nano-Powders to Improve Thermal Conductivity

Aseel B. Al-Zubaidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 9A, Pages 369-373
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.9A.4

Paraffin wax is an important material used in thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The thermal conductivity of the material is an important parameter that decides the degree of exploitation of the paraffin wax in TES systems. The thermal conductivity is improved by the addition of silicon oxide nanoparticles (1%, 2%, 4%, and 6%) to the paraffin wax. The average size of the SiO2 particles is equal to 38 nm. The addition of SiO2 nano-particles at very small ratios was found to enhance the thermal conductivity of the paraffin wax considerably. SiO2 nanoparticles, add to paraffin wax, have a significant effect in enhancing the thermal storage characteristics of paraffin
Paraffin wax is an important material used in thermal energy storage
(TES) systems. The thermal conductivity of the material is an important
parameter
that
decides the degree of exploitation of the paraffin wax in TES
systems. The thermal conductivity is improved by the addition of silicon oxide
nanoparticles (1%, 2%, 4
%,
and 6%) to the paraffin wax. The average size of the
SiO
2
particles is equal to 38 nm. The a
ddition
of SiO
2
nano
-particles at very
small ratios was found to enhance the thermal conductivi
ty of the paraffin wax
considerably. SiO
2
nanoparticles, add to paraffin wax, have
a significant effect
in enhancing the thermal storage characteristics of paraffin

Complex Surface Representation and Machining Time Estimation Upon Three Types of End Mill Cutter

Rasha J. Marzoog; Ahmed A. Alduroobi A. Alduroobi; Sawsan S. Al-Zubaidy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 9A, Pages 354-358
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.9A.1

The accuracy of data transition between CAD and CAM has been playing a great role in the product life cycle, and eventually, the product quality. As products complexity increased, the need to robust technique to data transition increased. On the other hand, Machining simulation facilitates deciding the process parameters. The aim of the present research is divided into two aims: first: building a free form surface and transforming its data accurately from CAD to CAM without any distortion. Second: study the milling process using different end cutters geometry and make a comparison between those in terms of machining time at a constant scallop height (s.h.). The study passed through three steps, first: A mathematical model and computer program had been built for non-uniform B-spline surface creation. The output points are stored in a format to be easily imported. Second: importing the data into manufacturing simulation program to emulate the milling process. Three types of milling tools with different end cutter had been used (flat, ball, and toroidal). Third, use a CIMCO edit package to estimate machining time for the three tools. A conclusion had been made that the surface data had been transformed accurately into the simulation process. Another conclusion was, with fixed (s.h.) the ball end mill takes more time than toroidal, which in turn takes more time than flat.

Point Cloud Pre-Processing and Surface Reconstruction Based on Chord Algorithm Technique

Ali M. Al-Badairy; Ahmed A. Al-Duroobi; Maan A. Tawfiq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 9A, Pages 364-368
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.9A.3

3D laser scanner is one of the modern technologies, which used to obtain the geometric information about the 3D scanned object surface. But, there are some problems that are associated with this technique such as the huge number of obtained points which require high memory to save and the required data processing processes. This paper proposed a data simplification algorithm for point cloud of a scanned object using 3D laser scanner (Matter
and Form) in a manner to extract the necessary geometric features, which are
represented by points for a 3D object. This algorithm based on the
instantaneous calculation of chord height of each set of adjacent points in the
point cloud. A MATLAB environment was used to build a proposed
simplification algorithm program. Then this program was applied using a
proposed case study. The result which was obtained from the application of the
proposed algorithm and surface fitting process for the proposed case study
proved the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in data simplification. The
percent of data which was ignored as noisy data point was (24%) of the total
number of data point in applying the algorithm for two attempts.
3D laser scanner is one of the modern
technologies, which
used to
obtain the geometric information about the 3D scanned object surface.
But,
there are some
problems
that
are
associated with this technique such as the
huge number of obtained points
which
require high memory to save
and
the
required data processing processes.
Th
is paper proposed a data simplification
algorithm for point cloud of a
scanned obje
ct using 3D laser scanner (Matter
and Form) in a
manner to extract the necessary geometric features, which
are
represented by points for a 3D object. This algorithm based on
the
instantaneous calculation of chord height of each set of adjacent points in th
e
point cloud. A MATLAB environment was
used to build a proposed
simplification algorithm program
. Then
this program
was
appli
ed using a
proposed case study.
The result which was obtained from
the
application
of
the
proposed algorithm and surface fitting process for the proposed case study
proved the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in data simplification.
The
percent of data which was ignored as noisy data point was (24%)
of the
total
number of data point in applying the algorithm for two attempts.

A Compact Single-Feed Patch Antenna with Frequency and Polarization Diversity

Fayyadh H. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 9A, Pages 374-383
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.9A.5

A new compact single feed square ring patch antenna using meandered 4λ transformer is designed, for frequency and polarization diversity. The proposed antenna is constructed from a square ring patch antenna, and two orthogonal meandered cascaded 4λ transformer (OMCT), incorporated with six switches for frequency and polarization reconfiguration purposes. The OMCT with switches is necessary to get good impedance bandwidth (BW) and axial ratio bandwidth (ARBW) for circular polarization state. In addition, it utilized to excite the antenna at two orthogonal locations, with equal magnitude and quadratic in phase, for achieving circular polarization mode at resonant frequencies 2.44GHz, 4.7GHz, and 5.6GHz. Moreover, it can excite the antenna as non-orthogonal modes for various other frequency bands, such as 2.89 GHz, 3.49 GHz, 4.9 GHz, 5.2GHz, 5.49GHz, 6.16GHz and 3.1GHz as linear polarization (LP) state. The proposed antenna has a compact low profile planar structure with area equal to 23mm2. Simulation and measured results show that the proposed antenna demonstrates a reasonable impedance bandwidth, and axial ratio in the circularly polarized state. Simulation results have been obtained from commercial CST-2014 Microwave Studio. The proposed antenna is fabricated for simulation result verification, and the implemented antenna is tested using R&S ZVL13 Vector Network Analyzer. The experimental confirms the simulation results.

Smoothing Smartphone GPS Raw Measurements

Tariq N. Ataiwe; Abbas Z. Khalaf; Israa H. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 9A, Pages 359-363
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.9A.2

This  research aims  to  investigate  the  smoothing  of  the  pseudo-range raw  measurements  of  the  smartphone  using  a  Hatch  filter.  The  measurements  of  smartphones  suffer  from  high  noise  generated  from  low-cost  antennas  and  oscillators, which are designed to work in a certain way. These types of low-cost antennas  and  oscillators  are  entirely different  from  geodetic  instruments,  which  are  designed  for  high  accuracy  positioning.  The  GPS  measurement  data  were  collected   using   a   Huawei   P10   device,   41   minutes   and   24   seconds   GPS   observation  time  with  sampling  intervals  of  1  second  using  Geo++  Android  application.  The  GPS  measurements  are  processed  using  standalone  (epoch  by  epoch)  method,  by  MATLAB  software  developed  by  the  authors,  as  a  part  of  a software  package  for  processing  smartphone  GPS  measurements.  The  errors  in  raw  measurements  in  the  Easting,  Northing,  and  Up  (ENU)  components  when  using  standalone  (epoch  by  epoch)  method  are  ranging  from  -50m  to  30m,  and  the errors after applying the Hatch filter are reduced to have ranged from -10m to  5m,  the  raw  data  were  very  noisy  and  funded  it  has  many  cycles  slips  as  a  result of low-cost antennas and oscillators of smartphone’s. The cycle slips in the measurements  were  detected  and  found  that  it  was  the  result  of  jumping  the  errors to 27 m in northing and 43 m in up.

Effect of Radial Clearance on Stress and Strain Distribution in the Astral Deep Drawing

Waleed K. Jawad; Ali T. Ikal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 8A, Pages 332-340
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.8A.4

In this paper, an astral die was designed and constructed to produce an
astral cup in the deep drawing operation by experimental work and numerical
simulation. The influence of radial clearance on drawing load, cup high, the
distribution of stress, strain and thickness along the side wall, minor and major
axis were also studied. The deep drawing process was carried out to produce an
astral cup with an inner dimension of (41.5mm × 34.69mm), and (30mm) height
drawn from a blank sheet with a thickness of (0.7) and diameter (80) made of low
carbon steel. A commercial program (ANSYS18.0) was used to perform the
numerical simulation. Three types of radial clearance equal to (1.1 , 1.2 , and
1.3 ) are used to investigate the influence of radial clearance. It was found that
the maximum value of the drawing load 55KN) recorded with radial clearance
equal (1.1 ). The process of a squeeze in the wall that occurred with the radial
clearance (1.1 ) due to the difficulty of the flow of the metal to be exposed to
maximum tensile stress. The maximum effective stress (674MPa) and strain
(0.973) were recorded with the clearance of (1.1 ) at the minor axis.

A Hybrid Neural-Fuzzy Network Based Fault Detection and IsolationSystem for DC Motor of Robot Manipulator

Arkan A. Jassim; Abbas H. Issa; Qusay A. Jawad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 8A, Pages 326-331
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.8A.3

In this paper, the detecting and isolating fault that occurs in (actuator
and sensor) in robot manipulator, which is used as a mathematical model were proposed for fault detection, where the neural network was used to detect the fault. The neural network was trained on the data set obtained from the Input/output on the (DC motor).The output of the sensor or actuator was compared with the output of the model (neural network) after that the residual signal is used to detect the fault. The fuzzy logic circuit was used for fault isolation that is depending on the residual signal from any sensor or actuator that faults. There are three types of faults detected and isolated in this study abrupt fault, incipient fault and intermittent fault. The Matlab R2012a was used to the model steady state designed and simulated .The model has a high capacity for detecting faults.

Characteristics of Artificial, Gypsified and Natural Gypseous Soils under Dry Condition

Wisam M. Yaqoob; Falah H. Rahil; Moammed A. Al-Neami

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 8A, Pages 302-312
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.8A.1

Gypseous soil characteristics were studied types many researchers, but
the bearing capacity of sandy gypseous soil with different preparing of the soil
models were tested in dry condition under static and cyclic loads in this study, three
types of gypseous soils are prepared (artificial, gypsified and natural gypseous
soils). The laboratory tests were needed to evaluate geotechnical soil properties.
The main objective of this study is testing of the soil models in dry condition for
measuring earth pressures with displacements of the soil models under monotonic
and repeated loads within relatively large manufactured physical model. The
results found that the natural and gypsified soils have displacements of about (1 to
2 cm) and the pressures of earth reaches to about (500 – 550 kPa) and the artificial
gypsified soil reaches to (600 - 650 kPa) and the displacement of about (1 cm). SO3
content tested for the soil samples reaches to about (11.7 %) for gypsified and
natural soils while reaches about (24.5 %) for artificial gypseous soil.

Vacuum Effect on the Performance of Solar Air Collector with Micro-Channel Absorber Plate

Jalal M. Jalil; Nashwa A.Abdulkadhim A. Abdulkadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 8A, Pages 348-353
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.8A.6

In this study, the effect of vacuum with micro-channel technique
on solar air collector performance is investigated experimentally. Vacuum
space reduces the loss of heat for the absorption plate by conduction and
thus improves the solar collector performance. It has been demonstrated
that the solar collector is evacuated to 0.1 bar of pressure for absorber-tocover spacing of 4cm. An absorber plate was manufactured from Aluminum
metal with 30 rectangular micro-channels (length 0.9, width 0.004, height
0.0008 m) is constructed with measurements facilities of velocity,
temperature and differential pressure. The tests are carried out indoor using
solar simulator. Results showed that the performance of solar collector
increases with vacuum about 2-5% than gained with non-vacuum utilizing a
micro-channel absorber plate-black surface.

Effect of Potassium Chloride and Potassium Sulphate Electrolyte Solutionon Surface Roughnessand Material Removal Rate in Electro Chemical Machining (ECM)

Heba S. Qasim; Shukry H. Aghdeab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 8A, Pages 341-347
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.8A.5

Electrochemical machining (ECM) is nontraditional machining
which is used to remove metal by anodic dissolution. In this study the
metal workpiece (WP) was stainless steel (AISI 316) and potassium
chloride (KCl) and potassium sulphate (K2SO4) solutions were used as
electrolyte, and the tool was used from copper. In this work the
experimental parameters that used were concentration of solution,
current and voltage as input. While surface roughness (Ra) and material
removal rate (MRR) were the output. The experiments on electrochemical
machining with using concentration (10, 20 and 30) g/l, current (2, 5 and
10) A and voltage (6, 12 and 20)V. Gap size between tool and WP (0.5)
mm. The results showed that (K2SO4) solution gave surface roughness
and material removal rate less than (KCl) solution in all levels, maximum
(Ra) is (0.471) and minimum (0.049), while (KCl) solution gave
maximum (Ra) was (4.497) and minimum was (0.837). Generally
increasing in machining parameter (concentration of solution, current
and voltage) lead to increase in (Ra) and (MRR). This study aims to
compare the effect of using different electrolyte solution including
potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium sulphate (K2SO4) on the surface
roughness (Ra) and material removal rate (MRR).

Characteristics of Artificial, Gypsified and Natural Gypseous Soils under LeachingCondition

Wisam M. Yaqoob; Falah H. Rahil; Mammed A. Al-Neami

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 8A, Pages 313-325
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.8A.2

The gypseous soil known as a problematic soil with a collapsibility
behaviour, three types of gypseous soils are prepared (artificial, gypsified and
natural gypseous soil), special manufactured leaching system used for testing the
soil models, the main objectives of this study are testing the soil models in dry and
leaching conditions for measuring earth and pore water pressures with
displacements and gypsum dissolved of the soil models under monotonic and
repeated loads within relatively large physical model. The results at leaching
process for three days revealed that the natural and gypsified soils have earth
pressures reach about (150 kPa) and (4 to 4.5 cm) for displacements, while pore
water pressure increased until reaches about (120 kPa), but for artificial gypseous
soil, earth pressures reaches about (300 kPa) and (1 cm) for displacements. TDS
and SO3 content measured and reaches to about (1900 ppm) for gypsified and
natural soils while reaches about (350 ppm) for artificial gypseous soil. STATISICA
program used to verify the results with a very good agreement reaches to 95% of
the statistical models.

Zoning Areas Susceptible to Land Subsidence in Tigris and Euphrates Basins

Ali Darvishi Boloorani; Masoud Soleimani; Ramin Papi; Seyed Kazem Alavipanah; Ayad M. Fadhil Al-Quraishi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 265-272
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.7

Land Subsidence is considered as one of the riskiest hazards in nature and geology. It may be caused by human activities including but not limited to long-term depletion of water, petroleum, and gas from underground reservoirs. Monitoring and zoning of regions susceptible to land-subsidence within Tigris and Euphrates rivers basin can play a major role in predicting and preventing damages from subsidence and can aid in better planning for utilizing its water resources. Accordingly, this study proposed to employ 9 effective parameters on subsidence including: precipitation, total water underground changes, elevation, slope, population, land use, distance from petroleum and gas fields, distance from faults, and distance from rivers. Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory method was applied for analyzing relationships between parameters. Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process and Boolean methods were combined to produce zoning maps of Tigris and Euphrates basin subsidence. The results were indicative of the high potential of subsidence in zones contributing to 1.39% of the total area of the Tigris and Euphrates basin. Inter-parameter analysis by using of Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory indicated that land cover, total water underground changes, and population were the most impressible factors in land subsidence zoning, respectively.

A Cooperation of Fog Computing and Smart Gateways in a Secure and Efficient Architecture for IoT-Based Smart Homes

Amin H. Seno; Sahar A. Alshammari

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 290-301
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.10

Nowadays Internet of Things (IoT) is growing to be a serious factor in numerous areas of our daily life style. Internet of Things brings different opportunities of intelligence to important aspects such as health, payments, energy management, industrial sectors, transportation and also many other specialties. It is important to notice that the interaction between these two part the embedded equipment and Cloud based web services is such a common or prevalent scenario of Internet of Things deployment. When it comes to the security point of view, jointly users (consumer) and smart devices need to reassure and establish a secure and confident communication channel and should have a perfect form of digital identity. In many situations, IoT devices needs an already or earlier established infrastructure for their usage and that cannot be managed by the device owner, such as the case in smart homes. Furthermore, the scenario presupposes a security stack that it is appropriate for heterogeneous devices which can be integrated in Internet of Things frameworks or in already presented operating systems. We proposed a Foggy Smart Home Architecture (FSHA). We identify end users by writing an authentication and authorization protocol, and we will reduce the time required for this security operation, so that the proposed method can prevent Non-manipulation, online/offline password guessing attack and user impersonation attack and man-in-the-middle attack. Our method improves performance of smart home and using fog layer can minimize traffic between cloud and gateways.

Gait Analysis Before and After Total Knee Replacement

Sadiq J. Hamandi; Safa’a D. Al-Hussainy; Summer M. Sabeeh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 282-289
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.9

Total knee replacement is a surgical procedure for treatment of knee Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis and posttraumatic arthritis. The main goals of TKR are relieve the pain, restore function, mobility and restore normal limb alignment for the patients. The aim of the study to investigate the gait dynamic improvements following TKR surgery by compare the dynamic parameter pre-operative and post-operative and then comparing the results with the normal gait parameters. The gait analysis was performed on five patients before and after they underwent unilateral TKR surgery. After three months from the total knee replacement there was a remarked increase in the function and decrease in pain. The varus and valgus malalignment will be return to normal alignment after operation, which is one of the main goals of the TKR. Post-operative cadence is higher than pre-operative for four patients, post-operative speed is faster than pre-operative for four patients and post-operative stride length is larger than pre-operative for four patients. The patients continue to walk with significant gait abnormalities by examining the kinetics and the kinematics of the operated limb, the results show the knee function not fully restored three months after unilateraL TKR surgery.

Using Microbial Desalination Cell to Treat Iraqi Wastewater

Talib R. Abbas; Majid A. Dixon; Mustafa Hussein Al-Furaiji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 227-234
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.2

A Three-chambers MDC was made using three identical cubical
plexi-glass sections. Each chamber has an effective volume of 35 cm3. An anion
exchange membrane (AEM) was used to separate the anode from the
desalination chambers while a cation exchange membrane (CEM) was used to
separate the cathode from the desalination chambers. Two graphite sheets were
used as anode and cathode electrodes. Biotic experiments have included aircathode MDC fed with synthetic municipal wastewater, Bio-cathode MDC in
which the cathode chamber was inoculated with microalgae as an oxygen
source and air-cathode MDC was fed with floated oil layer in the anode
chamber as an organic source. Maximum power density obtained from the
MDC was 121 mW/m2. The corresponding current density was 410 mA/m2.
Maximum power density obtained in this study was in consistency with that
presented in previous studies. Maximum coulombic efficiency and charge
efficiency achieved were 9% and 165% respectively. The results of this study
confirmed the validity of using MDC technology to treat municipal wastewater
as well as oil, desalinate brackish water and generate electric power
simultaneously. Moreover, the results revealed the possibility of using mixed
culture algae, available in the Iraqi environment, in the cathode chamber as an
oxygen source to develop more energy efficient MDC. Further study deals with
different system configurations and different operating conditions are needed.

Enhanced Solution of Inverse Kinematics for Redundant Robot Manipulator Using PSO

Hind Z. Khaleel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 241-247
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.4

Kinematics of the robot is divided into two parts: the forward
kinematics, which evaluates the end-effector’s position from joint angles, and the
inverse kinematics, which demonstrates the joint angles from the end-effector's
position. The solution of the inverse kinematics problem is too difficult and
complicated for the redundant robot arm manipulator. A Particle Swarm
Optimization (PSO) algorithm is an effective method to solve global optimization
problems. This paper presents the solution of inverse kinematics problem of a
three-link redundant manipulator robot arm using PSO without using the inverse
kinematics equations. The circle, square and triangle generated trajectories using
PSO are enhanced as compared with the trajectories of other works. The
enhanced PSO algorithm is successfully found the best generating three joint
angles and the best generating end-effector's position of a three-link robot arm.
Then according to these joints and positions the circle, square and triangle path
trajectories, results are smoother than the path trajectories of other work. This
enhanced solution of inverse kinematics using PSO algorithm is too fast due to
the short elapsed time in every iteration of trajectory. Besides that, these
velocities results have been given evaluated and give an indication that the threelink robot is moving fast during the PSO algorithm. The elapsed time of circle
trajectory equals to 20.903981 seconds, the elapsed time of square trajectory
equals to 11.747171 seconds and the elapsed time of triangle trajectory equals to
15.729663 seconds. MATLAB R2015b program is used in order to simulate all
results. The main benefit of this work is to solve two problems: 1) inverse
kinematics is too complex equations of the three-link robot. The solutions of best
joint angles using PSO are computed within joint limits without using inverse
kinematics equations. 2) Another problem, this work is enhanced three
trajectories with respect to the best joint angles and reaches 96% percent as
compared with another work. The error is too small according to the start and
goal PSO generated points for each trajectory.

Assessing Water Quality for Al-Diwaniyah River, Iraq Using GIS Technique

Khalid M. Hussein; Sataa A.F. Al-Bayati; Salih A.A. Al-Bakri A.A. Al-Bakri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 256-264
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.6

In this  study,  Al-Diwaniyah  River  within  Al-Diwaniyah  Governorate was monitored for a set of chemical, physical,and bacteriological parameters for the assessment of water quality during January to July 2018. Water quality maps for  this  river  were  plotted  torepresent  the  change  in  each  parameter  during  the study  period  using  GIS  program.  Three  sampling  stations  along  the  river  and eighteen parameters were selected: air temperature, water temperature, turbidity, pH  value,  electrical  conductivity  (EC),  biochemical  oxygen  demand  (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), alkalinity, chloride, Sulfate, total suspended solids (TSS), total  dissolved  solids  (TDS),  calcium,  magnesium,  total  hardness,  lead,  total coliform,and  Escherichia  coli  bacteria.  The  results  explained  that the  water temperature  varied between (15-31) °C. pH  values ranged between (7.4-8.2) and river  water  was  considered  as  slightly  alkaline  with  alkalinity  concentrations between (124-176) mg/L. Most waterof the  river was very  hard according to the values of hardness that varied between (384-531) mg/L. The turbidity values of the river  ranged  between  (1.5-35.2)  NTU.Electrical  conductivity  was  between  (998-1380)  μs/cm.  Total  dissolved  solids  and  total  suspended  solids  were  their  values varied  between  (620-932)mg/L  and  (2-28)  mg/L  respectively.  It  was  found  that among  measured  positive  ions,  calcium  concentrations  were  higher  than  the magnesium  concentrations,  ranging  between  (71-175)  mg/L  and  (21-67)  mg/L respectively.  On  the  other  hand,  when  studying  Anions, sulfate  concentrations were  higher  than  chloride  concentrations  with  values  ranging  from  (152-339) mg/L  and  (101-167)  mg/L  respectively.  River  water  contained  dissolved  oxygen concentrations  ranging  (6.3-10.1)  mg/L  while  concentrations  of  biochemical oxygen  demand  varied  between  (0.6-7.6)  mg/L.  Lead  ranged  in  valuesbetween (0.001-0.017)  mg/L.  The  study  found  that  bacteriological  parameters,  including total coliform and E. coli, ranged between (500-1600) MPN/100ml and (30-1600) MPN/100ml respectively. In general, the parameters of Turbidity, SO4, BOD5, TC and E. coli have exceeded Iraqi standards for drinking water IQS: 417 while the rest  of  the  parameters  were  within  these  limits.  It  revealed  that  station  2  which was  located  only  at  ashort  distance  from  the  site  of  the  wastewater  treatment plant  was  more  polluted  than  the  other  two  stations.  The  results  showed  that  the water  of  the  river  is neithersuitable  for  drinking,  nor  suitable  for  swimming according  to  the  high  bacterial  pollution  in  addition  to  the danger  and  threat  to aquatic life but can be used for irrigation purposes.

Monitoring of Agricultural Drought in the Middle Euphrates Area, IraqUsing Landsat Dataset

Imzahim A. Alwan; Abdul Razzak T. Ziboon; Alaa G. Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 222-226
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.1

This study was conducted to monitor the agricultural drought in
the Middle Euphrates area, Iraq during the period from 1988 to 2018.
Multispectral Landsat TM, ETM+, and OLI images were used. The images
dated 1988, 1993, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2018, which obtained during
growth months of plants (January, February, March, November, and
December).A computerized drought monitoring was adopted using ERDAS
Imagine 2015, ENVI 3.2, and ArcGIS 10.5 environments to process and
analysis the data. The spectral indices, which used in this study were: The
Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Vegetation Condition
Index (VCI). The change analysis presented in this study is based on the
statistics extracted from the six resultant drought maps. The final results
were illustrated that drought area in the region had a noticeable increase
compared with no drought area. The results revealed that percentage of nodrought area ranged between (7%) and (17%) during the period from 1988
to 2018. The extremely and severely drought classes recorded high
percentage followed by moderately and mild drought in the region. From
this study can be concluded that there is a high rate of drought in the
region, especially in its southern and western parts.

Torsional Behavior of Solid and Hollow Core Self Compacting Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Fibers

Tareq S. Al-Attar; Sarmad S. Abdul Qader; Hind A. Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 248-255
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.5

Torsion of structural members and the behavior of steel fiber self- compacting reinforced concrete became the area of interest for many researchers nowadays. The experimental program of the present work consists of casting nine reinforced self-compacting concrete beams in three groups. Each group consists of three beams with the dimensions of 200×300×1500 mm. The first beam has a solid cross-section, the second beam has a hollow core with the dimensions of 60×120×1500mm and the last beam has a hollow core with the dimensions of 80×180×1500mm. The steel fiber contents were 0, 0.5 and 1.0 % by volume for first, second and third groups respectively. The torsional angle of twist versus torsional moment (torque) of each beam was found during the experiments, and the effect of variables, fibers volume fraction and section geometry, on this relationship was investigated. Moreover, the fresh and hardened properties of concrete were carried out using several tests, which included slump flow, L-Box, compressive strength, tensile strength, and finally the torsion test. The current results showed that the addition of steel fibers has improved the torsional strength for all beams and the fibers were more effective in hollow core sections than in the solid ones.

Investigation of External and Internal Inversion for Aluminum Tube with Various Die Parameters Effect

Basim M. Fadhil; Ava Ali Kamal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 235-240
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.3

Finite element modeling has been conducted to investigate the
effect of die radius fillet, tube wall thickness, and friction coefficient on both
external and internal inversion for
the
aluminum tube. A 3D model was used
to build the contact pair for the a
luminum tube and the steel
die
. Due to the
axial symmetry, a 45
o
sector for the contact pair has been chosen. It has been
found that there is an important role for those parameters to govern the
inversion process and the mode of deformation beside the valu
e of the
applied force. No local buckling was seen in the external inversion in
contrast with internal inversion. A good correlation for current results with
experimental one that has been got by others.

Study the Behavior of High Performance Concrete Circular Short Columns Confined by CFRP

Asmaa A. Ahmed; Shatha S. Hasan; Ali J. Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 273-281
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.8

This paper presents the results of experimental study on reinforced concrete columns rehabilitation with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) under concentrated load. Twelve short circular reinforced concrete columns (150 mm diameter and 600 mm height) were tested. Three specimens were unstrengthening and tested until failure as control specimens. Nine specimens were rehabilitation by carbon fiber reinforced polymer after loading about 75% from ultimate axial load capacity of control specimens. The test parameters were the type of concrete are normal strength concrete (NSC), high performance concrete (HPC) and high performance concrete containing engine oil (HPCEO) in additional to effective the ratio CFRP confining (fall wrap (100%strengthening), 50mm strips wrap 50mm spacing (50%strengthening)and 40mm strips wrap-60mm spacing(40%strengthening)). Test results showed that Adding used engine oil to concrete have significantly effect on workability of concrete where work as plasticizer. HPCEO mix showed lower strength (compressive, splitting tensile and flexural) and ultimate axial load of column than those HPC mix but greater than NSC mix. Where the compressive strength of concrete was (27.3 MPa, 45.8 MPa and 69.7 MPa) for NSC, HPCEO and HPC respectively. The ultimate axial load capacity of unconfined reinforced concrete columns was (52 ton, 78 ton and 117 ton) for NSC, HPCEO and HPC respectively. Reducing efficiency of rehabilitation by CFRP with increasing in compressive strength of concrete. The ratios of increasing in ultimate axial load capacity of rehabilitation RC columns with 100% and 50% wrapping in comparison with 40%wrapping are 20% and 4% respectively for NSC, while these ratios become 15% and 5% respectively for HPCEO and for HPC , these ratios are 10%and 3% respectively.

Study on Removal of Vanadium from Iraqi Crude Oil by Prepared Nanozeolites

Amin D. Tamer; Faras Q. Mohammed; Luma H. Mahmood; Marwan Hussein; Mahdie M. Hanyn

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 6A, Pages 188-194
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.6A.1

The present study has been conducted to investigate the removal of vanadium from Iraqi crude oil by prepared zeolite nanoparticles. Ball milling was used as a top-down approach to synthesize zeolite nanoparticles. Different variables such as adsorbent loading, Vanadium loading, and operating time were investigated for their influence on Vanadium removal. Experimental results of adsorption test show that both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms predict well with the experimental data. Kinetic analysis of the studied system gives the following linear equations, For Langmuir isotherm: 1𝑞𝑒=1.6505 1𝐶𝑒−0.0139 with R2 = 0.9738, For Freundlich isotherm: 𝑙𝑛𝑞𝑒=1.0848 1𝐶𝑒 – 0.4412 with R2 = 0.9711
XRD and EDX analyses reveal the noticeable uptake of zeolite for V. In crude oil, experimental results indicated that for zeolite loading at 1 g/100 ml oil and within approximately 6 h, the removal efficiencies of V were 65, 40, and 30% at vanadium loadings of 70, 80, and 90 ppm respectively. Long-time tests revealed the high capability of zeolite A for vanadium removal.

Behavior of Recycled Aggregate Fibrous Reinforced Beams Under Flexural and Shear Loading

Eyad K. Sayhood; Ali Sadiq Resheq; Farah L. Raoof

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 338-344
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.6

The use of recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) to replace part or
all of the natural coarse aggregates (NCA) in the production of concrete
has been on the increase. Such use helps in the protection of the natural
resources and in the reduction in the use o
f landfills.
The experimental
work consists of casting and testing ten rectangular simply supported
reinforced concrete beams of dimensions (1500*150*240) mm with
concentric point load at mid span as well as tests for control specimens to
determine the mechanical prope
rties of the concert. Five beams of these
ten beams were designed to fail in flexure and other five beams were
designed to fail in shear. Two beams were considering as a reference
beams using normal aggregate (NCA) and two beams were considering as
a refer
ence beams using recycled aggregate (RCA. The other six beams
were cast using recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) with steel fiber in
three different volumetric ratio (vf).The present investigation contains
three main variables: Coarse aggregate (normal and
recycled).
Transverse
reinforcement (with stirrups spacing 50 mm for flexure failure mode and
without stirrups for shear failure mode). Steel fiber (vf) = (0.5) %, (1) %
and (1.5) %.
In addition, constant longitudinal reinforcement ratio 0.012
.
Experiment
al results have generally showed that ultimate loads (Pu) of
beams made with RA are approximately close to the results of beams made
with NA but with decrease of values (14% and 21%) for flexural and shear
behavior respectively.
The ultimate load of fibrou
s concrete beams is
greater than beams without steel fiber by
(33%
-
50%) for shear behavior
and
(21%
-
35%) for flexure behavior.

Recycling of Sewage Sludge Ash in Polymer Structures

Mohamad Alsaadi; Aseel B. Al-Zubaidi; Mukhallad Haider; Hasanain Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 311-318
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.2

In this study sewage sludge ash (SSA) particles were used as filler in the polyester resin to fabricate particulate composites with various filler contents of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 wt%. The tensile, flexural, impact, hardness, chemical composition and scanning electron microscope tests wear done on the samples in accordance with ASTM standards. The results were improved at the particle content of 5 wt% for the tensile and flexural strength and then showed reducing trend with extra particle addition. Tensile and flexural modulus values of the particulate polyester composites significantly enhanced compared with the unfilled polyester composite. Energy Dispersion Spectrometry (EDS) results showed that the SSA contains elements and oxides which may increase adhesion force with polymer. In spite of the particle content of SSA that used with polymer to produce various structures for different applications was low, this study approved that using of SSA can protect the environment due to increasing the amount of SSA can affect the environment badly in addition to produce cheaper polymer composite for industrial applications.

Improving the Properties of Main Drainage Water by Using of Magnetic Field Technique

Olla H. Kareem; Abdul Hameed M.J. Al-Obaidy; Riyad H. Al-Anbari

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 6A, Pages 195-200
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.6A.2

In this research, main drainage channel treated by using a magnetic field with a density of (6000 Guesses). The general drain water samples flowed through the magnetic field with three levels of treatment (5 minutes, 15 minutes and 30 minutes) depending on the contact time. After treatment, it was found that the magnetic field works to improve more than ten physical and chemical properties of water. Essentially, Magnetic treatment has had a significant effect on the high salt content found in general drain water samples as it has been reduced and converted into simpler compounds. In addition, the magnetic field has an important role in increase the percentage of dissolved oxygen in water.

Seasonal Variations of Air Pollutants Concentrations within Baghdad City

Layla L. Alwan; Sedik A.K. Al-Hiyaly; Ayat H. Mahdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 356-364
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.9

Air pollution is increased significantly nowadays due to various
industrial activities and car combustion emissions. In this work, data have been
collected from Al-Jadrya Monitoring Station (JMS). The effects of seasonal
variation on the pollutants concentration were examined. Furthermore,
relations of nitrogen oxides concentrations (NOx) were assessed during the first
hours of the working days. Three randomly days from each of January,
February, July and August have been taken to represent winter and summer
seasons, respectively. It has been found that concentrations of all examined
pollutants have not exceeded the acceptable limits. However, nitrogen oxides
(NOx) seem to be effected by seasonal variation where its concentration has
increased in June and August of the summer season. The concentrations of other
pollutants (SO2, CO, PM) have not been influenced by seasonal variations, and
they depend on the gaseous source emissions at different times of the year.
Hourly monitoring for nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentration showed increasing
in concentrations during the summer season, especially in the early hours of the
working days.

DNA Fingerprints of Two Tilapia Fish Species of Euphrates River at Governorate ofAl-Muthanna Using RAPD Markers

Taha Al-Khafaji; Mustafa S.F. Ziyadi; Marwa K. Musad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 345-349
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.7

During the last decade, tilapia species (Cichlidae: Teleostei) became
members of Iraqi fish fauna. They characterized with morphological similarity among
genera and species. That makes species differentiation not easily. Molecular methods
followed to differentiate between redbelly tilapia Coptodon zillii (Gervais, 1848) and
blue tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner, 1864) of the Euphrates River sector
at Al-Samawah city. RAPD-PCR method used to create the genetic fingerprints of two
tilapia fish species. Seven decamer primers (OPA08, OPA10, OPA13, OPA17,
OPA19, OPB08 and OPC02) used to amplify DNA fragments using PCR-RAPD
technique. Forty-four bands scored after electrophoresis on 2% agarose gel along
with molecular marker fragmented to each 100 base pair. The molecular weight of
bands was calculated using PhotoCapt-MW software. The volume of bands ranged
from C. zillii 168 bp to 2227 bp while they ranged from 62 bp to 2154 bp in O.
aureus. The results achieve the RAPD fingerprints of two tilapia species in Euphrates
River at for genetic Al-Samawa city and draw the genetic tree with the same species
from Shatt A-Arab River in Basrah city. The study concluded that there is the closest
relatedness among tilapia populations from Euphrates and Shatt Al-Arab Rivers. The
results proved that RAPD markers were efficient to generate DNA fingerprints of
tilapia fish species. Furthermore, the utilizing of the RAPD markers can differentiate
the two studied species. The present study may be the first genetic study on these
tilapia fish species. Moreover, this would be the baseline studies in the future. In
addition, this study would be valuable for conservation program and documentation
of identities of tilapia fish species in Iraqi inland waters

Environmental Impact Assessment for Modern Brick Factory in Baghdad, Iraq

Saadi M.D. Al-Nuzal; Salih A. Al-Bakri; Sarah D.A. Zankana

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 377-384
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.12

The environmental and social impacts of a bricks factory was evaluated and the information's have been collected from a community questionnaire, as well as the analysis quadrilateral (SOWT) strategic for default modern bricks factory. The results devolve toward the manufacture of bricks with a modern and environment friend technology showed the extent of the community's awareness about contaminants posed by traditional brick plants. The analysis of the strategic quadrilateral project gave positive results in terms of overcome strength elements and of weakness in the internal environment and opportunities to overcome threats in the external environment for the modern factory. The study summarizes number of recommendations concerning, the most important use of modern technologies to reduce pollutants outside of the brick factories and alternatives and environmental monitoring plan for the project so as to ensure that the protection of the surrounding environment.

Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals(Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb) by Using Aquatic Plants in Shatt Al-Arab River

Taha Y. Al-Edani; Hayfaa J. Al-Tameemi; Zainab F. Jasim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 365-369
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.10

The study conducted to evaluate the ability of some aquatic plants in absorption and accumulate some heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb) in their tissues from contaminated water in two sites of Shatt Al-Arab River, Province of Basrah/Iraq. Water samples were collected from two sites one of them north of Basrah (Gurna) and the other from Sindbad island middle site of Shatt Al-Arab river. The chemical analysis had been performed to find out water quality. A laboratory experiment had been conducted by using three types of aquatic plants which were; Common Hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum L., Common Reed (Phragmites australis L, and Nut Grass (Cyperus rotundus L.). Two types of water qualities (Gurna and Sindbad island) from Shatt Al-Arab river in addition to distilled water as a control treatment. Plants were planted in glass containers filling with water samples to know the ability of plants to absorb heavy metals. Results showed that water quality, according to American salinity laboratory classification was C4S1 for both sites. Concentration of cadmium, copper, iron, and lead in Shatt Al-Arab river in both sites was (0.021, 0.034), (15.40, 23.50), (248.1, 181.0), and (15.5, 54.0) ugL-1 respectively. The preliminary analysis of heavy metals concentration in aquatic plants of Cd, Cu, Fe and Pb were 0.18, 14.5, 650.5, and 26.2 mg kg-1 of dry weight respectively. While the results were 0.45, 36.2, 1173.0, and 50.5 mg kg-1 dry weight respectively in the Ceratophyllum, Finally, in the common reed, the concentration was 0.2, 30.5, 1095.2, and 45.2 mgKg-1 dry weight for each heavy metals respectively. The removal efficiency of aquatic plants was varied with plant species and they took the following order common hornwort >common reed>nut grass.

Physical and Chemical Characteristics Comparison of the Drinking Water and Water Produced from the Conventional and Modification Solar Water Distillery

Hussein H. Mohammed Ali; Sabah T. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 6A, Pages 214-221
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.6A.5

A comparison of the physical and chemical characteristics of water samples produced from the conventional and modification solar water distilleries, and water samples of networks from different regions in Kirkuk were carried out. Two samples of each water type were tested. The study has focused on measuring the total dissolved solids, pH, electrical conductivity, sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, sulfate, nitric and chloride. The results show that all tests of distillate water produced from the solar water distillery are within Iraqi and world standards lower than the other samples, but only pH values ranged from 7 to 8.3, which are within the standard specifications.

Heavy Metals Accumulation in Two Types of Tree Leaves from Baghdad Urban Areas

Maha A. Mahmood; Athmar A.M. AL-Mashhady; Ali N. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 350-355
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.8

It is well known that environmental pollution by many heavy
metals is a serious problem to the natural ecosystem due to their toxic
effects. Most heavy metals such as Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn are needed by
various organisms but at certain concentrations is very necessary for
both plants and animals. However, it has been suggested that ever green
plant trees can assist in controlling such pollution via various methods
where one method is the ability of these plant trees to absorb heavy
metals from contaminated soils. The current work was designed to assess
Cd, Mn and Pb plant content in two tree species (Eucalyptus sp. and
Albizia sp.) collected from Tourist Baghdad Island (TBI) situated in AlFh’hama region. It seems very obvious that these examined trees can be
regarded as certain heavy metals eliminator where eucalyptus tree has
shown considerable ability in removing all examined heavy metals which
were significantly higher than that of Albizia trees.

Hydrogeologic Sustainability and Mitigation of Shallow Groundwater against High Saline and Chemical Pollutants

Najah M.L. Al Maimuri; Arkan R. Ali; Abdulhadi M. Al-Sa’adi; Mohammed K. Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 303-310
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.1

A hydrogeologic study has been adopted to conceptualize the concepts of groundwater levels lowering in swamped area of Tyass, middle of Iraq. 2D dimensional groundwater model and, mitigation model has been used to mitigate the aquifer against high salinity and chemical pollutants by the mitigation theory of heterogeneous subsurface media, which depends upon physical and mathematical derivation, evaluation of chemical pollutants and total dissolved salts (TDS) of subsurface water before and after mitigation process. The water table level was lowered up to 2.43m at the center of a pumping well of abstraction discharge (400m3/day) obtained after 2755days in steady state. The ions concentrations of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), mercury (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and TDS in groundwater of 0.4, 3.25, 1.15, 0.004, 0.033 mg/liter and 7000ppm respectively were reduced to less than the allowable limits according to WHO of 0.3, 3, 1, 0.003, 0.01mg/liter, 1200ppm respectively by adding 0.2WD of fresh water from Hillah river and using maximum no. of pumping wells of (19 at April) after 240 months. The mitigation period was reduced to 120 months when the addition of solvent volume was doubled. Mitigation process in heterogeneous against high saline levels and chemical pollutants has been proven a good tool for the rehabilitation of polluted aquifers.

Rubber Pad Sheet Metal Forming of Round Metal Blanks into Multi Shape Axisymmetric Cups by FEA and Experimental Methods

Karem M. Younis; Adnan I. Mohammed; Jalil Shukur

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 370-376
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.11

Rubber-pad forming process of round sheet blanks into axisymmetric cups is studied by numerical and experimental approaches. In the experiments, round metal sheets are formed into the axisymmetric cups by pressing them between a rubber pad and a former block with desirable shape. To investigate influences of different parameters on the forming load, three former blocks with different shapes, blank material of low carbon steel (ST12) with thickness 0.5 mm ,three polyurethane rubber with different hardness (50,60 and 70) shore A and rubber pad having three different thickness (40,60 and 80) mm . ANSYS Workbench utilized to perform the numerical part of this research. The results showed that the produced cup height is significantly affected by rubber pad hardness.

Assessment of the DesalinationEffect on ShatAl-Arab

Mohammed I. Al-Hashimi; Falah Alnedawy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 385-390
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.13

The resource of the dulcet water decreasing on our plant. Obstacles and problems that face water resources are the pollution and increasing of industrial wastes because of the human activities, lack of water resources in a place is considered dryness on well as unacceptable quality and quantity. The effect of outstretch and tide in estuaries of rivers increase the concentration of the salt in surface water. The city of Basra suffers from the lack of water discharge and high concentration of salt , wastewater, and the salt wedge ascending from downstream of Shat al – Arab river. The water decrease in quantities due to the decrease of water discharge in Shat al –Arab river from 1300 m3 /s to 1000 m3 /s . Now the water discharge reaches less than 40 m3 /s by the end of 2015. Shat al – Arab river suffers from the shortage of incoming water from rivers, which cause increase of salinity. Proposals are made for resolving some of the questions.

Modification of Prepared (Al 2024/Alumina/Mn) Composite by Laser Surface SiC Clad Layer

Marwa H. Juber; Amer H. Majeed; Mohammed S. Hamza; Thair A. Tawfiq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 6A, Pages 201-206
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.6A.3

The present work shows the cladding process of silicon carbide on the substrate of prepared composite (Al 2024/Alumina/Mn) by using a laser beam (pulsed Nd-YAG). To obtain the desired results, the best laser parameters were chosen. The parameters of the laser beam that have chief affected during the experiments in this work are peak power (1.9)kW, work frequency (8)Hz and pulse duration (5.3)ms, the preplaced powder technique favorite during a cladding process and the results in this work were proved by SEM, micro-hardness, EDS, and chemical corrosion tests. The results of the experimental work have shown that a micro-hardness increased about (28%) times for Aluminum/Alumina composite by silicon carbide cladding compared with the original value of micro-hardness, and thickness of the cladding layer was about (34μm). The resistance of corrosion was enhanced with about (35%) for the Aluminum/Alumina composite with SiC cladding.

Removal Performance Assessment of Dyes in Solution Using Mesoporous MCM-41 Prepared from Iraqi Rice Husk

Najat Saleh; Anaam A. Sabri; Ban S. Abdul Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 6A, Pages 207-213
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.6A.4

In this study, mesoporous silica MCM-41 material was synthesized using Iraqi rice husk for the first time, as silica precursor and Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template. MCM-41 was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), BET surface area, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Then the ability of MCM-41 as adsorbents were tested to treat dyes as one of the organic pollutants from synthetic wastewater . The adsorption behavior of Gentian violet(GV), Methylene blue(MB) and Congo red(CR) dyes from synthetic wastewater onto mesoporous MCM-41 was tested. Batch adsorption was employed to determine the effects of pH (2-11), adsorbent dose (0.05-1g), contact time (0–200 min), initial concentration (25-300 mg/L) and temperature (293,313,333ͦ K). It was found that MCM-41 has higher potential for adsorption of basic dyes (GV, MB) and lesser for acidic dye (CR) from aqueous solution in batch system .Adsorption isotherms were fitted with the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin models. It was found that the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model for GV and CR had the best fit with; on the other hand, the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model had the best fit for MB.

Removal oil from produced water by using adsorption method with adsorbent a Papyrus reeds

Firas K. Al-Zuhairi; Rana Azeez; Suhair A. Mahdi; Wafaa A. Kadhim; Muna Kh. Al-Naamee

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 5A, Pages 157-165
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.5A.2

A papyrus reed, as a type of unusable farming waste, was used as a
kind of low-cost biosorbent for the elimination a crude oil from produced water
that was produced in an Al-Ahdab field, Iraq, in a batch stirred operation
mode. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron
microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the biosorbent before and after
adsorption. Batch tests were employed as a function of the contact time,
adsorbent dose, and the pH of the solution. The experimental results show at
increases the amount adsorbent dosage, pH and contact times, the removal
efficiencies were increases and optimum condition was obtained at pH value
equal to 9, 5000 ppm adsorbent dose and 45 minutes contact time for removal
about 94.5% of crude oil, for test sample initial crude oil concentration 257.06
ppm. Therefore it can be disposed of without environmental damage. The better
fitting for equilibrium sorption process data was satisfactorily by the
Freundlich isotherm model with (R2= 0.9665) and the adsorption kinetics best
described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

Lung Cancer Detection from X-ray images by combined Backpropagation Neural Network and PCA

Israa S. Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 5A, Pages 166-171
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.5A.3

The lungs are portion of a complex unit, enlarging and relaxing numerus times every day to supply oxygen and exude CO2. Lung disease might occur from troubles in any part of it. Carcinoma often called Cancer is the generally rising and it is the most harmful disease happened in humankind. Carcinoma occurs because of uncontrolled growth of malignant cells inside the tissues of the lungs. Earlier diagnosis of cancer can help save large numbers of lives, while any delay or fail in detection may cause additional serious problems leading to sudden fatal death. The objective of this study is to design an automated system with an ability to improve the detection process in order to perform advanced recognition of the disease. The diagnosis techniques include: X-rays, MRI, CT images etc. X-ray is the common and low-cost technique that is widely used and it is relatively available for everyone. Rather than new techniques like CT and MRI, X-ray is human dependable, meaning it needs a Doctor and X-ray specialist in order to determine lung cases, so developing a system which can enhance and aid in diagnosis, can help specialist to determine cases in easily.

Optimization Using Taguchi Method for Physical and Mechanical Properties of Bio Mimicking Polymeric Matrix Composite for Orthodontic Application

Jenan S. Kashan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 5A, Pages 181-187
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.5A.5

This work take in consideration the application of Taguchi optimization methodology in optimizing the parameters for processing (composition, compounding pressure) and their effects on the output physical (Density and true porosity) properties and mechanical(fracture strength and microhardness) properties for the Nano HA,Al2O3 fillers reinforced HDPE hybrid composite material for orthodontic application. An orthogonal array of the Taguchi approach was used to analyses the effect of the processing parameters on the physical and mechanical properties. On the other hand, the surface roughness and particle size distribution were also calculated to study their effect on the output properties. The result shows that the Taguchi approach can determine the best combination of processing parameters that can provide the optimal physical and mechanical conditions, which are the optimum values (the optimum composition was15HA/ 5Al2O3/80HDPE, and optimum compounding pressure was102 MPa.

Controlling the Q-Point in Distributed Feedback Lasers Using a Numerical Optimization Methodology

Hisham K. Hisham

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 5A, Pages 148-156
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.5A.1

In this paper, a new methodology for controlling the Q-point in the distributed feedback (DFB) lasers is proposed. The method based on reducing the DFB transient period (TP) by optimizing laser’s model parameters numerically. The analysis has taken into account investigated the effects of the laser injection current (Iinj), the dc-bias level (Ibias), the temperature (T) variation, and the gain compression factor (ε). Results showed that by optimizing the value of Iinj, Ibias, T and ε; the Q-point could be controlled effectively. Where increasing the current ratio (i.e., Iinj/Ith) leads to reduce the TP value. In addition, by increasing Iinj and/or Ibias, the relaxation oscillation period (TRO) and the laser delay time (TDelay) are reduced significantly. From the other hand, the temperature varying may push the DFB laser to operate in an improper region through increasing the TP value; which may lead it to operate in the off-mode. Moreover, as ε is increased, the sinusoidal oscillations are dramatically damped results in a reduction in the TRO value and larger period of stabilized.

A Group Authentication Protocol on Multilayer Structure for Privacy-Preserving IoT Environment

Maytham Azhar; Amin H. Seno

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 5A, Pages 172-180
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.5A.4

In the Internet of Things (IoT) systems, large amounts of data are accumulated from anywhere at any time, which may attack individuals' privacy, especially when systems are utilized in medical and everyday environments. With the promise of IoT's proactive systems, the integration of smart things into standard Internet creates several security challenges, because most Internet technologies, communication protocols and sensors are not designed to support IoT. Recent research studies have shown that launching security / privacy attacks against IoT active systems, in particular, Wearable Medical Sensor (WMS) systems, may lead to catastrophic situations and life-threatening conditions. Therefore, security threats and privacy concerns in the IoT area should be actively studied. This causes us in this paper to create a privacy authentication protocol for IoT end-devices on a four-layer structure that does not have the ability to accurately identify the device of request's sender so that some attacks can be minimized. We used the Blakley Sharing scheme to design a key generation and distribution system for secure communications between edge devices and end devices and examined the security properties of the protocol for the five common attacks in the IoT. The results of the experiments show that the proposed authentication protocol by the Blakley method is more efficient with increasing number of instructions in both fog structures and in a without fog structure, which shows a higher flexibility of the Blakley method than the Schemer because of the increasing number of instructions indicating increasing the number of nodes in the network.

Study the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High Chromium White Cast Iron (HCWCI) under Different Martempering Quenching Mediums

Ali H. Ataiwi; Zainab A. Betti

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 4A, Pages 112-119
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.4A.1

The aim of this study is to find an alternative quenching medium for the ordinary nitrate mixture that is cheaper and more available in Iraqi markets. So to obtain the suitable medium , the  effect of different quenching mediums used in martempering treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of  high chromium white cast iron was studied  . This type of cast iron is used in mining ,crushing and cement plants as mill liners so it is subjected to extreme conditions of wear and impact that eventually cause failure . In this study, two types of quenching mediums were used in martempering treatment: (50% Sodium hydroxide + 50 % potassium hydroxide) mixture and (50% Sodium nitrate + 50 % potassium nitrate) mixture with different quenching intervals. It is  also found that both of the quenching mediums produce higher hardness values at 350°C martempering temperature for 4 hr quenching time ,but there were several advantages and disadvantages associated with using these two different mediums

Experimental Study of 3D printing Density Effect on the Mechanical Properties of the Carbon-Fiber and Polylactic Acid Specimens

Wafa A. Soud; Ihsan A. Baqer; Mohammed R. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 4A, Pages 128-132
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.4A.3

Two 3D printed materials (Polylactic Acid and Carbon fiber) with variable printing density have been investigated due to their practical uses in the engineering utilization. The effect of printing density composites was studied by the tensile test. The used materials stress-strain curves were analyzed to find modulus of elasticity and ultimate tensile strength of the mentioned materials. The results manifested that the carbon fiber has the highest strength-weight ratio. On the other hand, the carbon fiber showed more ductility than the Polylactic Acid. The results of this paper will be aiding the researchers or engineering students to decide which material is suitable for 3D printing applications.

The Extraction of Alumina from Kaolin

Alaa H. Ali; Mohammed H. AL-Taie; Ihab F. Ayoob

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 4A, Pages 133-139
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.4A.4

Alumina has wide industrial and technological applications that can be extracted from different locations, different methods and materials. Kaolin from Iraq Alduikhla astrologer has used as a raw material source for alumina production. The alumina concentration in the Iraqi kaolin is more than 34% which considered as a good replacement for bauxite rack. Crushing andground is the first process to reduce the kaolin particle size to the micron level which increases the surface area of kaolin.
The kaolin is heat treated at different temperatures (600, 650, 700 and 750) ̊C for 2 hours to remove some of ithe mpurity like organic materials and crystal water before acid treatment. A different concentration of hydrochloric acid (pH) (0.45, 0.5, 0.55, 0.6 and 0.65) has used for extraction of alumina from kaolin. The reaction between the hydrochloric acid and kaolin has studied at different temperature (30, 60 and 90) ̊C. The extraction of alumina has decreased with increase t inhe reaction temperature. Finally t,,he alumina extraction by this method has characterized using XRD and XRF to investigation the crystal structure and the amount of impurities presented there. The final extracted alumina h isaving cubic crystal structure (γ alumina) with purity above 95%.

Mapping LCLU Using Python Scripting

Oday Z. Jasim; Khalid I. Hasoon; Noor E. Sadiqe

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 4A, Pages 140-147
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.4A.5

Land cover land use changes constantly with the time at local, regional, and global scales, therefore, remote sensing provides wide, and broad information for quantifying the location, extent, and variability of change; the reason and processes of change; and the responses to and consequences of change. And considering to the importance of mapping of (LCLU). For that reason this study will focus on the problems arising from the traditional classification (LCLU) that based on spatial resolution only which leads to prediction a thematic map with noisy classes, and using a new method that depend on spectral and spatial resolution to produce an acceptable classification and producing a thematic map with an acceptable database by using artificial neural network (ANN) and python in additional to other program. In this study the methods of classification were studied through using two images for the same study area , rapid eye image which has three spectral bands with high spatial resolution(5m) and Landsat 8 image (high spectral resolution with eight bands), also several programs like ENVI version 5.1, Arc GIS version 10.3, Python 3, and GPS. The result for this research was sensuousness as geometrics accuracy accepted in map production.

Development the Physical Properties of Polymeric Blend (SR/ PMMA) by Adding various Types of Nanoparticles, Used for Maxillofacial Prosthesis Applications

Sihama I. Salih; Jawad K. Oleiwi; Hajir M. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 4A, Pages 120-127
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.4A.2

As maxillofacial defects increased due to cancer; it became necessary to select high-quality prosthetic materials in this field. Silicone rubber is widely used in damaged maxillofacial affected areas replacement surgery as bio material. The aim of this research, prepared a nano composites materials, from polymer blend (silicone rubber: 5% PMMA) reinforced by different types of nano-powders; pomegranate Peels Powder (PPP), Seeds powder of dates Ajwa (SPDA) and TiO2 nano-powders with loading level (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4%). Some physical properties such as density, water absorption, and Thermo-Physical test, FTIR analysis, as well as, FTIR, antibacterial tests were done on prepared samples. The results showed that the composites material based of polymer blend with optimum percent are of 0.2% of pomegranate Peels Powder (PPP), 0.3% of Seeds powder of dates Ajwa (SPDA) and 0.1% of TiO2 nano-powders that have ideal characteristic. Also for antibacterial tests, polymeric blend composites with optimum percent of this nano-powders show that more antibacterial efficiency against S.aureus bacteria than E.coli bacteria.

Design of Double Notch Band Half-Elliptical Shape Reconfigurable Antenna for UWB Applications

Haydar M. Al-Tamimi; Salah M. O.

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3A, Pages 85-89
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3A.2

A compact ultra-wideband (UWB) reconfigurable antenna with dual band-notched properties is presented in this paper. The dual notch band half – elliptical reconfigurable antenna is fed by (50 Ω) microstrip feed lines and it is printed above an FR-4 substrates (32 × 32.6) mm2 dimensions. This dual band notched characteristic is accomplished by embedding two crossing U-shaped slot in the half-elliptical radiating patch of the proposed reconfigurable antenna. The modeling procedure and performance evaluation of the presented antenna was achieved by using the electromagnetic simulator software, (CST) Computer Simulation Technology. The measured bandwidth of the presented antenna for (VSWR < 2) spans 2.6 GHz to 12 GHz, which covers the entire UWB band of 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz, with a controlling dual notched band (VSWR > 2) in 3.5 GHz and 5.2 GHz. The presented antenna is appropriate for UWB applications with another benefits of reduces the interference effect with the wireless local area network (WLAN) systems that operating in 5.15–5.35 GHz band (IEEE 802.11a), as well as reducing the interference effect with the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) application, which operates in 3.5 GHz band (IEEE 802.16e). The parameters that affect the efficiency of the antenna as regards to its frequency domain and radiation pattern qualities are studied.

Design of n-Bit Adder without Applying Binary to Quaternary Conversion

Walaa MH. Khalaf; Dhafer Zaghar; Kadhum Al-majdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3A, Pages 106-111
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3A.5

Microprocessor has been considered as most important part in ICs manufacturing and making progress since more than 50 years, so increasing microprocessor speed is paid attention in all technologies. ALU is known as the slowest part in microprocessor because of the ripple carry, nowadays microprocessor uses 8-uints as pipeline, each one has 8-bits for implementing 64-bit, working in this form has been captured the microprocessor development and limited its speed for all its computations. Parallel processing and high speed ICs always trying to increase this speed but unfortunately it remains limited. The contemporary solution for increasing microprocessors speed is the Multiple Valued Logic (MVL) technology that will reduce the 8-bits to 4-qbits, this paper proposes a new design of a 2-qbit full adder (FA) as a basic unit to implement MVL ALU (AMLU) that has 8-units as pipeline, each one consists of 4-qbits to implement 32-qbit which is equivalent to 64-bit, without applying binary to quaternary conversion and vice versa. The proposed design increases microprocessors speed up to 1.65 times, but also a little increase of implementation.

Performance of Geopolymer Concrete Exposed to Freezing and Thawing Cycles

Mohammed H. Shamsa; Basil S. Al-Shathr; Tareq S. al-Attar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3A, Pages 78-84
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3A.1

In this study, the effect of rapid freezing and thawing (ASTM C666 – procedure A) on three different types of Geopolymer concrete studied using three types of pozzolanic material: fly ash, metakaolin and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). The Geopolymer concrete was prepared using 400 kg of the pozzolanic material with alkaline liquid prepared at 8 molar concentration with normal fine and coarse aggregates. The ratio of alkaline to fly ash and GGBFS was 1.5: 1 and for metakaolin was 2: 1 for workability and compressive strength requirements. Specimens (100 × 100 × 400) mm were exposed to 100, 200 and 300 cycles of freezing and thawing. The decrease in measured compressive strength was (23, 43, and 26%) for Fly ash, metakaolin and GGBFS respectively. The investigated types of concrete showed good resistance to freezing and thawing. The durability factor of these types was (77%, 68%, and 81%) for fly ash, metakaolin, and GGBFS respectively.

A Survey on Deceptive Detection Systems and Technologies

Harith H. Thannoon; Wissam H. Ali; Ivan A. Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3A, Pages 90-95
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3A.3

There are many types of indicators that have been proven to be useful clues for deceptive detection techniques, and most of this indicators that have been presented and proven by psychology to be signs of lying. This paper presents a survey of most popular deceptive detection systems. Many techniques for lie detection have been presented by researchers; most of them are reviewed in this paper. This study focus on the algorithms, which are presented in some pervious work, and how the database has been collected for each technique, furthermore explain the adopted cues for each deception detection technique. The accuracy of each proposed technique is included in this paper, then this study shows the advantage and disadvantages for each deception system with the useful and robust cues here.

Analysing Some Mechanical Properties of Cinnamon Powder Reinforced with Polymeric Materials Used in Dental Application

Ahamed M. AlGhabban; Reem A. Mohammed; Jumaah R. Mahmood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3A, Pages 96-105
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3A.4

In the dentures industry, materials must be chosen to have good mechanical properties in order to resist the conditions that may occur in the mouth. A study was conducted to assess tensile strength, elasticity coefficient, elongation, flexural strength, flexural modulus with impact properties of poly methyl methacrylate resin as matrix strengthened with cinnamon powder and also analysing these mechanical properties by using (OriginLab) software program. The samples of Poly Methyl methacrylate bio composites which containing 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% weight fractions of cinnamon powder and an unfilled as control sample were fabricated using “hand lay up” method. The results indicate that the addition of 8% weight fraction cinnamon powder into Poly Methyl methacrylate resin improved of ultimate tensile strength, modulus elasticity ,flexural strength, flexural modulus (62 MPa, 3.7 GPa, 96 MPa, 6.4 GPa) respectively, compared with the values of pure Poly Methyl methacrylate (51 MPa, 1.5 GPa, 78MPa, 2.0 GPa) respectively. Also can be noted that the elongation at break values decreases with an increase in weight fractions of filler, where the sample (Poly Methyl methacrylate +2% cinnamon) has the best value for elongation compared with samples reinforced (4%, 6% and 8% wt). The impact strength results observe the maximum value was present in the sample (Poly Methyl methacrylate+6% cinnamon). From the results, descriptive, One Way ANOVA statistical analysis and means comparison by used (Scheffe test and Tukey test) for all mechanical properties indicated, turns out if Sig equals 1 shows that the variance in mean is significant at the level of 0.05, whereas Sig is 0 designates that the mean variance is not significant at the level 0.05.

Investigation of Corrosion Protection for Steel by Eco-Friendly Coating

Majid H. Abdulmajeed; Hiba A. Abdullah; Slafa I. Ibrahim; Ghaith Z. Alsandooq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2A, Pages 52-59
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2A.3

The coupling effect of coating and inhibition has been investigated in the present work. polypyrrole coating with adding coumarin was applied on carbon steel to protect it against corrosion. Electropolymerization process by cyclic voltammeter was carried out in 0.2M oxalic acid electrolyte containing 0.1M pyrrole monomer without and with 0.01M coumarin as an eco-friendly inhibitor. SEM/EDS, AFM and FTIR techniques were used to identify the coating film. Corrosion test using Potentiostat was achieved for uncoated and coated specimens and the results indicated that the corrosion potentials became nobler compared with uncoated specimen, this means that the anodic sites were covered by undoped and doped PPy film as illustrated from the deceasing of anodic and cathodic Tafel slopes. Protection efficiencies were acceptable and good (71.46% for PPy film and 77.47% for coumarin/PPy film). The polarization resistance was increased from 0.114 Ω.cm2 for uncoated C.S. to 0.176 and 0.404 Ω.cm2 for PPy coated and coumarin/PPy coated C.S. While the porosity percentage was 0.44% and 4.50 for PPy coated and coumarin/PPy coated C.S. due to increasing the roughness of coumarin/PPy film.

Optimal Location and Parameter Setting of STATCOM Device Based PSO for Iraqi Grid Voltage Profile Enhancement and Power Losses Minimizing

Rashid H. Al-Rubayi; Mohammed B. Eesee

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2A, Pages 60-69
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2A.4

The main goal of this work is to enhance the Voltage stability by using optimum location and parameters setting of STATCOM device. The parameters are the magnitude of the output voltage 𝑉𝑉𝑅 and the angle 𝛿𝑉𝑅, these parameters are taken to control the device performance. The simulation results have been done by using power flow program solution by Newton-Raphson method (Matlab program / M-file) with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique, for power losses minimizing and improving voltage profile. Two systems have been implemented:- IEEE 5-bus test system and Iraqi (400 kV) National super Grid System 27-bus. The MATLAB programs are Applied in the first step on IEEE 5- bus test system to examine the performance of the programs by comparing the results with other references, then it is implemented on Iraqi (400 kV) National super Grid System to find optimum location and parameter setting of STATCOM device. The results show that, the STATCOM has significant effect on improving the voltage profile and reducing apparent power losses, The STATCOM device performance depends on its location and parameter settings, and The PSO algorithm can easily find out the optimal location and parameters setting of the STATCOM for which the voltage deviation are minimum

Examining the Impact of Different Thermosyphon Diameters and Working Fluids on Their Performance

Talib Z. Farge; Sahar R. Al-Sakini; Aseel A. Ismael

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2A, Pages 46-51
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2A.2

This work was designed to examine the effect of various thermosyphon diameters and working fluids on the thermosyphon performance. A thermosyphon made from copper tubes with three different external diameters 7, 13 and 22mm with thickness of 1mm is used in this work. The length of evaporator and condenser were 120 and 300 mm respectively. Working fluids were water, acetone and Freon R11 working fluids are tested. The obtained results have shown that the temperature gradient was decreased when increasing the thermosyphon diameter. Also, the results showed that the Merit for water had the highest value than the other working fluid at the operating range of temperature. The results were shown the heat dissipation by the thermosyphon increased when increasing the thermosyphon diameter for all working fluids. Also the heat dissipation from the thermosyphon with working fluid of water had a highest value of heat dissipation than the others working fluids. The percentage decreased in the temperature gradient by using thermosyphon with diameter of 22mm for water, acetone and Freon R11 were 73.53 %, 68,53 % and 52.35 % respectively compared with that without using thermosyphon.

Diagnosis and Evaluation of Defects Encountered in Newly Constructed Houses in Erbil City, Kurdistan, Iraq

Khalil I. Wali; Noori S. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2A, Pages 70-77
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2A.5

This study investigated the types and profile of defects facing newly constructed houses through conducting a survey and analyzing defect records of data observed for 652 houses out of 1000 houses newly constructed for Salahaddin University academic staff in Erbil City. The result of analysis revealed that the overall of 6758 defects identified with the mean average of 10 defects per house. The overall percentage of defected houses for each type of defects and the location of the defect ranged from 10% to 67%. The most defected components found in the doors and windows, which comes in rank 1 with the highest percentage of defected houses reached to 76%, whereas coating and painting of doors come in rank 2 with percentage of 75%, and cracks in structural elements come in rank 3 with 73%. Analyzing the defects in terms of area and location showed that the finishing works representing the major defects area of 48%. While, the defects in the doors and window representing second highest defects of 42%. The results indicated that the quality performance in newly constructed houses is low due to poor workmanship and lack of experience and skills of construction staff and inadequate supervision

Effect of Using Local Insulation Materials on the Indoor Temperature of Residential Buildings at Iraq

Abdulrahman S. Mahmood; Haqi I. Qatta; Nassr F. Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2A, Pages 37-45
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2A.1

In this research, a thermal insulation between the two layers of a wall has been used for the residence buildings to reduce the heat transmitted across the walls and thus reducing the power consumption for cooling load. A MATLAB program was used to obtain the thermal response for various types of walls from the energy sources (solar radiation and ambient temperature) in summer season in Baghdad, Iraq. Local materials used in this study as thermal insulators between the two layers of walls are: local cane mat, wood sawdust and cork grains. Modeling tests were carried out on June, July and August via using Matlab program. The simulation results obtained have been compared for five different types of walls are: usual wall, thick wall, wall containing local cane mat, wall containing wood sawdust and wall containing cork grains, which helps in finding the heat flow across the wall where boundary conditions varied according to solar radiation and environment thermal load. The results showed that using the walls containing of local cane mat, wood sawdust and cork grains can reduce the heat gain by 50%, 44% and 40% respectively, compared with usual wall and thus reduce the power consumption.

Automatic Tool Path Generation for Parametric Surfaces

Tahseen F. Abbas; Sara J. Shawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1A, Pages 20-27
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1A.4

A tool path generation algorithm has been proposed and implemented in the presented work. The aim of the development of tool path algorithm is to machine parametric surface with a given tolerance and scallop height. The algorithm proposes dividing the desired parametric surface to several linear segments depending on the desired accuracy of the parametric surface. The Bspline technique has been used to generate the required data of the parametric surface. After generating the tool path, the cutter movement has been simulated allowing to reduce the cutting time and cost. The tool path is verified on the C-TEK CNC milling machine by machining six models. Various tool path strategies are also discussed and compared with the developed algorithm. The machining performance includes machining time; dimensional accuracy and surface roughness were measured for result evaluation. A measuring method has been proposed and implemented to measure the accuracy of the final 3D models. A Digital 3D-Touch Probe was used. The statistical method of error assessment and similarity factor has been implemented in this work to show the efficiency of the proposed works. The results showed that the similarity factor of the proposed works were (87.6%) for one model, and (85.9%), (89.6%) for other models. Matlab (v.7.1), UG-NX8.5, and VERCUT software have been used in this work for implementation. A comparison between the proposed method and UG-NX8 has been done to present the flexibility of the proposed method.

Proposed Collision Avoidance System in Driverless Cars

Hiba A. Tarish; Alaa Q. Rahima; Tanya A. Jaber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1A, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1A.1

Avoiding collisions is an important matter in the majority of transport systems and in many other applications in driverless cars it is very important to have an active collision avoidance system since only the car to take an action and no driver to help. The goals of collision avoidance systems are tracking objects of possible collision risks and decide any action to avoid or mitigate a collision with the help of sensors and radars. Car accidents have become quite common nowadays. After investigations, conclusions have stated that a great deal of those accidents happened because drivers fail to stop the car at the right time. Sometimes, the pedestrians are not crossing the road at the right time. Researchers discovered that about 35 percent of people die due to accidents, 98 percent of which die because of fatal road accidents. Many car industries have proposed an AI system in the vehicles for the aim of reducing accidents and this is considered as the backbone of the auto-driven car. However, this system is complex and expansive. That is why; ordinary people are still under the risk of accidents . The system proposed to driverless cars is simulated and modeled via small Miniatures and in Matlab and assembled in Arduino.

Production of Lightweight Concrete by Using Construction Lightweight Wastes

Huda S. Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1A, Pages 12-19
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1A.3

This research covers the use of cellular lightweight concrete waste as recycled coarse aggregates to produce lightweight concrete. Various volume fractions of coarse aggregate (35%, 50%, and 75%) were used. The specimens were tested for compressive strength and density at age of 28-days. The compressive strengths for the resulting lightweight concrete with a density of (2131, 1826 and 1630) kg/m3 were (24, 22.6 and 11.5) MPa, respectively. In addition, silica fume was utilized as a constant replacement ratio 6% of cement weight for mixes lightweight aggregate to enhance the compressive strength of such concrete.

A Comparative Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Various Fibers Reinforced Concrete

Ahmed M. Al-Ghaban; Hussein A. Jaber; Aya A. Shaher

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1A, Pages 28-36
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1A.5

The present work presents an investigation the effect of adding various fiber materials such as (glass, nylon, and carbon) into the concrete mix for inspecting and compare the mechanical properties of different fibers reinforced concrete. Two different fiber length states of (short=3cm and long=10cm) are used in this work. The concrete of ordinary Portland cement of (1:1.5:3), (cement: sand: gravel), were mixed with each of the fiber materials at four different weight percentages (0, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2) wt% per cement content. Compressive strength and flexural strength were experimentally investigated of different fibers reinforced concrete specimens after curing for 28 days. The results showed that the incorporation of various fibers with the concrete mix generally improved the strength of concrete by improving the toughness. The flexural strength of concrete with addition of various fibers was strongly enhanced than compression. Addition 0.8% of nylon fiber to concrete resulted in the maximum increase of its compressive strength, reaching the rate of increasing to 11.08% for short fiber and 20.75% for long fiber. Addition 1.2% of nylon fiber to concrete mix resulted in the maximum increase of the flexural strength, reaching rate of increasing to 120.02% for short fiber and 211.49% for long fiber. Increasing the length of fibers increases the strength of the concrete but a little extent. Among these fibers, nylon containing concrete composite exhibits promising mechanical strength that could be easily used as low-cost partitioning wall, false ceiling, and other household purposes.

Investigation of Optimum Helix Angle of a Wire Rope Subjected to Harmonic Dynamic Loading

Hatem H. Obeid; Riham A. Nima

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1A, Pages 6-11
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1A.2

The current work includes the dynamic structural analysis of wire rope with different helix angle. The main objectives are; estimating the stress and deflection for each helix angle, comparing the results to get the best helix angle suitable for practical applications. This paper falls into two parts: The first part includes modal analysis for the models of wire rope using finite element method with certain boundary conditions that are suitable to obtain the first five frequencies for each helix angle and the second part focuses on harmonic analysis of wire rope to estimate stress and deflection and compares maximum results that coincide with the first natural frequency of each model. In the analysis the results of each helix angle were compared to other helix angle results, the structure of 82° helix angle have the smallest stresses and deflection. That means when the helix angle increases the flexibility decrease and rigidity increase.

Ecological Risk Assessment of Chromium Pollution in the Soil of Industrial Area within Baghdad City

Rawnaq S. Mahdi; Athmar A.M. AL-Mashhady

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1C, Pages 49-53
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1C.8

Thirty-five soil samples were collected from the Tanning Factory Industrial District within Baghdad city to investigate the soil pollution occur through four directions of the tanning plant. The soil samples exhibited high concentrations of Cr than the reported values of worldwide mean of unpolluted soils. The geoaccumulation index showed that the soil samples were moderately polluted by Cr at the north of the factory while the soil sample showed extremely polluted at the south and east of the factory. Moreover, the soil samples collected from west of the factory were strongly polluted. The result of the calculated enrichment factor (64.52-1075.22) showed to extremely high enriched and suggesting a significant role of anthropogenic pollution because of various industrial activities by the Tanning Factory.

Effect of Super Plasticizer on the Properties of Pre-cast Concrete Flags Reinforced by Steel Fibers and Including Slag

Qais J. Frieh; Bassam A. Aljabbar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2007, Volume 25, Issue 10, Pages 337-352
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2007.173033

This research has studied the possibility of optimizing some of the properties of the precast concrete flags by using by-products of steel fragments from the CNC machines and local slag, the combined influence of these materials
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with the water reducing agent. The local slag is produced by the blast furnace from the scrap as a raw material, which is called (steel slag). The local slag has a low activity as a cementicious material due to low content of glass since it has not been treated, and contains high ferrous ratio. The study includes the results of compressive and strength as well as transverse loading tests. Also, it includes the measurements of absorption on different curing durations of the reference concrete samples and concrete contains the metal and chemical additives, reinforced by steel fibers. This study has taken place by replacing the slag instead of fine aggregate, using ratios of (0, 10, 20, 30%) by weight of sand with the influence of steel fibers from the CNC by-products, using ratios of (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 %) by volume of the concrete mix with the influence of super plasticizer of (1.5%) ratio by weight of cement. The results had shown that the concrete compressive strength had increased with using (30%) of slag and (1%) of steel fibers of the CNC machine by- product, with (1.5%) of the super plasticizer, compared with the reference mixes. The results had shown also, that the concrete containing super plasticizer with slag (20%) and (1.0%) of the steel fibers had shown better flexural strength compared with the reference mixes at ages (7, 28 days). The results had also shown increasing in the transverse loading test of the pre cast concrete flags, especially when using slag of (30%) and steel fibers of (1%) and super plasticizer, compared with the reference mixes at ages (7, 28 days). The results had shown clear reduction of the absorption at slag ratio (30%) and (1.0%) of steel fibers with the super plasticizer, compared with the reference mixes at age (28 days).