Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Main Subjects : Mechanical

Heat Pipe Thermal Performance Analysis by Using Different Working Fluids

Ali K. Soud; Qusay J. Abdul Ghafoor; Akeel A. Nazzal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132052.1086

This study investigated the thermal performance of the heat pipe and conducted on the effects of working fluids with wick and vertical position. The experiments were conducted using a copper heat pipe with ) a 20.8( mm inner diameter, and the length of the evaporator, the condenser, and the adiabatic regions were 300 mm, 350 mm, and 300 mm, respectively. The working fluids selected were water, Methanol, Ethanol, and different binary mixtures (50: 50) %, (30: 70) %, and (70: 30) % mixing ratios. The filling ratio for all working fluids remained constant with the value of  50% of the evaporator volume, and the heat input values were 20, 30, 40, and 50 watts. The results show that the heat pipe charged with Methanol has a thermal resistance of (0.7666 oC/W) which is the lowest value of thermal resistance. The lowest thermal resistance of using mixtures is (0.7466 oC/W) for (70 % methanol: 30% ethanol). Both are achieved at 50 W heat input. Also, the highest value of heat transfer coefficient when using water as a working fluid is (519.1073 W/m2. oC), and for using a mixture (70 % water: 30% methanol) is (805.89 W/m2. oC). Both are achieved at 50 W heat input.

Numerical Investigation of Thermal-Hydraulic Performance of Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger with Different Fin Shape Inserts

Ali M. Aljelawy; Amer M. Aldabbagh; Falah F. Hatem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 23-36
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132688.1137

The printed circuit heat exchanger is one of the most recent important heat exchangers, especially in the nuclear power plant and aerospace applications, due to its very compact geometry and small print foot. This paper presents a 3D numerical investigation of the thermo-hydraulic performance of PCHE with a new non-uniform channel design configuration. The new channel design consists of two different fins and shape inserts: the diamond and biconvex shapes. The influence of two design parameters on the heat exchanger performance was studied and optimized, the longitudinal and transverse pitch length (Pl) and (Pt). Air with constant properties as the working fluid with constant heat flux at the walls envelope. The Reynolds number varied from 200 to 2000. Different Pitch lengths were used (Pl=20, 30, 40, and 50) mm and (Pt=3, 4, and 5) mm. Three performance parameters were studied the Nusselt number, friction factor, and the overall performance evaluation factor. Results show that the thermal performance enhanced with decreasing the pitch lengths, and it was shown that this enhancement was found only at high Reynolds numbers above 1400. The higher enhancement factor was with NACA 0020 airfoil fins at pt=3 mm and pl=20mm of η=2.75 at Re=2000, while the worst performance was obtained with biconvex fins. The main reason behind the enhancement is the disruption of the boundary layer and the good mixing induced in the fluid flow.

Design and Implementation of a Smart Greenhouse Automated and Conditioned by Solar Power System

Sura H. Hassan; Abdullateef A. Jadallah; Ghassan A. Bilal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 37-44
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131279.1024

Photosynthesis requires additional energy. Such energy can be obtained by building a greenhouse, which traps sunlight's heat. The primary challenge in greenhouse growing is stabilizing temperature swings. Adapting conventional heating and cooling systems can provide additional energy to the greenhouse. In the greenhouse, solar energy is a vital energy source that is directly connected to the power supply. The greenhouse control systems have been adapted and implemented to meet the demands of plant cultivation due to wireless automation, design, control, and monitoring services. This study provides an effective automation system for greenhouses. It lowers the power, leads to consumption, and allows for remote control and monitoring. They show that the control model monitors sensing data are an accurate tool for computing sensing and the self-management of output devices. It was also found that this technology has several positive attributes such as easy network management and motor controls, soil moisture, humidity, temperature, and sensor to solar panel voltage. It measures the four sensors included in the suggested design system. Each sensor measures changes in the environment inside the greenhouse. All sensors are accessible in varied ratios to run devices plugged for different operations because irrigation, refrigeration, and air conditioning always start when depletion occurs.

Study the Performance of a Novel Desiccant Heat Exchanger

Hind M. Taresh; Amar S. Abdul-Zahra; Ahmed A. M. Saleh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 45-59
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134120.1221

Conserving energy and reducing emissions has become a global consensus. However, most air conditioning systems are highly energy-consuming, affecting global warming and the ozone layer because they use chlorine and fluorine refrigerating fluids. Evaporative cooling systems are one of the most important environmentally friendly air conditioning systems with low energy consumption. However, their performance is negatively affected by the high humidity of the inlet air. One of the solutions to control the relative humidity of the inlet air is using desiccant material. In this paper, a silica gel-coated heat exchanger was designed and constructed as a dehumidifying unit. The effect of airflow rate, hot water flow rate, cold water flow rate, and regeneration temperature on the system's performance has been studied. It was found that increasing the hot water flow rate improves the removing moisture from the desiccant. However, increasing the hot water flow rate has a negative effect on the thermal performance of the heat exchanger. The effectiveness of the heat exchanger was 53% in the regeneration phase and 52% in the cooling phase for the outside air temperature of 40 ºC, W=20 g/kg, and an airflow rate of 0.48 m³/s. From the results shown above, it was noticed that the system could work efficiently in hot and high humidity climates and be used in Iraqi weather.

A comparative study between two lubrication nano-additives (Bi2O3 & TiO2) based on vibration response analysis

Sarah S. Jaffar; Wafa A. Soud; Ihsan A. Baqer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 60-68
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133013.1162

The purpose of this paper is to present a vibration monitoring analysis of a hydrodynamic journal bearing working with nano-additives lubricants.The vibration response is generated on bearings at various rotational speeds and dynamic load conditions.These bearings were tested experimentally by adding two types of nano additives; Bismuth (3) oxide (Bi2O3), which is considered a green, nontoxic metal, as well as a new additive, and nano Titanium dioxide (TiO2), which is moderately toxic, with SN150 base oil.The performance of additives was studied on the base oil. The comparisons between the two nano-additives Bi2O3 with (1, 2, and 4 wt. %) and TiO2 with (1 and 1.25 wt. %) were studied experimentally with the SN150 base oil. And the obtained results manifested that at different concentrations of Bi2O3 and TiO2 in the SN150 base oil for each rotational speed and dynamic load, there was a reduction in the vibration system response, where Bi2O3 has a good performance at a wide range of rotational speed and dynamic load. At the same time, TiO2 performs better at higher rotational speed and dynamic load.

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer Enhancement by Hybrid Nanofluid and Twisted Tape

noor F. A. Hamza; Sattar Aljabair

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 69-85
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.131909.1069

This paper presents an experimental and numerical study to investigate the heat transfer enhancement in a horizontal circular tube using hybrid nanofluid (CuO, Al₂O₃/ distilled water) and fitted with twisted tape (typical twisted tape, with twist ratios (TR=9.2). Under fully developed turbulent flow and uniform heat flux conditions, the studied hybrid nanofluid concentrations are (=0.6, 1.22, and 1.8% by volume). The experimental test rig includes all the required instruments to study the heat transfer enhancement. All the tests were carried out with a Reynolds number range of 3560-8320 and uniform heat flux (13217.5 W/m². The twisted tape, manufactured from polylactic acid (PLA) by 3-dimensional printer technology, was inserted inside the tube. In this numerical study, the finite volume method (CFD) procedure was employed to pattern the forced convection turbulent flow through the tube. For hybrid nanofluid with twisted, the maximum enhancement in the maximum thermal performance factor was 2.18 for φ = 1.8%, while for a tube (water with twisted) under the same conditions, it was (2.04). A high Nusselt number was obtained with a concentration of 1.8% and an enhancement in the heat transfer of about 6.70%) than water.

Bearings Health Monitoring Based on Frequency-Domain Vibration Signals Analysis

Saja M. Jawad; Alaa A. Jaber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 86-95
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.131581.1043

Rotating machine health monitoring is critical for system safety, cost savings, and increased reliability. The need for a simple and accurate fault diagnosis method has led to the development of various monitoring techniques. They incorporate vibration, motor’s current signature, and acoustic emission signals analysis in condition monitoring. So, based on using vibration signal analysis, a test rig was built for bearing fault identification. The test rig replicates and investigates various bearing problems, such as those found in the inner and outer races. An accelerometer, type ADXL335, was interfaced to a data acquisition device (DAQ USB-6215) for collecting vibration signals under various operating circumstances. In addition, a load cell was embedded with the test rig, interfaced with a digital panel meter, and used for recording the applied load on the bearings. The time-domain signal analysis technique was used after acquiring vibration signals at various bearing health states. Then, the time-domain signal was converted to the frequency domain using the fast Fourier transform, and the result was analyzed to investigate the generated fault frequencies. Finally, the obtained frequencies were compared with the theoretical values extracted from the theoretical equations, and the method proved its effectiveness in detecting the fault generated.

Dynamic Response Analysis of the Rotor Using the Jeffcott Method and Performance Improvement Using Active Magnetic Bearing

Karrar B. Tuaib; Qasim A. Atiyah; Imad A. Abdulsahib

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 96-109
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133607.1196

The most common component of mechanical systems today is rotating machines. In these systems, vibration is caused by rotating components. As a result, to decrease the amplitude of vibrations created by rotating equipment, it’s required to understand the behavior of the system. In this work, the problem of vibrations in conventional bearing systems and the effect of adding active magnetic bearings to rotating machines to reduce the amplitude of vibrations are discussed. In this paper, the vibrations in the rotary bearing system were studied theoretically and analytically by using simulation programs to calculate the natural frequencies and parameters affecting the performance. In the theoretical part, the shaft of the rotating bearing was analyzed by the Jeffcott method depending on several parameters changed with the frequency value to observe the amplitude of the vibrations in the shaft. In an analytical aspect by simulation, a representative model of active magnetic bearings was built using the COMSOL 2020 program, and the effect of adding these bearings on capacitance, vibration reduction, and frequency behavior was examined. SolidWorks 2018 software was used to analyze the magnetic field and its distribution in the magnetic bearing coil. The results indicate that when magnetic active bearings were introduced to the rotating bearing shafts, the vibration amplitude was reduced by approximately 60%. From this work, it can be concluded that the system becomes more stable when the active magnetic bearing is added to the rotating bearing shaft, giving it a more stable and firm nature.

Modal Analysis of Specific Composite Sandwich Structures

Mustafa S. Al-Khazraji; Sadeq H. Bakhy; Muhsin J. Jweeg

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 13-22
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133585.1195

Composite sandwich structures are gaining attention due to their inherent properties, such as lightweight, low density, and high strength. The forced vibration response of these structures was studied experimentally to investigate the effects of external loads on these structures. In this work, four composite sandwich structures were manufactured using carbon fiber, glass fibers, and foam and tested on a specially designed vibration test rig by hitting the specimen with an impact hammer. The response was recorded by an accelerometer attached to the specimens. The accelerometer signal was amplified, and the input and output signals were transferred to LABVIEW via a data acquisition card and were processed in MATLAB. The impact hammer acts as an external excitation source, and the frequency response function was found for each specimen under various edge boundary conditions. Bode plots were plotted for each test, and the peak frequency and the phase difference were compared. It was found that composite sandwich specimens made of carbon fiber skins and carbon fiber honeycomb core showed a higher frequency response among all specimens (400 Hz). Furthermore, it was found that the foam core layer reduces the phase difference between the input and output signals from (360degrees) to (180degrees) compared with other honeycomb cores. Therefore, the procedure outlined in this research can be applied to other structures to investigate their vibration response. In addition, this work could be beneficial for the diagnosis of structure stability using a forced vibration response procedure.

Numerical Investigation of a Window Solar Air Collector with Moveable Absorber Plates

Norhan I. Dawood; Jalal M. Jalil; Majida K. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 7, Pages 942-950
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i7.2270

Window solar air collector is an imperative instrument for heating residential buildings in cold regions. This paper presents a numerical investigation of the thermal performance of a window solar air collector with seven moveable absorber plates. With glass on the front and back sides of the collector. By the use of FORTRAN 90; The three-dimensional steady-state turbulent forced convection method was used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. The seven plates opened and closed at different angles in unison manually by a specific mechanical mechanism. The effect of changing the plate angles has been tested, alongside the effect of airflow rates and the intensity of solar radiation. Numerical results illustrate that air temperature difference is higher at vertical plates position (angle 0) compared to that at angle 90. In contrast, flexibility between sunlight penetrating the room and hot air from the collector will be gained when the plates are set on angle 90. Results indicate that the thermal performance was improved by 67% when the plates were set at angle 0. Maximum thermal efficiency for angle 0 was 72% at a mass flow rate of 0.0298 kg/s. However, maximum thermal efficiency was 51% at mass flow rate 0.0298 for angle 90°.

Numerical and Theoretical Analysis of a Spur Gear Using Composite and Conventional Materials

Jwan K. Mohammed; Dlair o. Ramadan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 7, Pages 996-1005
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133641.1198

A spur gear is one of the most common forms of precision cylindrical gear. In the industry, reducing the weight of gears while keeping their useful properties has become an even more pressing challenge. As a result, the investigators have made many attempts to reduce the weight of the gears. Despite these efforts, the problem still requires more research. This study presented a spur gear's modeling and finite element analysis using different materials. A three-dimensional spur gear was designed, modeled, and simulated using ANSYS software. Five different materials, including two conventional materials (stainless steel and copper alloy) and three different composite materials, including 50% carbon fibers reinforced in epoxy resin, 1.5% filler containing acetal, i.e., Graphene Reinforced Acetal,  and glass-filled polyamide. Composites were fabricated by varying the graphene quantity in Acetal nanocomposites. The spur gear stress was calculated theoretically using the Hertzian equation, and FEM was analyzed using ANSYS 14.0 under limited loading conditions and rotational speed. Although the obtained results showed that both methods were comparable, there was a significant difference between the two methods when 50% carbon fibers reinforced in epoxy resin matrix were used, which is Hertzian analysis was 250.13 MPa. In contrast, this result was reduced up to 152.13 MPa in FEM. The study concluded that among the different presented materials, 50% carbon fibers reinforced in epoxy resin matrix were the optimal material for spur gear fabrication due to their high strength and low density. Hence, the spur gear material can be replaced by 50% carbon fibers reinforced in the epoxy resin matrix.

Study of the Effect of Working Fluids on The Thermal Performance of A Horizontal Heat Pipe with Stainless Steel Wick

ALI K. soud; Qusay J. Abdul Ghafoor

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 7, Pages 959-969
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.131137.1014

The present work aims to study the effects of working fluids on the thermal performance of the heat pipe with a wick and in a horizontal position. The experiments were conducted using a copper heat pipe with a 20.8 mm inner diameter, and the length of the evaporator, condenser, and the adiabatic regions were 300 mm, 350 mm, and 300 mm, respectively. The working fluids selected were water, Methanol, ethanol, and different binary mixtures (50: 50) %, (30: 70) %, (70: 30) % mixing ratios. The filling ratio was 50% of the evaporator volume for all working fluids, and the heat input values were 20, 30, 40, and 50 W. The results show that the heat pipe charged with Methanol has a thermal resistance of (0.85166oC/W), the lowest thermal resistance value. The lowest thermal resistance of using mixtures is (0.785 oC/W) for (50 % methanol: 50% ethanol). Both are achieved at 50 W heat input. Also, at 50 W heat input, the highest value of heat transfer coefficient when using water as a working fluid is (510.386 W/m2. oC), and for using a mixture (70 % water: 30% methanol) is (556.78 W/m2. oC).

Study Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation upon Emissions and Performance by Using European Diesel and Iraqi diesel

Lina Jamal; Adel M. Saleh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 7, Pages 970-978
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131273.1021

This study investigated the effect of exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR) on performance and exhaust emissions in a single-cylinder, air-cooled, and direct-injection diesel engine. The Iraqi diesel fuel (D100) and European diesel fuel (ED100) were utilized at different speeds from (2100 to 3300 in intervals of 300) using the recycling of exhaust gas by a ratio (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. The study showed that European diesel fuel positively impacts engine performance and emissions. Compared to Iraqi diesel fuel, European decreased diesel fuel the brake-specific fuel consumption by (10.96%), increased brake thermal efficiency by (8.67%), decreased exhaust gas temperature by (9.99%), and (NOX, UHC, and decreased (CO) emissions by (7.94%, 10.07%, and 36.98%) respectively. When using the EGR ratio, the highest percentage that can be used is (20%). If this percentage exceeds this, it will cause a flame loss because the recycled gases are inert. Furthermore, the results indicate that brake-specific fuel consumption increases by (15.395%) and brake thermal efficiency decreases by (13.44%) with increased EGR ratio. In contrast, exhausting gas temperature and NOX emissions decreases by (4.01% and 14.57%) respectively. Finaly, the UHC and CO emissions increased with the increase of EGR ratio.

Potential and Development of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Systems and Technologies: A Review

Mohammed Habib; Abdullateef A. Jadallah; Ahmed A. Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 7, Pages 979-989
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132452.1117

Wind energy has a potency of playing a vital role in the future of energy demand providing and environment freshening in many areas of the world. Utilizing wind turbine systems has become a competitive recourse among other renewable energy sources in terms of cost-effectiveness and the transition toward renewable energy usage. Researchers and developers are constantly dedicated to innovating to improve the technology of designing wind turbine systems. Wind energy depends mainly on the wind velocity and the area that swept them, increasing the wetted area. This is done by either upscaling the area of the wind rotor or constructing multi-wind turbines according to the type of designs that fit modern innovative systems. Though large wind turbine units do not fit with all sites, especially in cities, these turbines may be installed offshore and onshore. This paper aims to explore the relevant works technologies related to the wind energy potential, developments, design improvements, and multi-rotor horizontal axis wind turbine systems (HAWTs). This was achieved based on favorable characteristics such as economic viability and clean energy resources. Hence, these aspects reduce the environmental impacts and improve technological advantages and profitability. The results of this paper provide a recognizable system's facts and platforms that can be easily utilized. Wind Energy has the potency of hybridization with other renewable energy resources, which play an important role in urban planning, smart cities, and Buildings integration.

Experimental Study on The Effect of Aspect Ratio on Flexural Behavior of Aluminum Sandwich Composite

Ganesh Radhakrishnan; Al Haitham Al Hattali; Al Muntasser Al Yahyai; Al Muntasser Al Riyami; Al Muatasim Al Hadhrami

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 7, Pages 990-995
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134317.1234

Sandwich composites are one such kind of light-weight composites developed for structural and vehicle body buildings etc. Due to their remarkable features such as high specific strength, high toughness and resistance to inter laminar shear strength. In this study, commercially available aluminium sandwich composite (ASC) laminate was considered for investigating its flexural behavior and buckling behavior as it was mostly used for various structural applications. Flexural analysis was done for different aspect ratios in order to analyze the influence of cross section of the specimen and support span on the flexural capability of the sandwich beam. The composite specimens prepared for flexural test consist of length 150 mm and widths 15, 12 and 10 mm. The flexural test was done for support span of 90, 110 and 130 mm respectively. The performance measures of flexural test are maximum bending load, deflection, flexural stiffness and inter-laminar shear stress. The flexural analysis revealed the fact that the aspect ratio appreciably affected the flexural capacity of the sandwich composite laminates. Maximum flexural capacity with bending load around 3.5 to 4 kN and flexural stiffness around 2.5 to 4.7 kN/mm respectively was observed for the sandwich specuimen for the aspect ratios L/t = 30 and b/t = 5. Being a anisotropic structure, the flexural behavior of this sandwich composite exposed as a combination of bending and shear failure. The soft core material and ductile skin face sheets resulted in a combined failure against flexural load in static condition.

Development the Mechanical Properties of the Acrylic Resin (PMMA) by Added Different Types of Nanoparticles, Used for Medical Applications

Sura H. Ahmed; Waffa M. Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 166-171
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2017

This research is studying the effect of reinforcement the acrylic resin (PMMA) by two types of nanoparticles, which included: Walnut shell (WSP) and Talc particles (TP) that practical sizes are (40.8 and 29.2 nm) in individually form, and utilize at three various concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3wt.%), to improve in the mechanical properties of composite materials. The results showed that the Tensile and Hardness shore D properties became better with increasing the concentration of nanoparticles. The highest value of (tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and elongation at break) was (28 MPa. 1.28 GPa and 2.35%) for (PMMA: 0.3% WSP) composite specimens. And the highest value of hardness shore D was (77) for (PMMA: 0.3% WSP) composite specimen.

Solving Mixed-Model Assembly Lines Using a Hybrid of Ant Colony Optimization and Greedy Algorithm

Huthaifa Al-Khazraji; Sohaib Khlil; Zina Alabacy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 172-180
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2153

The assembly line balancing problem deals with the assignment of tasks to work stations. Mixed-model assembly line problem is a type of assembly line balancing problem at which two or more models of the same product are assembled sequentially at the same line. To achieve optimality and efficiency of solving this problem, tasks at each work station have to be well balanced satisfying all constraints. This paper deals with the mixed-model assembly line balancing problem (MALBP) in which the objective is to minimize the cycle time for a given number of work stations. The problem is solved by using a hybrid of an ant colony optimization and a greedy algorithm (Ant-Greedy). MATLAB Software is used to perform the proposed method. Then, the proposed method is applied to a real case problem found in the literature for the assembly line of automatic changeover in the Electronic Industries Company in Iraq. The results of the proposed method are compared with the performance of the Merging Shortest and Longest Operation (MMSLO) method. The comparison shows that the Ant-Greedy optimization method is more efficient, where the efficiency increased from 93.53% for MMSLO method to 97.26% for the Ant-Greedy method.

Effect of Machining Parameters on Surface Roughness and Metal Removal Rate for AISI 310 L Stainless Steel in WEDM

Muayad M. Ali; Abbas F. Ibrahim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 181-188
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2060

Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is a non-traditional machining process that is widely used in the machining of conductive materials. This paper presents the investigation on surface roughness and metal removal rate of stainless steel using the wire-cut EDM process. Process input parameters wire feed (WF), wire tension (WT), servo voltage (SV), pulse on time (TON) and pulse off time (Tuff), and the output parameters surface roughness and metal removal rate. The work piece material was used stainless steel 310 L, zinc-coated brass wire of 0.25mm diameter used as a tool and distilled water is used as dielectric fluid. ANOVA used to measure and evaluate the relative importance of different factors. Experiments are designed and analyzed using the factorial design approach. The experimental results revealed that the most important machining parameter of the pulse of time has the most influence on the metal removal rate and the surface roughness. The maximum best metal removal rate is (0.052277 g/min). When the values are somewhat medium range, they are the best and the wire does not break at this range. Wire feed (7m/min), wire tension (7 kef), servo voltage (30 V), TON (30 sic), Tuff (30 sic). The expected values and measured values are well-matched as observed by additional confirmation experiments.

The Effect of Process Parameters on the Compression Property of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Produced by 3D Printer

Sabreen A. Oudah; Hind B. Al-Attraqchi; Nassir A. Nassir

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 189-194
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2118

Additive manufacturing (AM) by Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) provides an innovative manufacturing method for complex geometry components. 3D printers have become easily accessible to the public. The technology used by these 3D printers is Fused Deposition Modelling. The majority of these 3D printers mainly use acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) to fabricate 3D objects. This study aims to investigate the influence of some printing parameters like infill pattern (Tri-Hexagon, Zig - Zag, and Gyroid), infill density (25%, 50%, and 75%), and layer thickness (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mm) on the compressive strength of ABS materials. The design of the experiment was achieved by Taguchi method. A total of nine specimens were fabricated with different processing parameters using a commercial FDM 3D printer and then were tested according to the ASTM D695 standard. Findings presented in this research showed that the compressive strength of printed parts depends on the printing parameters employed. Analysis of variance revealed that the infill density is the most sensitive parameter among the three parameters examined. The optimal printing parameters were (0.3 mm 75 %, Gyroid) for improving compression strength according to signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio analysis. Experiment number (9) showed the highest compression strength with a value of 44.64 MPa.

The Effect of Secondary Slow on Droplets Behavior in Gas-Liquid Mixing Process Downstream of a Curved Duct

Abdulsattar J. Mohammed; Akeel A. Nazzal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 195-206
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2152

Experimental and numerical investigations are carried out on water injection in a humidification process of air traveling steadily through the curved part with a constant cross-section. A principal aim is to study the flow behavior through the curved duct and the generation of secondary flow. The effect of bend angle on the development of secondary flow and flow structure intensities and enhancement of the heat and mass transfer downstream the curved duct. Moreover, the influence of the mixing process between liquid and gas in an air humidification process was examined. Experiments were performed with an average air velocity range from (2.5 to 5 m/s) while keeping the water injection rate of (19 kg/h) through (50) cm square wind tunnel includes three bend angles of (45º, 90ºand 135º) along with three sets of nozzle tilt angles of (-45º, 0º and 45º) to the axial flow direction. The study also implies a numerical analysis using ANSYS FLUENT 2019 R3 with the turbulent model of RNG using (k-ε). Experimental results showed that the optimum operating condition (greater extent of cooling and humiliation) was obtained with a bend angle of 135º at axial water injection, i.e., 0º nozzle tilt angle at the lowest air velocity of 2.5 m/s. This could be attributed to the strong identical vortices developed and better droplet distribution across the duct, and more time available for heat exchange between water droplets and the air stream. The maximum reduction in treated air temperature was 28 %, with 219% in the relative humidity of the air stream. This condition gave corresponding cooling effectiveness of 58%.      

Optimization of Design Parameters for Manufacturing a Radial Active Magnetic Bearing with 12-Poles

Mohamed N. Hamad; Muhannad Z. Khalifa; Jamal A. K. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 207-216
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2202

This research aims to design an Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) after performing an optimization process via reducing the number of poles and by reducing air gap, Dia. Yoke, and Z-length (deep of model). To increase the performance of a radial Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB), all particular equations of design based on the Genetic Algorithm method by using ANSYS Maxwell (Version 17.1) program of electro-magnetic have been studied. Manufacturing an active magnetic bearing standing for two counts, each one containing 12 poles instead of 16, led to a significant improvement in the performance. Some conclusions were obtained, including the complications in the control system will be reduced when they are linked in AMB. The complexities of the control system are inversely proportional to the number of poles and the model covered in this study is made of a material with good engineering and magnetic characteristics steel 37-2.

Improvement of Surface Roughness in Single Point Incremental Forming Process by the Implementation of Controlled Vibration

Reham A. Nema; Mauwafak A. Tawfik; Muthanna H. Sadoon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 217-225
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2244

Vibration implementation that assists metal forming has many advantages, such as enhancement of surface equality, reducing the forming force and decreasing the stresses. The technology of single-point incremental forming with all the above-mentioned advantages has been performed with the vibration. This paper focuses on the average surface roughness (Ra) improvement of the final product by using the vibration. The average roughness was found to be affected by vibration of the sheet metal. The combination of vibration produced a better surface quality of the forming shape by using an active damper to control the vibration.  For determining the damping ratio, which gives the necessary roughness, an artificial neural network (ANN) was created based on experimental results. A feed forward neural network with Liebenberg–Marquardt back propagation algorithm was utilized for building the artificial neural network model (3-n-1). Confirmation runs were conducted for verifying the agreement between the predicted results of ANN with those of the experimental outcomes. As a result, the product surface quality is increased where the surface roughness was reduced by (18%) from the surface roughness without vibration. The best reduction rate was in the axial forming force at (100 Hz) frequency, where the reduction rate was about (11.64%) from the force without vibration.

Modeling and Simulation of Telescopic Hydraulic for Elevating Purposes

Istabraq H. Abed Al-Hady; Farag M. Mohammed; Jamal A.K. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 226-232
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2253

The hydraulic cylinder is widely used in industry as the load lifting structures. A telescopic hydraulic cylinder is a special design of a cylinder with a series of gradually smaller diameter tubes overlapping each other. Three-stage telescopic cylinder performance analysis is performed with the help of the Finite Element Method. Also, MATLAB Simulink is used to create a complete design of the dynamic model of the telescopic cylinder. The analysis results of characteristic curves for telescopic cylinder position, velocity, and acceleration show the simulation model's accuracy and plausibility. This package will provide a basic reference for analyzing and designing the hydraulic cylinders with any number of stages. Simulation results show that a sudden change of pressure upon phase change will lead to multi-phase vibration.

Electromechanical Design and Manufacturing of Dynamic Buckling Test Rig Under Various Temperature Conditions

Shaymaa M. Mshattat; Hussain J.M Al-Alkawi; Ahmed H. Reja

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 233-240
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2276

A column is a structural member that bears an axial compressive load and is more likely to fail due to buckling compared to material strength. Some of these columns work at a high temperature and this temperature affects the behavior of buckling. Therefore, the designer must take this factor (temperature) into consideration. For the purpose of studying the effect of different temperatures on the phenomenon of buckling under compression dynamic loads to evaluate the state of failure for different types of columns, the thermal buckling test device has been designed and manufactured. Using this rig, practical tests can be conducted on solid and hollow columns of different metals and diameters, and thus the safe critical load for the column can be predicted. This device was successful in evaluating the life of the columns made of aluminum alloy (6061-T6) when the buckling interacts with heat. The current study found that rising the temperature increases the failure under the buckling phenomenon.

Effect of Temperature and Humidity Factors on Water Production Using Solar Energy with Smart Controlling

Ghusoon A. Aboud; Hashim A. Hussein; Ali H. Numan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 241-248
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2282

The aim of the current work is to study the effect of temperature and humidity factors on the production of water from humid air using clean energy, as we have noticed that both factors have an effective impact on the atmospheric air and on the amount of water that was obtained, which is useful in areas that do not have electric power sources or fresh water, and solar energy is used as the main source of energy in open areas. The motivation is to evaluate the performance of the system in light of different air flow rates and in different locations in Iraq depending on the experimental data obtained and the parameters related to the proposed system. We have noticed that high temperatures lead to the increase in evaporation and then to an increase in the percentage of water in the air, and the humidity factor is better in the range between (25 to 65) %, and when the relative humidity reaches 100%, the water vapor begins to condense to form dew, and the temperature is called the dew point when this occurs. Therefore, the water harvesting device was designed as a solution to reduce moisture considering it a source of drinking water, keeping in mind the main contribution which is to use solar energy, with a low cost, a work efficiency of up to 60%, and most importantly smart controlling.

Control of PV Panel System Temperature Using PID Cuckoo Search

Fadi M. Khaleel; Ibtisam A. Hasan; Mohammed J. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 249-256
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2307

In this study, the PV panel behavior as a nonlinear system had been studied well. The main contribution of this work was cooling the PV panel temperature to get the optimal power using a PID-CSA controller which was never employed previously in this application. In the beginning, the system has been modeled using three artificial neural network methods which are NARX, NAR and nonlinear input output based on MSE. Then, the PID controller with the intelligent cuckoo search algorithm technique had been studied to accustom PID controller parameters () based on MSE, ASE and IAE. The results exhibited that the best modeling method was NARX with 0.2255 MSE. On the other hand, all the controlling methods were effective and showed an excellent ability to control the system; however, the best method was based on MSE with an error equal to 2.578.

Design of a Sliding Mode Controller for a Prosthetic Human Hand’s Finger

Hussein Sh. Majeed; Saleem K. Kadhim; Alaa A. Jaber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 257-266
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.1943

In this research paper, the modeling and control of a tendon-driven, instead of joint motors, the prosthetic finger that mimics the actual human index finger were deliberated. Firstly, the dynamic model of the prosthetic finger is developed based on a 3-degree of freedom (DOF) articulated robot structure and utilizing the Lagrange equation. Then, the classical sliding mode control (CSMC) strategy was implemented to control the finger motion. To overcome the cons of CSMC, such as the chattering problem, an adaptive sliding mode controller (ASMC) was developed.  MATLAB Simuphalange was used to perform the simulation after the necessary equations were derived. The results showed that the ASMC was superior to the CSMC in depressing the chattering and fast response.

Elevated Temperature Corrosion of Mechanical Properties and Fatigue Life of 7025 Aluminum Alloy

Mohammed H. Alwan; Hussain J. Al-Alkawi; Ghada A. Aziz

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.1587

Aluminum alloys are widely used in aircraft industry where good corrosion resistance, light weight and high strength are the primary requirements.
In the present study, attempts have been made to extend the application of mechanical and fatigue properties of AA7025 in laboratory with corrosive environment of media and combined corrosive at elevated temperature (ET) 150⁰C. The experimental results and analysis of corrosion and corrosion - elevated temperature mechanical and fatigue behavior of the samples showed that the 3.5%NaCl corrosive media and corrosion - elevated temperature (ET) greatly decrease the properties mentioned. The Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) and Yield stress YS of AA 7025 reduced by 5.3% and 14.83% respectively due to combine corrosion and elevated temperature but these properties reduce by 8.7% and 19.35% respectively due to combined actions corrosion (ET). The Brinell hardness also reduced by 4.2% and 11.26% due to corrosion only and corrosion and (ET). Ductility was increased by 10.5% and 16.25% for corrosion and corrosion (ET). The environment and elevated temperature – corrosion have significant effect on reduction the fatigue life and strength of AA 7025. It’s clear that the combine corrosion and (ET) combination reduce safely of the mechanical properties compared with the corrosion only and room temperature conditions.

A Modified Kalman Filter-Based Mobile Robot Position Measurement using an Accelerometer and Wheels Encoder

Ali Madhloom; Firas A. Raheem; Azad R. Kareem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 267-274
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2082

Position measurement is an essential process of mobile robot navigation. In this research, a Kalman Filter is applied to locating a mobile robot furnisher with an encoder and accelerometer. The accelerometer updates its position off-hand. It has an acceptable short period of stability. However, this stability will be decreased over time. The odometry model is utilized to measure the mobile robot's position and heading angle using encoders equipped with the wheels of the mobile robot. Moreover, the odometry model's errors exist because of the wheel rotating speed's integrative nature and non-systematic errors. In this work, the mobile robot position estimation in closed environments was studied. In order to obtain the optimal estimation, a Kalman filter was used to estimate mobile robots' position and velocity, where the Kalman filter has been designed for better assessment of the mobile robot position. The suggested configuration collects accelerometer and odometry reading to assure more delicate position knowledge than standalone odometry or accelerometer. The proposed method's position error has an acceptable level that is less than (0.2 m) for both easy and difficult paths.

Thermal Performance of an Evacuated-Tube Solar Collector Using Nanofluids and an Electrical Curtain Controlled by an Artificial Intelligence Technique

Hussam J. Rashid; Khalid F. Sultan; Hosham S. Anead

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 8-19
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2021

This paper studies the improvement of an evacuated tube solar collectors(ETSCs) performance in two way. The first is by adding a finned electronic curtain in front of the solar collector. While the second is by using a nanofluid instead of pure water. The purpose of the curtain is to increase the amount of solar radiation reflected toward the collector. The curtain is distinguished by its self-ability to track the sun's rays automatically. The electronic curtain is also closed to shade the tubes depending on the movement of the electronic curtain's fins and the nanofluid's temperatures. MATLAB algorithm has been used to design the Simulink model and control the system using Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The results showed that the system performance improved using TiO2(50nm)+PW) as a working fluid without the curtain are (3.906%,5.34%, and7.407%), while the rate of improvement in the case of distilled water only was 2.34%and3.81%. Finally, by adding the finned electronic curtain to the system and use of TiO2(50nm)+PW) as a working fluid, the efficiency increased by 7.03%,9.16%, and 11.89%. The results showed that the performance of evacuated tubes solar collectors increased by using a nanofluid and the finned electronic curtain.

Corn Oil Performance’s A Bio Cooling Fluid in Electric Distribution Transformer

Ahmed A. Khudhair; Mohammed H. Jabal; Samar J. Ismail

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 20-30
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2031

Biodegradable (Vegetable) fluids are considered as environmentally friendly fluids and possess an abundant benefit, they are wildly available by means of renewable sources compared to different kinds of mineral-oil.  Given the occurrence of environmental pollution and health problems from mineral oils.  This paper investigates the effect of utilizing the corn oil for the cooling performing features of distribution electric transformer, and making a comparison with the cooling performance of the electric transformer whith cooling by the commercial mineral fluid. This investigation is done by using the four- ball machine and electric transformers. Each experiment that was executed complies with ASTM D4172-B under different electrical loads (200-1600W). Depending on the outcomes of the four-ball machine and electric transformer, it has been noticed that the corn oil has the adequate cooling behavior compared to the commercial cooling fluid. It maintains the insulation housing between the coils, and maintains the coils when overloaded at peak time.

Design and Implementation of an Electromechanical Brake System

Haider N. Faisal; Farag M. Mohammed; Jamal A. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 31-39
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2150

Nowadays, hydraulic brakes are already being replaced by electromechanical brakes (EMB) to improve quick-response brakes, efficient fuel consumption, environmentally sound, simple maintenance, and enhanced safety design. It is suggested that the electromechanical brake will be one of the most important brake systems in the future. This study focuses on designing and implementing an electromechanical brake based on a brushless DC (BLDC) motor and position controller to generate and control the required braking force at a variable friction coefficient between disc and pad. A feedback controller equipped with a measuring sensor is usually utilized to control this type of brake. Thus, three controllers for current, speed, and position were implemented in successive loops to control the motor movement. This system has current, speed, and force sensors. Due to implementation difficulties and cost issues of braking, the clamping sensor should be replaced with a position sensor with some modification where a position controller has been designed and implemented. The results showed that the clamping force of the brake system can follow the target accurately and it has good performance. Also, it is shown that this system can adjust the brake force more accurately and quickly compared with the traditional.

The Combining Effect of Inclination Angle, Aspect Ratio and Thermal Loading on the Dynamic Response of Clamped-Clamped Pipe Conveying Fluid

Jabbar H. Mohmmed; Mauwafak A. Tawfik; Qasim A. Atiyah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 40-48
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2159

The investigation of the vibration of pipes containing flowing fluid is very essential to obtain an understanding of their dynamic behavior and prevent their catastrophic failure due to fatigue. Pipelines are subjected to environmental static and dynamic loading including self-weight, restoring, and Carioles forces. This research aims to investigate the vibrations of pipeline structures for examining their structural integrity under these conditions. A linear Euler-Bernoulli beam model is used to analyze the dynamic response of flexible, inclined, and fixed ends pipe conveying fluid made of polypropylene random-copolymer. Closed-form expression for dynamic response is presented by using combining of finite Fourier sine and Laplace transforms method. The influences of the inclination angle, thermal load, and aspect ratio (ratio of outside diameter to the length of pipe) on the dynamical behavior of the pipe–fluid system are studied. The obtained results attest to the importance of considering combining effects of the inclination angle, thermal load, and aspect ratio in analyzing and designing pipe conveying fluid. It is observed that the dynamic deflection can be significantly increased by increasing temperature, aspect ratio, and fluid velocity, while it reduced by increasing the inclination angle with the horizontal axis in the range of (0-90).

Design and Implementation of Remote Real-Time Monitor System for Prosthetic Limbs

Hussein A. Mansoure; Hadeel N. Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 60-65
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2187

Persons with Lower-limb amputations experience movement restrictions resulting in worsening their life quality. Wearable sensors are often utilized to evaluate spatial and temporal qualities and kinetic parameters that provide the mechanism to create interactive monitoring of the amputee prosthesis system. Gait events and detection of the gait phase of amputee movement are essential to control the prosthetic devices of lower limbs.  This paper presents real-time monitoring to individuals with lower limb amputation by using a medical wireless sensor. However,  the proposed system used four medical sensor nodes (such as gait, temperature, the pressure of blood, blood oxygenation (SpO2) )for transmitted medical data by the   RFB 24  to the sink node to collected data and upload by   ESP32  to the Local cloud ( Raspberry pi 4)   by using   Wi-Fi network, then design the web application for enable the doctor monitor the patient (lower-limb amputation (LLA))  and provide the reporter to on each patient,  where local cloud provides the data to the web application. The conduction of this work is using one sink node to four nodes (patient) to reduce the data rate and the energy consumption. In this work, one IP to four medical sensor nodes lowers the data rate to 60%, and the energy consumption by the sensing nodes is lowered by 20% that using one IP instead of using five IP reduce the size of the transmitted packet.

Flow Improvement and Viscosity Reduction for Crude Oil Pipelines Transportation Using Dilution and Electrical Field

Noor I. Jalal; Raheek I. Ibrahim; Manal K. Oudah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 66-75
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2192

One of the great challenges in pipeline transportation of heavy crude oil is the effect of viscosity on flow rate. By using viscosity reduction techniques, crude oil flow ability can be enhanced. However, the dual effect of dilution and electric fields on crude oil flow ability is still not well addressed. The main goal of this study is to reduce viscosity and improve the flow rate of heavy crude oil through pipelines using dual techniques of electrical field and dilution. The optimization technique was used to investigate the interaction effects of experimental variables on the objective function. As compared to crude oil treated solely by dilution or electrical field, the dual treatment could result in more substantial reductions in viscosity. In this experiment, at first, the dilution's impact is studied. Acetone was used as a diluent in different concentrations. The great viscosity reduction is about 21.98% when adding 20 wt. % of acetone. Secondly, when the effect of the electric field has been studied, a reduction in viscosity of about 35.6% was observed when 36.67(v/cm) is applied. Lastly, the effect of combined treatment (dilution and electric field) has been investigated according to factorial design. The optimum viscosity reduction is about 61.856% at 11 wt. % acetone and 36.67 (v/cm) of the electric field.

Manufacturing and Calibration of Conical Springs Lateral Stiffness Meter

Muhammad S. Tahir; Shakir S. Hassan; Jumaa S. Chiad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 76-81
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2201

The spring is an important mechanical part of which widely used in many industrial applications. There is an urgent need to know its stiffness property before use in any application. Since the stiffness varies according to the method of using the spring in this research, it is suggested to calculate the lateral stiffness of spring by the moment effect. the device meter of the lateral stiffness of conical springs has been designed and manufactured working principle applying a torque to the head of the spring and calculating the angle of inclination. This research includes an experimental aspect (tensile test of steel wires, manufacture of the device lateral hardness meter, manufacture of four conical springs from steel wire inspected with diameters of 3.4, 3.8, 4, and 5 mm, and testing the springs with the manufactured device). As for the simulation aspect, it comprises calculating the lateral stiffness by numerical analysis using the solid work program. After extracting the hardness values practically by the device and comparing them with simulation values, the device proved its efficiency for small diameters after the experimental results have been compared with the results of the simulation, as the error rate increased with the increase in the diameter of the spring wire, so the highest acceptable error that could be reached by the device was 5% for the diameter 4.36 mm and zero error at the diameter 1.2 mm.

Heat Transfer in Electronic Systems Printed Circuit Board: A Review

Mustafa E. Kadum; Ahmed A. Imran; Sattar Aljabair

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 99-108
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2113

Thermal regulation has now become a staple in the design of electronic devices. As a result of technological advances in the electronic industry, component miniaturization and thermal system management are becoming more and more important. Due to the high demand for device performance and the need for better thermal management, this paper present a detailed theoretical review of heat transfer by conventional methods in electronic devices and equipment such as air cooling, water cooling, etc. to provide an ideal framework for a practical application in electronic cooling. With reference to the possibility of investing unconventional ways to reduce the energy consumed in the cooling process and preserving the environment through the possibility of replacing solid circuit boards with flexible circuits and studying their properties in improving heat transfer and deformation of P.C.B using the interaction of fluid structure under thermal and flow effects.

Experimental Investigation of Artificial Cavities Effect of Single-Phase Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Single Microchannel

Qahtan A. Al-Nakeeb; Ekhlas M. Fayyadh; Moayed R. Hasan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 109-119
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2122

In this paper, an experimental study has been conducted to investigate the influence of artificial cavities (artificial nucleation sites, ANS) in a single microchannel on the characteristics of flow and heat transfer at a single-phase flow. The experiments were performed with deionized water as a working fluid at 30OC inlet temperature with a range (108.6-2372) of Reynolds numbers. Three models of the straight microchannel (model-1, model-2, and model-3) were manufactured of brass having a rectangular shape with a hydraulic diameter of (0.42 mm). Model-1 has a smooth surface, while model-2 has artificial cavities with a number of 40 ANS located on the base of the microchannel; along a line adjacent to one of the sidewalls. Also, the artificial cavities of model-3 exist at the base of the microchannel; along a line that is nearest to each sidewall for the microchannel. The number of ANS at each sidewall is 40 (i.e. the overall number of artificial nucleations is 80). The results manifested the enhancement of heat transfer by the presence of ANS for model-2 and model-3 as compared to model-1 by 15.53% and 16.67%, respectively. Also, the results proved that the fanning friction factor correlation for laminar and turbulent flow can predict very well the results (MAE=6.6-7.2%) and (MAE=4.1-7.7%), respectively. Also, the Nusselt number increases with increasing Reynolds number. However, the conventional correlation that predicted the experimental results is lower than the correlations (MAE=30.1%, 13.2% and 12.6%) for Model-1, -2 and -3, respectively.

Evaluating the Adhesive Properties of Four Types of Conventional Adhesives

Muhanad H. Mosa; Mohsin N. Hamzah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 120-128
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2137

The development of manufacturing technology led to the appearance of various products that need effective types of adhesives with good strength and durability in different types of joints. Accordingly, the issue is how to choose the appropriate adhesive for the specific application relying on the properties of adhesive besides, the work conditions. This work deals with the experimental testing of four types of an adhesives that have been prepared to test by the two types of joints to comprehend the behavior of adhesives then choose the most effective and optimum type. The Butt and single lap joint tests were achieved according to the ASTM standard D2095–96 and D-1002-99 respectively. The adhesives that were used were epoxy Resins, MS Hybrid Polymers, Polyvinylester, and R.T.V Silicon Rubber, also, used a steel material as adherents. The study concluded important points about these adhesives and the recommendation suggested essential points to select satiable adhesive.

A-Review for the Cooling Techniques of PV/T Solar Air Collectors

Wisam H. Saleh; Abdullateef A. Jadallah; Ahlam L. Shuraiji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 129-136
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2139

A solar thermal collector is one of the most popular applications of solar energy. It is a photovoltaic (PV) cell system with a thermal collector system, this system is utilized in the production of electrical energy and many applications. The system is able to produce electrical energy directly from the sunlight using the photoelectric effect. Meanwhile, it also extracts heat from the PV and heats the fluid (airflow) inside the collector. In this review, the solar PV system and solar thermal collectors are discussed. Usually, solar collectors are exposed to damage and their efficiency decreases when the temperature rises. Need constant cooling. In addition, the methods utilized to cool the solar collector are presented, including cooling with air, water, and others methods. It has been shown that the water-based cooling system was at a rate of 48%, while the air-based cooling system was at a rate of 26%, and that cooling by other methods was at a rate of 26%. These methods were applied to the enhancement of the photovoltaic cell efficiency under different conditions. The study revealed the important role being played with the application of solar energy.

Experimental and Numerical Flexural Properties of Sandwich Structure with Functionally Graded Porous Materials

Emad Njim; Sadeq H. Bakhi; Muhannad Al-Waily

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 137-147
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2184

Functionally graded porous materials (FGPMs) are porous structures with a porosity gradient distributed over the entire volume. They have many applications in the aerospace, marine, biomedical, automotive, and shipbuilding industries. High strength to weight and excellent energy absorption is the most important features that make these structures unique. In this paper, the flexural properties of simply-supported sandwich beams with functionally graded porous core under flexural load were evaluated experimentally and numerically based on various parameters. A three-point bending test for 3D printed sandwich specimens with porous metal core bonded with aluminum face sheets using various porosity parameters and core heights has been performed to measure the peak load and maximum deflection and explore the sandwich structure's strength. To validate the accuracy of the experimental solution, a finite element analysis (FEA) is carried out using ANSYS 2021 R1 software. Tests and FEM show that the sandwich beam behavior is closely related to porosity, power-law index, and FG porous metal core thicknesses. Experimental results indicated that at a porosity ratio of 10 %, FG core height 10 mm the maximum bending load was 573 N and maximum deflection 13.8 mm respectively. By increasing porosity to become 30% using the same geometrical parameters, the bending load was reduced by 15.4 % while the deflection exhibited a 1.4 % increase. The Numerical results for the three-point bending are compared with experimental measurements, showing a fair agreement with a maximum discrepancy of 15%.

Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Adding Butanone to Gasoline in SI Engine Emissions and Performance

Abed Al-Khadhim M. Hassan; Sadeq A. Jassam

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 148-158
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2207

This research is performed to study and investigate the influence of adding some ketone compounds on performance, emissions, and heat balance of spark ignition engine. The compound used in this study is butanone (C4H8O). The importance of the research lies in increasing the octane number by adding specific percentages of butanone and showing its impact on improving the combustion process, performance and reducing pollutants. This ketone has been added to the basic fuel (gasoline) with three concentration ranges (3, 6 and 9%), respectively.  All experimental tests were carried out on gasoline engine type (Nissan QG18DE), four cylinders, and 4-stroke. The acquired results showed that adding of ketones affects the physical properties of gasoline, where the density changed from (710 kg/m3) for net gasoline to (724 kg/m3) for butanone at an adding ratio of (9%). The octane number also increased for all types of ketones compared with pure fuel, and it will be improved from (86) for pure gasoline to (93.1) for butanone at an adding ratio of (9%). While the calorific value will be decreased from (43000 kJ/kg) for gasoline to (41665.44) for butanone at an adding ratio of (9%). The addition of ketones improves the emissions characteristic of the engine. The best reductions of (UHC, CO2, CO and NOx) were (47.51, 24.9, 27.35 and 35.91%), respectively recorded by butanone addition at a ratio of (9%). In the case of performance, the best increments of brake power, brake thermal efficiency and volumetric efficiency were (14.5, 7, 14.94 and 11.64%), respectively, which is achieved by adding (9%) of butanone.

Blind Assistive System based on Real Time Object Recognition using Machine learning

Mais R. Kadhim; Bushra K. Oleiwi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 159-165
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.1933

Healthy people carry out their daily lives normally, but the visually impaired and the blind face difficulties in practicing their daily activities safely because they are ignorant of the organisms surrounding them.  Smart systems come as solutions to help this segment of people in a way that enables them to practice their daily activities safely as possible.  Blind assistive system using deep learning based You Only Look Once algorithm (YOLO) and Open CV library for detecting and recognizing objects in images and video streams quickly. This work implemented using python. The results gave a satisfactory performance in detecting and recognizing objects in the environment. The results obtained are the identification of the objects that the Yolo algorithm was trained on, where the persons, chairs, oven, pizza, mugs, bags, seats, etc. were identified.

Evaluation of the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al / Fe3O4 Nanocomposites

Suaad M. Jiaad; Khansaa Salman; Ahmed A. Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 11, Pages 1632-1638
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i11.2080

The goal of this research is to study the microstructural analysis and mechanical properties of an aluminum matrix reinforced with different amounts of nano Fe3O4 at (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10wt. %). Al/ Fe3O4 nanocomposites specimens were prepared using the powder metallurgy route. Many examinations, including Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, were performed on the specimens in this study to determine the microstructure and phases of the nanocomposites. Mechanical tests, such as compressive, microhardness, and wear tests, were also performed to assess the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. The results of this study show that Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been homogeneously dispersed in the Al matrix by FESEM and XRD examination. While the mechanical tests show improving the compressive strength at 6 wt.% by 5.36%, the highest microhardness was at 10% by 101.6% compared with the pure Al, and improving the wear rate.