Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Main Subjects : Science

The Structural and Optical Investigation of Grown GaN Film on Porous Silicon Substrate Prepared by PLD

Haneen D. Jabar; Makram A. Fakhri; Mohammed J. AbdulRazzaq; Subash C. B. Gopinath

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.135733.1281

The optical properties of a grown gallium nitride (GaN) thin film on a porous silicon (P-Si) substrate was investigated. A Photo-electrochemical etching method was used to synthesize the Psi substrate, and a physical deposition method (pulsed laser deposition) of 1064 nm Q-switch Nd: YAG laser with a vacuum of 10−2 mbar was used to grow a thin layer of GaN on a prepared P-Si substrate. X-Ray diffraction displayed that GaN film has a high crystalline nature at the (002) plane. The photoluminescence of GaN film exhibited ultraviolet PL with a peak wavelength of 374 nm corresponding to GaN material and red PL with a peak wavelength of 730 nm corresponding to Psi substrate. The absorption coefficient of the P-Si substrate and grown GaN thin film was obtained from the absorption calculation of UV-Vis diffused spectroscopy at ambient temperature in the 230–1100 nm wavelength range. Extinction coefficients, optical energy gap, and refractive index of both the P-Si substrate and the grown GaN thin film have been determined, respectively. The direct optical energy gaps of both the P-Si substrate and grown GaN have also been determined using three methods: Plank’s relation with photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, Tauc'relation, and Kubulka-Munk argument with Uv-Vis diffused spectroscopy. It was observed that the optical energy gap of the P-Si substrate was 2.1 eV, while the grown GaN thin film had a multi-optical energy gap of 3.3 eV and 1.6 eV. A good agreement has been obtained between these mentioned methods.

Improvement of Erosion Resistance of Aluminum- Copper Alloy Type 2024 by Plasma Nitriding

Mohammed H. Maseekh; Ali H. Ataiwi; Jamal J. Dawood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 12, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131414.1034

To increase the erosion resistance of 2024 Al alloys, plasma nitriding surface treatment was used. Nitrogen and argon gases are injected into an evacuated chamber until the pressure reaches 15 Pa. The process requirements for normal plasma nitriding were heating at 440˚C for 8 hours, low voltage of 650 V, current of 25 mA, low gas consumption, and no air pollution. A continuous nitriding layer of AlN was formed. The microhardness reached a maximum value of 170 HV, about 3 times higher than that Al melts at, is transported upward through voids and capillaries in the AlN structures, and reacted with N plasma in the melt surface. The growth of the AlN structures promotes this transport of un-nitride alloy subjected to the same heat treatments. As a result, the erosion rate of the nitrided samples decreased by 10% when compared to the ones that are not nitrided.

Effect of Different Parameters on Raman Scattering Released from Nb2O5 Nanostructures Prepared via PLD Technique

Evan T. Salim; Suhair R. shafeeq; Mohammed Jalal AbdulRazzaq; Mohammed H. A. Wahid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 10, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134436.1238

Due to the significance of Nb2O5 as a promising industrial and biomedical material and the importance of Raman analyses to identify nanostructural molecular responsivity for various applications, this study aims to investigate Nb2O5 molecular bands that emerged under the impact of the Raman scattering phenomenon. Besides other advantages, Raman scattering analyses can provide a further investigation of the nanostructural polycrystalline phases supporting the XRD analyses. A pulsed laser was selected as the deposition technique for Nb2O5 thin films prepared with four different parameters. The selection of the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method was due to the insufficient studies and investigations of Nb2O5 nanostructures prepared via this method. The deposition parameters included the laser energy per pulse, substrate temperature, laser wavelength, and the number of laser pulses. Each preparation parameter was studied in a range, and one obtained value was optimized or selected for investigating the next parameter. Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser was employed for this purpose. Orthorhombic (T-Nb2O5) and monoclinic (H-Nb2O5) were obtained and investigated. XRD analysis was incorporated to confirm the resulting Nb2O5 phases. Previous studies and observations of Niobium (V) oxide molecular Raman scattering bands were also listed for comparison purposes. The results of this study were well-agreed with the previously obtained results.

Optimization of Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) for Gold/Air Interface by using Kretschmann Configuration

Yadgar H. shwan; Berun N. Ghafoor; Govar H. Hamasalih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 10, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132902.1151

The coherent oscillation of electrons at contact among a dielectric and metal when the metal is exposed to incoming plasmon is known as “surface Plasmon resonance”. To achieve the best surface plasmon resonance (SPR) signal, several aspects must be considered, including the excitation wavelength, the sort of metals used, and the thickness of the metal layer. The modification of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) depending on the thickness of metallic gold was investigated in this study. The reflection spectrum is determined as a function of metal thickness and dielectric medium (air), which is fixed in this case, and measuring the resonance angle for each size (length of the gold layer) to visualize the influence of the metal film on the resonance angle. The analysis concentrated on the impact of gold layer thickness variations on resonance angle shift. SPR's ideal thickness was discovered to be 45-50 nm. We used the spin coating method to create a thin layer. The thickness of thin films is measured by scanning the sample with an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip. The optimum SPR angle profile with the minimum amount of reflection and dip reflection is achieved with this film thickness. The reflectance and resonance angle performance features of gold layers were analyzed utilizing plasmonic Kretschmann configurations at a wavelength nm) in sensing media (air). In an experimental analysis of the improved surface plasmon resonance characteristics of the gold/air coupling, they also showed a significant shift in resonance angle due to the film thickness variation. Biomedical science, optics, biosensing, and medicine are just a few of the domains where the (SPR) has been applied.

Study the Effect of Laser Wavelength on ZnO Nanoparticle Characteristics Synthesized by Pulse Laser Ablation as an Antibacterial Application

Hadeel J. Imran; Kadhim A. Hubeatir; Kadhim A. Aadim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 10, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134261.1232

In recent years, biologists, chemists, materials scientists, and engineers have become interested in Nano-sized particles because of their unique properties. In this paper, ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using an Nd: YAG laser with 800 mJ at 1064 nm and 532 nm (the fundamental and second harmonic wavelengths). The characteristics of optical, morphological, structural, wettability and antibacterial activity have been studied. The used technique of PLAL was successful in nanoparticle formation. It was proved in color changes, which was an indication of ZnO nanoparticle formation. The optical measurements show a decrease in absorption wavelength and an increase in the band gap, an indication of the formation of quantum confinement due to nanoparticle formation. The XRD involves the formation of polycrystalline ZnO at both wavelengths. Also, the FE-SEM proved the formation of nanoparticles with a semispherical shape and little agglomeration on the surface. However, the EDX shows Zn and O in the film, which means the formation of ZnO. The low contact angle indicates high wettability, which means that the material has high biocompatibility. Finally, the antibacterial test was done on two types of bacteria (E. coli and S. aurous) and showed an antibacterial effect on both types with different NP concentrations.

Images Enhancement Based on a New Multi-Dimensional Fractal Created by Rectangular Function

Rabab F. Farhan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 10, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134235.1229

Digital image processing is a field that is included in many journals due to its importance and the fact that it facilitates the achievement of many scientific and engineering applications worldwide. This specialization is linked with other disciplines, whether medical, engineering, sports, and others, as it facilitates the completion of applications quickly and efficiently. Researchers have discovered and garnered notice as a promising analytic tool in image processing using the idea of fractal dimension. In this effort, a new Multi-Dimensional Fractal (MDF) in view of the rectangle function was introduced a. As an application, the MDF to improve and enhance the images was employed, and found that there is a connection between MDF and image processing, where the self-similarity property, for example, is one of several features in the new definition. Other properties are discussed in the sequel, including image noise reduction. The presence of noise is responsible for properly operating these images in various applications. Several academics have created and applied a strategy for minimizing noise in features multiplicatively throughout the last several years.  The outcomes reveal that the proposed strategy is successful. The method is based on the definition of the rectangular function (the elementary component of all digital signals, videos, and images), where this function indicates a rectangular-formed rhythm that is concentrated at the origin. For example, the suggested process received a rate of 97% for PNSR and 95% for RMSD.

The Alternative Representation of the Bipolar Sugeno Integral

Jabbar Abbas; Hossein Jafari

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 10, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.135012.1256

In the context of decision support systems, bi-capacities were introduced as an extension of classical capacities. Many bipolar fuzzy integrals related to the bi-capacities have been presented in recent years. One of these integrals is the Sugeno integral concerning aggregation on bipolar scales. The paper aims to build an equivalent representation of the bipolar Sugeno integral. Therefore, we first employ in this paper the framework based on a ternary-criterion set for proposing an alternative formula of the bipolar Sugeno integral to be suitable for bipolar scales.  Then, we discuss some basic properties and give an illustrative example of this representation. This representation is consistent as an extension of the representation concerning the classical capacities and aggregation on the Sugeno integral unipolar scales.

Preparation and Performance of PU/Cpsf Blend Ultrafiltration Membranes for Removal of Heavy Metal Ion Rejection Studies

Latha C. S.; Shanthana LakshmiD; Maheswari P.; Mohan D

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 10, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132153.1201

The performance of membranes for a specific application can be determined with the help of structural properties such as molecular weight cut-off (MWCO), morphology, and pore statistics. Heavy metal ions from aqueous streams can be separated with the help of ultrafiltration membranes. In the presence and absence of the various components of the additive poly (ethylene glycol) 600, MWCOs and pore statistics of polyurethane (PU) and carboxylated polysulfone (CPSf) blend ultrafiltration (Total Polymer Concentration = 17.5 wt %) were studied with the help of dextran of different molecular weights ranging from 19 kDa to 150 kDa. The derived pore size, porosity, and the number of pores have a remarkable relationship with the MWCO, morphology, and the flux performance of the membranes. The blend membranes rejected certain toxic divalent heavy metal ions such as copper, cadmium, nickel, and zinc by complexing them into a polymeric ligand, poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI). The effect of polymer blend compositions and additive concentrations on metal ions' rejection and permeate flux are discussed

Droplets Generation using Soluble Polymeric and Surfactant Additives in a Micro-Flow System: An Experimental Approach

Nur Farra Ilyana Binti Yosman; Wafaa K. Mahmood; Hayder A. Abdulbari

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 10, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134882.1252

In the present work, polymer and surfactant solutions (Xanthan Gum- Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) were formulated and tested in a micro-flow system (microchannel) carrying octanoic acid as the hydrocarbon phase to determine the droplets formation capabilities of the two different additives. The purpose is to compare the droplet-generated size, shape, and distance between the droplets forming from the individual additives solutions. The jetting phenomenon that happens during droplet generation was also investigated. The solution of the polymer (XG) and surfactant (CTAB) was prepared in 5 different concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250) ppm and (500, 1000, 1500, 2000, and 2500) ppm, respectively. The continuous and dispersed phases' flow was controlled by controlling the inlet pressure of both phases. Direct-writing lithography was used to fabricate the microchannels using polydimethylsiloxane polymer. The microfluidic chip was connected to an open-loop fluid circulation system, and the produced by polymer and surfactant solutions droplets size was recorded using a high-resolution microscope. The droplet generated using the XG solution was larger, and the distance between droplets was shorter as concentration increased. In contrast, the CTAB solutions showed smaller droplets, and the distance between droplets increased as the concentration increased. The possibility of coalescence of the droplet was also higher as the distance between droplets was shorter. In terms of jetting regime, as the pressure ratio increases, the jet breakup length increases before forming the droplet until, at some limit, the dispersed phase was failed to generate droplets.

The Fundamental of Reduced Graphene Oxide with Nanosilver Composite Films Using the Spin Coating Technique

Hamsa A. Alaloosi; Farah T. M. Noori; Abdulhadi K. Jidran

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 8, Pages 1023-1028
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i8.2205

Graphene oxide synthesis by hummers method and reduction by the green chemical method using green tea. Preparation films with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) by a spin coating method. The preparation films and Nanomaterial characteristics with X-Ray diffraction (XRD) GO has a peak at (2θ = 11.22̊ ). While rGO has a wider peak at (2θ = 26.2̊ ). The (rGO +AgNPs) films have five obvious diffraction angles. In Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), flaky sheet (rGO), and spherical (AgNPs) with Nanosize about ~20 nm, the peaks of EDX indicated the presence of Carbon, silver, and oxygen. The energy gap was calculated from the absorbance spectrum and seemed to decrease with increasing AgNPs.

Theory and Modeling of Slab Waveguide Based Surface Plasmon Resonance

Amnah S. Hasan; Razi J. Al-azawi; Ali A. Alwahib

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 8, Pages 1082-1089
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132295.1100

 The current study proposes a developing surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor that has been widely employed to detect viruses, such as environmental analytes, biological and chemical analytes, and monitoring and medical diagnostics. Optical waveguides have much potential for developing new chemical and biological sensors. Graphene is the world's most vital substance and can be used to enhance other materials. A composite silver film-based SPR sensor with the waveguide. To enhance the silver film's stability, detect the best thickness with the best resonance using different types of analyte: air than 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, and water. The resonance wavelength numerically calculated, loss, sensitivity, Figure of merit FOM, and Refractive index using Lumerical FDE. The numerical data showed the differences in the electric field of SPR in the number of refractive indexes after applying the silver coating layer, and the performance parameters improved. Moreover, Graphene has much promise, yet almost most of it is still unexplored. The fundamentals of graphene-based waveguides and devices were investigated using two layers with FDE. The primary purpose of this study is to show the effective thickness of the Graphene and the analyte's refractive index to get high absorption.

The Visual Quality of Healthy Eye Lens for Different Tilt Effects

Laith A. Tawfeeq; Ali H. Al-Hamdani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 8, Pages 130-139
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i8.2197

The importance and accuracy of the human visual system have led scientists and researchers to do their best to study it, know its problems, and how to treat them.
The eye lens tilt is possibly due to a specific accident such as a blow or the like. So, this manuscript was submitted to study the human eye lens tilting effect on visual performance and determine the tolerance tilt values. Using (ZEMAX-EE) software program and relying on the Liou and Brennan model Eye (LBME), one of the most accurate models for studying the eye, and some basic criteria used to describe the image formed in an optical system, such as Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Root Main Square-spot size (RMSS), and simulated image including aberration, the study of the lens tilt effect on visual quality was conducted. The calculation of the area under the MTF curve was also used to determine the tolerance tilt values. Where the lens was tilted from (-5 to 5) degrees by (1 degree) on the (X and Y) axes, for zero decentering, with visible wavelength (0.486, 0.587, 0.656) µm, pupil diameter (2.5 mm), and field of view (5o).The results were that vision worsened when the lens was tilted due to reduced MTF. Sagittal MTF was less sensitive than Tangential due to the nature of the lens structure. The area under the MTF curve results also proved that the tilt is less than (5) degrees does not affect the visual much, so it was necessary to determine the tilt tolerance values.It was concluded that the visual quality was inversely proportional to the tilt increase. Exceeding the tilt (5) degrees led to visual deterioration due to increased optical aberration where the tolerance tilt ranges were (± 5.1) degrees and (- 5.9 to 9) degrees on the (x and y) axes, respectively.

Synthesis of Porous Silicon by Electrochemical Etching for Gas Sensor Application

Duha H. Jwied; Uday M. Nayef; Falah AH Mutlak

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 4, Pages 555-562
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i4.2064

In the present study, the layers of porous Silicon (PS) have been produced from the p-type Silicon with a (100) orientation using the approach of electrochemical etching. The samples were anodized in a solution of HF concentration 18% and 99% C2H2OH. Samples characteristics of PS were studied by etching time constant (15 min). In addition, the alteration of the current density value into (5, 10,15,20, and 25) mA/ cm2 was also studied. Samples were characterized by nanocrystalline porous Silicon via X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The AFM (Atomic force microscope) analysis of PS shows the sponge-like structure. Also, a 39.76 nm average diameter was coordinated in the rod-like temperature variation, fabricated from prepared samples on the sensor's sensitivity, recovery time, and response time. The maximal level of the sensitivity has been approximately (20,11)% for porous Silicon of gas NO2 and NH3, respectively.

Textual Dataset Classification Using Supervised Machine Learning Techniques

Hanan Q. Jaleel; Jane J. Stephan; Sinan A. Naji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 4, Pages 527-538
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i4.1970

Text classification has been a significant domain of study and research because of the increased volume of text datasets and documents available in digital format. Text classification is one of the major approaches used to arrange digital information via automatically allocating text dataset records or documents into predetermined classes depending on their contents. This paper proposes a technique that implements supervised machine learning algorithms such as KNN, Decision tree, Random Forest, Bernoulli Naive Bayes, and Multinomial Naive Bayes classifiers to classify a dataset into distinct classes. The proposed technique combines the above-mentioned machine learning classifiers with the TF-IDF feature extraction method as a vector space model to achieve more precise classification results. The proposed technique yields high accuracy, precision, recall, and f1-measure metric values for all the implemented classifiers. After comparing the obtained results of different classifiers, it is found that the Random Forest classifier is the best algorithm used to classify the textual dataset records with the highest accuracy value of 0.9995930.

Building an Efficient System to Detect Computer Worms in Websites Based on Ensemble Ada Boosting and SVM Classifiers Algorithms

Ali K. Hilool; Soukaena H. Hashem; Shatha H. jafer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 4, Pages 595-604
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i4.2148

Computer worms perform harmful tasks in network systems due to their rapid spread, which leads to harmful consequences on system security. However, existing worm detection algorithms are still suffered a lot to achieve good performance. The reasons for that are: First, a large number of irrelevant data impacts classification accuracy (irrelevant feature gives estimator new ways to go wrong without any expected benefit also can cause overfitting, which will generally lead to decreased accuracy). Second, the individual classifiers used extensively in the systems do not effectively detect all types of worms. Third, many systems are built based on old datasets, making them less suitable for new types of worms.  The research aims to detect computer worms in the network based on data mining algorithms for their high ability to automatically and accurately detect new types of computer worms. The proposal uses misuse and anomaly detection techniques based on the UNSW_NB15 dataset to train and test the ensemble Ada Boosting algorithm using SVM and DT classifiers. To select the most important features, we propose to conduct the similar features selected by Correlation and Chi-Square feature selection (since correlation finds the relations between features and classes whereas Chi finds whether features and classes are independent or not). The contribution suggests using SVM in the boosting ensemble algorithm as base estimators instead of DT to efficiently detect various types of worms. The system achieved accuracy, reaching 100% with CFS+Chi2fs and 99.38, 99.89 with correlation and chi-square separately.

Rod-like Nano-structures of Copper Oxide Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition

Zainab M. Sadiq; Mustafa A. Hassan; Khaleel I. Hassoon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 4, Pages 573-581
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i4.2089

In this paper, we reported that the annealing at temperatures of 400  and 500 oC in the air for 2 hours led to the formation of rod-like structures of cupric oxide thin films prepared by the chemical bath deposition technique. The structure and the optical properties of the prepared thin films were studied to investigate the role of annealing on the films. The morphology of the as-deposited CuO films is almost structureless. However, the films are converted to rod-like shapes nano-structures after annealing, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy.  The x-ray analysis showed that the thin films of copper oxide nano-structures have a monoclinic crystallinity preferred in the (110), (002), and (111) directions, and the crystallinity increases after annealing. Furthermore, the bandgap values after annealing are reduced from 2.1 to 1.61 and 1.63 eV as determined by optical analysis utilizing UV–VIS spectroscopy.

Algebraic Decomposition Method for Zero Watermarking Technique in YCbCr Space

Nada S. Mohammed; Areej M. Abduldaim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 4, Pages 605-616
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i4.2028

The close connection between mathematics, especially linear algebra, and computer science has greatly impacted the development of several fields, and the most important is image processing. Algebraic methods aroused interest in building digital image watermarking techniques and are used to find the features of the image to hide the watermark. This paper aims to use the algebraic Hessemberge decomposition method (HDM) for the first time as a transformation to extract the features of the image without using any popular transformation for building zero watermarking. To achieve the aim, two techniques are used, HDM with and without discrete cosine transform (DCT); both depend on the advantage of the algebraic HDM to convert the image to another domain in the YCbCr space. After applying eleven common attacks to images in both techniques, the results showed that the NC values ​​under the influence of many attacks were higher in the second technique than the NC values ​​in the first technique. In contrast, the NC values ​​for salt and pepper attack in the first technique are higher than the NC values ​​in the second technique.

Improving Machine Learning Performance by Eliminating the Influence of Unclean Data

Murtadha B. Ressan; Rehab F. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 4, Pages 546-539
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i4.2010

Regardless of the data source and type (text, digital, photo group, etc.), they are usually unclean data. The term (unclean) means that data contains some bugs and paradoxes that can strongly impact machine learning processes. The nature of the input data of the dataset is the most important reason for the success of the learning algorithm. More than one factor influences machine learning results in a specific task. The characteristics and the nature of the data are the main reasons for the algorithm's success. This paper generally examines data processing entered into an algorithm to learn machines. The paper explains the operations of each stage of prior treatment data for the best achievement of its data set. In this paper, four models for teaching machines (SVM, Multiple Bayes - NB, and Bernoulli - NB) will be used. Best accuracy (Bernoulli - NB) model 89%. The pre-processing algorithm applied to the data set (dirty data) will be developed and compared to previous results before development. The Bernoulli-NB model reaches 91% accuracy and improves the value of the rest of the models used in this process.

The Effect of Sputtering Time and Substrate Type on the Structure of Zinc Nanoparticles Prepared by the DC Sputtering Technique

Iman H. Hadi; Muslim F. Jawad; Khaleel I. Hassoon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 4, Pages 582-587
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i4.2096

Zn thin films have been successfully deposited on two different substrates, FTO and p-type Si (111), with thickness (112, 186) nm at (1 and 8) min, respectively, via DC sputtering technique in this work. Structural properties of the prepared thin films were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). XRD results showed that the samples have a hexagonal wurtzite structure. From the results of FESEM images, all the samples showed a uniform distribution of granular surface shape morphology. The grain sizes of the Zn thin films were estimated based on measured X-ray diffraction patterns. Zn thin film thicknesses were increased as the sputtering time increased for all substrates. The best result was the deposition of zinc nanoparticles on Si (p-type) at 1 min, where the particle size was at the peak of 7 nm.

Tuning the Hyperparameters of the 1D CNN Model to Improve the Performance of Human Activity Recognition

Rana A. Lateef; Ayad R. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 4, Pages 547-554
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i4.2054

The human activity recognition (HAR) field has recently become one of the trendiest research topics due to ready-made sensors such as accelerometers and gyroscopes equipped with smartphones and smartwatches as an embedded devices, decreasing the cost and power consumption. As a result, human activity is considered a time series classification problem. Now a day, deep learning approaches such as Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) have been successful when implemented with HAR to learn automatically higher-order features and, at the same time, work as a classifier. Recently, a one-dimensional Convolutional Neural Network (1D CNN) has been suggested and carried out at the best performance levels in numerous applications, such as the classification of personalized biomedical data and time series classification. This paper studies how to leverage a 1D single CNN model to produce an excellent performance on the human activity raw data. This is done by empirically tuning the values of hyperparameters, such as kernel size, filter maps, number of epochs, batch size, and promoting an advanced multi-headed 1D CNN by employing each convolutional layer with a different kernel size to gain an ensemble–like results. The selected hyper parameter's impact is evaluated on a publicly available dataset named UCI HAR collected from smartphone sensors to perform six activities. A significant determinant of better results depends on the hyperparameter that has been chosen. The results demonstrated that tuning the hyperparameter of 1D CNN increased activity recognition accuracy.

Proposal Framework to Light Weight Cryptography Primitives

Mustafa M. Abd Zaid; Soukaena Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 4, Pages 516-526
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i4.1679

Due to manufacturing cost and portability limitations, the computing power, storage capacity, and energy of the Internet of Things (IoT) hardware are still slowly developing. From above, the proposed security system based on encryption must consider the resources, time, memory used, and the lifespan of related sensors. In addition, some applications need simple encryption, especially after the emergence of IoT and the Web of Things (WoT). Providing solutions suitable for resource-constrained devices can be achieved by using lightweight cryptography. In this paper, building a framework that includes proposals for producing lightweight security algorithms for cryptography primitives was highly recommended. For the block cipher, some suggestions have been applied to an example of block encryption, Advance Encryption Standard 128 (AES-128), to produce lightweight AES-128. For lightweight stream cipher, the system applied the proposals on Ronald Rivest Cryptography algorithms (RC4). Rivest–Shamir–Adleman (RSA) algorithm is used to produce a lightweight asymmetric cipher by key partition and using the Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) in the decryption process to produce a lightweight RSA algorithm. Several proposals have been used for hash functions, the most important of which is reducing the number of rounds and simplifying the functions in SHA-256. Depending on the proposed framework, all the produced lightweight algorithms passed the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) statistical tests for test randomness. The produced algorithms showed better processing time than standard algorithms, less memory usage for a lightweight version of each standard algorithm, and higher throughput than standard algorithms.

A Proposed WoT System for Diagnosing the Infection of Coronavirus (Covid-19)

Dalal M. Thair; Akbas E. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 4, Pages 563-572
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i4.2087

Coronavirus is one of the viruses that have broadly affected humans and the health system in general. The problem is that there is no treatment for the virus yet, and the virus spreads very quickly through coughing or touching. Therefore, patients infected with this virus must be isolated in their homes or designated care places. Therefore, the research aims to find appropriate methods to diagnose people with the virus remotely to avoid "mixing and trying to determine the virus's focus spread by presenting a new framework for e-health to identify Coronavirus patients. Since the web of things (WoT) is helpful in many areas of medical applications, it will be used as a technique to build a complete system for diagnosing those infected with the virus. Such an approach will provide advice for prevention and isolation. It is very important to check that you have the virus or if you only have a fever, to distance yourself from others who have been affected by Covid-19 when you go to the hospital. Therefore, you can check your health status remotely without going to the hospital. It will present a comprehensive WoT system for COVID-19 Virus Detection (CVD), which provides the most important needs of the infected people. Some of these vital needs are finding an easy way to detect infection by virus, contacting specialized doctors to provide consultations, contacting pharmacies to deliver treatment to the home, contacting Laboratories, mapping the spread of the virus over the world, and educating the citizen at home. In addition, it assists in articles related to the virus that will help the researchers and patients reach the newest details about the pandemic. In designing this system, a group of web design languages was used under the principle of the web of things, such as (HTML, HTML5, CSS, CSS3, JavaScript, Bootstrap) in addition to interactive graphic interfaces.

Comparative Analysis of GMM, KNN, and ViBe Background Subtraction Algorithms Applied in Dynamic Background Scenes of Video Surveillance System

Maryam A. Yasir; Yossra H. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 4, Pages 617-626
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i4.2154

Background subtraction is the most prominent technique applied in the domain of detecting moving objects. However, there is a wide range of different background subtraction models. Choosing the best model that addresses a number of challenges is still a vital research area.
Therefore, in this article we present a comparative analysis of three promising algorithms used in this domain, GMM, KNN and ViBe. CDnet 2014 is the benchmark dataset used in this analysis with several quantitative evaluation metrics like precession, recall, f-measures, false positive rate, false negative rate and PWC. In addition, qualitative evaluations are illustrated in snapshots to depict the visual scenes evaluation. ViBe algorithm outperform other algorithms for overall evaluations.

Performance Comparison of Serial and Parallel Hybrid Fiber Amplifier under Optimum Pump Conditions

aseel ali Khudhaier; Abdulla K. Abass; Mudhafer H. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 428-432
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i2.2183

In this work, two different configurations of hybrid fiber optic amplifiers are investigated and simulated via OptiSystem 7.0 software, namely, serial and parallel hybrid fiber optical amplifiers (S– and P–HFOAs). The investigation involves performance comparison for the S– and P–HFOA under optimum pump conditions to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of each configuration. The simulation results show that the serial configuration has a high average gain level of 19.2 dB, an appropriate noise figure about 4.3 dB, but low saturation power, and limited gain bandwidth of approximately 40 nm, which is considered a primary issue in S–HOFA design, in addition to the pump conversion efficiency still insufficient in the Raman amplifier stage. While in P–HFOA design, a wide 3–dB gain bandwidth of more than 60 nm is maintained, along with an average gain level of  13.5 dB, high average noise figure about 8.3 dB and high saturation power due to the absent of cascading effect in parallel configuration

Physical Properties of Pure Gold Nanoparticles and Gold Doped ZnO Nanoparticles Using Laser Ablation in Liquid For Sensor Applications

Nabaa K. Hassan; Makram A Fakhri; Evan T. Salim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 422-427
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i2.2242

In this paper, the effect of using laser ablation of pure gold targets to obtain gold Nano rods and for pure zinc targets to obtain zinc oxide nanoparticles was studied separately in ethanol using an Nd:YAG laser tattoo removal (nanosecond pulses) and then mixing the resulting mixtures to obtain gold dopant with zinc oxide. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), (XRD) X-Ray Diffraction and the optical properties were used to characterize the pure gold Nano rods, ZnO nanoparticles, and Au doped ZnO nanoparticles. Based on XRD and TEM, the results revealed the properties of the produced gold Nano roads. The obtained results indicated that the gold Nano rods produced by the 1064nm laser have superior optical, structural, and morphological properties and can be used in different sensors.

Numerical Simulation of the Self-Imaging at Different Cascaded Optical Fiber Specifications

Shahad I. Younus; Anwaar A Al-Dergazly; Abdulla K. Abass

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 412-421
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i2.2236

Cascaded optical fiber single mode-no core-single mode fiber (SNS) attracted attention for being the base of various photonic devices. These devices are used in optical communication, fiber sensors, and fiber laser technology. The effect of variable NCF specifications, length, diameter, external refractive index (ERI), propagating wavelength on the self-imaging position, and the multimode interference (MMI) is studied. The study aims to simulate and analyze cascaded optical fiber by using the finite element beam envelope method (BEM). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that studied the self-imaging in cascaded optical fiber longitudinally by using BEM. The NCF length is important in determining the coupled out intensity and peak transmission wavelength. The field in the cascaded fiber is simulated for single and multi-wavelengths to evaluate the maximum transmission and study the structure's tunability. A tunable filter is simulated, where varying the length of the NCF about 0.6 mm produces a wavelength shift of about 40 nm. The BEM is effective in studying the field propagation in large guiding photonic devices

Pentacene Based Organic Field Effect Transistor Using Different Gate Dielectric

Ayat Kadhim; Estabraq Abdullah; Abdulhadi K. Judran

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 11, Pages 1688-1692
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i11.2075

This paper presents the electrical behavior of the top contact/ bottom gate of an organic field-effect transistor (OFET) utilizing Pentacene as a semiconductor layer with two distinctive gate dielectric materials Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Zirconium oxide (ZrO2) were chosen. The influence of the monolayer and bilayer gates insulator on OFET performance was investigated. MATLAB software was used to simulate and determine the electrical characteristics of a device. The output and transfer characteristics were studied for ZrO2, PVP and ZrO2/PVP as an organic gate insulator layer. Both characteristics show a high drain current at the gate dielectric ZrO2/PVP equal to -0.0031A and -0.0015A for output and transfer characteristics respectively, this can be attributed to an increase in the dielectric capacitance. Trans conductance characteristics also studied the gate dielectric materials and show the ZrO2/PVP gate dielectric having a higher value from the monolayer, indicating the effect of dielectric capacitance.

A modified Matrices Approach in Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm

Abdul Monem S. Rahma; Atheer M. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3B, Pages 86-91
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3B.4

The cryptographic algorithms became the main proceeding for protection of very important data from unauthorized access. There are several cryptographic algorithms to ensure the data, but algorithms must be selected according to speed, strength and the implementation. Thus, choosing the advance encryption standard (AES) for encryption and decryption data because its speed and strength of encryption, flexible, complex processing and its resistance to Brute-force attack. This paper presents enhancement of the AES algorithm to increase the security of the encrypted documents by using different sizes data matrices based on multiple irreducible polynomials with order 2, 4, and 8. The proposed modifications results tested and provide a high randomness.

Synthesis and Fabrication of ZnO Nanorods on Silicon for Methanol Gas Sensor

Abdulqader D. Faisal; Mofeed A. Jaleel; Fahad Z. Kamal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3B, Pages 74-81
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3B.2

Zinc Oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) were successfully synthesized via hydrothermal method. The growth process was conducted with seed layer concentration of 30 mM. The as-synthesized nanostructures were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectrophotometer. The analysis results revealed a pure Wurtzite ZnO hexagonal nanostructures with preferred orientation (002) along c-direction. The calculated band gap and crystallite size are 3.2 eV and 53.18 nm respectively.  A methanol gas sensor was fabricated based on the annealed ZnO NRs on the silicon substrate. Optimized sensitivity at 250 ppm methanol vapor with fast response and recovery time was achieved. So, ZnO NRs film can serve as a good candidate for a methanol gas sensing device.

Design Analysis of A Compensation Technique In FSO Communication System to Mitigate Atmospheric Turbulence Effect

Jenan A. Kalati; Shehab A. Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3B, Pages 82-85
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3B.3

Free-space laser communication systems usually experience strong channel fading caused by atmospheric turbulence. To mitigate the impact of atmospheric turbulence on free-space optical links using compensation techniques including adaptive optical (AO) system as advanced technique. Its three main components have remained constant: a wave front sensor to measure distortion, a wave front corrector to compensate for the distortion and a control system to calculate the required correction and necessary shape to apply to the corrector. Optical communication schemes utilizing adaptive optical at the transmitter are proposed. Numerical simulations show that the proposed schemes can significantly reduce the channel fading. The main goal of any adaptive optical system is to show a phase correction in the arriving wave front that converts the distorted wave front into a plane wave. A free space optical AO system to mitigate turbulence-induced phase fluctuations has been implemented by using a wavefront sensorless architecture The AO system was designed to correct the first 20 Zernike modes by using two separated active mirrors: a tip/tilt corrector and a DM with 32 actuators. Also, standard deviation of the atmospheric tilt was computed, DM stroke, the residual phase variance, the turbulence strength for different telescope apertures.

Effect of Hashimoto Disease in Diabetic Patients in National Center for Diabetes

Aufaira S. Nsaif; Wafaa R. Alfatlawi; Abdulnasser M. ALgobori

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3B, Pages 99-103
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3B.6

The most two common autoimmune disease in endocrinology was Diabetes mellitus (DM) and thyroid dysfunction (TD). This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of TD in DM patients of type 1. The current study is carried out in the National Center for Diabetes of Endocrine and Genetic (NCDEG), AL- Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad. This study comprised of (36) patients with hypothyroidism diagnosed clinically under supervision of specialist physician in endocrinology. Their ages ranged between (30-40) years, among them there were 17 males (48%) and 19 females (52%). In addition there were (36) healthy control their age ranged between (28-42) years, among them there were 21 males (58%) and 15 females (42%). Results showed highly significant increase in the rate of Chol, TSH, T3, and FBS in patient group when compared with healthy subject (p<0.001), also highly significant decrease of T4 (p<0.001). The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among type 1 DM patients is very high with hypothyroidism is being most common. This study recommended that screening of thyroid function must be done especially in uncontrolled diabetic patients.

Weathering Effect on Surface Characteristics of Superhydrophobic/ Hydrophobic Nanocomposites Coating

Hassan T. Jaafar; Balqees M. Aldabbagh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3B, Pages 92-98
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3B.5

Superhydrophobic and hydrophobic nanocomposites coating synthesized by electrospinning, polymer solution of (PS/DMF, PMMA/THF and Si/Th) were prepared in different wt% of composition for each solutions and also prepared with addition of TiO2 nanoparticles. Coated specimens were exposed to accelerated weathering test for 6 months. The aim of this research is to study weathering changes and physical properties of these superhydrophobic and hydrophobic nanocomposites coating to demonstrate these coatings in which can keeps their hydrophobicity properties for long period of time. Viscosity, surface tension, contact angle, roughness surface and hardness tests were calculated for all specimens before and after submitted to accelerate weathering test. Also SEM shows morphology of surfaces in which that (PS/DMF) coated specimen have higher amount of bulge or beads, (PMMA/THF) coated specimen having little amount of bulge or beads and defect as compared to specimen before coating, (Si/Th) owns less bulge or beads and defect but having little percent of contaminations at the surface as compared to other coated specimen.

Security Improve in ZigBee Protocol Based on RSA Public Algorithm in WSN

Nabaa A. Hasan; Alaa K. Farhan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3B, Pages 67-73
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3B.1

ZigBee is consuming low energy and providing the protection in Wireless Sensor Networks. ZigBee pro is supporting most applications. In spite of improved the security, ZigBee pro weak in key administration. In this paper, we depend on Logistic Map Diffie Hellman (LMDH) and SubMAC for Wireless Sensor Networks by ZigBee. In addition, we will improve the security in ZigBee by using the Rivest-ShamirAdleman (RSA) algorithm instead of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). LMDH used for improved key administration schema (protect key distribution) and SubMAC used for providing authentication and prevented Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) and Replay attacks, LMHD did not provide this service, so we use SubMAC to overcome with this problem, and use RSA to improve the security by encrypting the network key and ensure that the connection is secure between the nodes and then we can send the data safely. And the results ensure: the proposed is extra effective when compare with ZigBee pro from where the execution time and power consumption, in addition, it proved that security is improving.

Optical and Thermal Characterizations of PMMA Composites

Raghad S. Al-Khafaji; Kareem A. Jasim; Adil M. Ibraheim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2B, Pages 61-66
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2B.5

Thick composite films were prepared employing hand – layup method . A definite quantity of PMMA ( 98%wt ) , fixed content ( 2% wt ) of rutile titanium dioxide TiO2 , gamma alumina ( ᵞ- Al2O3 ) and Zirconia powder ( ZrO2 ) , were added to polymer solution gradually and separately. Optical constants were obtained of the prepared samples using spectrometer (UV- VIS). The prepared composite samples were thermally characterized by differential scanning calorimeter ( DSC ). We notice increasing value of glass temperature and differential heat capacity ( ∆Cp ) for composites compared with pure PMMA .

Modeling the Plasma Frequency for F2-Region Using Modified Chapman Function and NeQuick2 Model over Different Geographical Locations and Months

Ali Nima

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2B, Pages 45-53
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2B.3

This study aims to modeling the plasma frequency profile of the F2 region as a function of geographical location and month of the y ear. The most important model and function used are Chapman function and NeQuick 2 model which have been defined both by exponential function. These models need some ionospheric parameters such as the critical frequency of F2 layer (foF2), maximum peak height (hmF2), semi thickness (ymF2), and the M factor (M (3000) F2). The results of these models are compared with the results of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model. For north hemisphere, the results of Chapman function has great fit with the results of IRI2012 model for low and high latitudes. For southern hemisphere the MAPE has greater values at high latitudes and drops to low latitudes. For NeQuick model, MAPE has a periodic behavior with latitudes. The monthly mean of the MAPE of the results obtained by modeling the plasma frequency profile using Chapman function and NeQuick2 model equal 0.466 and 0.259. The analysis of the MAPE for ten months gives a best correlation between the MAPE and foF2.

Catalytic Reaction of Ethanol into Light Olefins Over 2wt%CuO/HZSM-5

Fanar G. Hashim G. Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2B, Pages 41-44
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2B.2

There was increasing in the international needing for fossil fuel, which is formed from nonrenewable materials such as crude oil. Bio-ethanol considered one of the materials that can be produced from renewable sources like the fermentation of sugar cane. 2wt% CuO doped HZSM-5 has been modified by the impregnation method. All experimental runs have conducted at 500 °C, 1 atmosphere pressure and WHSV 3.5 h-1 in a fixed bed reactor. Catalyst, which modified in this work, was analyzed by SEM and XRD as well as TGA experiment. The analysis hydrocarbons products have done by gas chromatographs provided with flame ionization detector (FID) and thermal conductivity detector (TCD). It has been studied CuO doped HZSM-5 catalyst gives higher ethanol conversion and yield especially light olefins as compared to HZSM-5 parent catalyst. In addition, reduces the coke formation over HZSM-5, therefore, enhanced the life of HZSM-5 catalyst.
HZSM-5, ethanol to hydrocarbons, Catalyst, coke, deactivation

Wavelet-Based Denoising Of Images

Alauldeen S. Yaseen; Rafid S. Zamel; Jabbar H. Khlaief

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2B, Pages 54-60
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2B.4

Wavelet-analysis has become a powerful tool for denoising images. It represents a new way to achieve better noise reduction and increased contrast. Here, experimentally demonstrate abilities of discrete wavelet transform with Daubechies basis functions for improving the quality of noisy this research two methods has been compaired for modify the coefficients using soft and hard threshold to improv the visual fineness of noisy image depend on Root-Mean-Square error (RMS). The low RMS value and better noise reduction find in soft threshold method which is based on Daubechies wavelet (db8) for first example image RMS=0.101 and second example RMS=0.109

Weak Convergence of Two Iteration Schemes in Banach Spaces

Salwa Abed; Zahraa M. Mohamed Hasan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2B, Pages 32-40
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2B.1

In this paper, we established weak convergence theorems by using appropriate conditions for approximating common fixed points and equivalence between the convergence of the Picard-Mann iteration scheme and Liu et al iteration scheme in Banach spaces. As well as, numerical examples are given to show that Picard-Mann is faster than Liu et al iteration schemes.

Improvement of Harris Algorithm Based on Gaussian Scale Space

Abdul Amir A. Karim; Rafal A. Sameer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1B, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1B.1

Features is the description of the image contents which could be corner, blob or edge. Corners are one of the most important feature to describe image, therefore there are many algorithms to detect corners such as Harris, FAST, SUSAN, etc. Harris is a method for corner detection and it is an efficient and accurate feature detection method. Harris corner detection is rotation invariant but it isn’t scale invariant. This paper presents an efficient harris corner detector invariant to scale, this improvement done by using gaussian function with different scales. The experimental results illustrate that it is very useful to use Gaussian linear equation to deal with harris weakness.

Morphological and Optical Properties of Porous Silicon

Mohammed S. Mohammed; Ruqaya A. Shlaga

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1B, Pages 17-20
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1B.3

In this work photo-electrochemical etching was used to synthesize uniform and non-uniform macro porous silicon from n-type with orientation (100). Specimens were anodized in a sol of 25% HF: C2H2OH at 1:1 rate. Morphology and porosity of the samples were studied. Optical characteristics (reflection and photoluminescence) of PS samples by changing current density (10, 12, 14 and 16 mA/cm2 ) for fixed etching time (8min) and power density (17mW/cm2 ) by using red laser illumination wavelength (645nm) were investigated. Porous silicon samples imaged via scanning electron microscope (SEM), which showed the topography of silicon surface and pores distribution.

Properties of Fuzzy Closed Linear Operator

Jehad R. Kider; Noor A. Kadhum

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1B, Pages 25-31
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1B.5

In this paper we recall the definition of fuzzy norm of a fuzzy bounded linear operator and the fuzzy convergence of sequence of fuzzy bounded linear operators in order to prove the uniform fuzzy bounded theorem and fuzzy open mapping theorem. The definition of fuzzy closed linear operators on fuzzy normed spaces is introduced in order to prove the fuzzy closed graph theorem.

Preparation and Study the Structure of Pure and Impure Barium Titanate with Zr4+ Ion

Mojahid M. Najim; Wasan A. Hekmat

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1B, Pages 21-24
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1B.4

In this research, pure and impure barium titanate with Zr4+ ion with two molar ratios x= (5, 10) % have been synthesized by solid-state reaction technique. The powders calculations at two temperatures (950°C and 1400°C). An XRD technique was used in order to study the crystal structure of pure and impure barium titanate, which confirmed the formation of the tetragonal phase of BaTiO3, then calculate the lattice parameters of pure and impure barium titanate, the addition of zirconium ion Zr4+ lead to increases lattice parameters.

Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial activities of Uracil and Uracil–Oxalate Complexes with Cr(III) and Fe(III)

Shatha M.H. Obaid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1B, Pages 6-16
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1B.2

New complexes of the some trivalent transition metal ions of the uracil such as [M(Ura)3Cl3] and mixed ligand metal complexes with uracil and oxalic acid [M(Ura)2(OA)(OH2)Cl].H2O type, where (Ura)=Uracil, (OA= Oxalic acid dihydrate, (M= Cr+3 and Fe+3) were synthesized and characterized by the elemental analysis, FT.IR, electronic spectra, mass spectra and magnetic susceptibility as well as the conductivity measurements. Six–coordinated metal complexes were suggested for the isolated complexes of Cr+3 and Fe+3 with molecular formulas dependent on the nature of uracil and oxalic acid present. The proposed molecular structure for all complexes with their ions is octahedral geometries. The antibacterial efficiency was tested of metal salts, ligands and metal complexes to the pathogenic bacteria activity have been studied.

A Proposed Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosing System Based on Clustering and Segmentation Techniques

Sarah J. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 160-165
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.12

Alzheimer's-disease (AD) is one of the prevalent diseases that afflict the
elderly. The medical field defines Alzheimer is the destruction of brain cells so
that the person loses knowledge and perception, afflict both sexes and is called
dementia. The medical field often suffers from accurate diagnosis and detection of
the disease in the early stages. This paper presents a diagnostic approach of
Alzheimer based on K-mean clustering algorithm with Markov random field
segmentation on Magnetic Reasoning Images (MRI) to build software able to help
the medical staff identifying and diagnosis the disease. The experimental result
shows that 91% accuracy is achieved, which demonstrate the system's reliability
in the medical diagnostic environment.

Evaluation of purified urease activity from Proteus mirabilis using iron oxide nanoparticles and measurement of urea concentration in blood

Hadeel H. Dawud; Entesar H. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 152-155
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.10

The activity of urease purified from Proteus mirabilis bacteria was
estimated using gamma iron oxide nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3) which were obtained as
standard in size (20- 40)nm, purity 99%. The enzyme activity was estimated by
incubating the pure enzyme with various concentrations of nanoparticles ranged
between (1- 6) μg/ml. The results indicates a decrease in enzymatic activity with
increasing of nanoparticles concentration. After that, the concentration of blood
urea was measured using urease obtained from a standard kit, urease purified from
Proteus mirabilis and the urease- gamma iron nanoparticles solution. The
comparison was then made among the results of urea concentrations by statistical
analysis using T-test. The results showed that there is no significant difference
between the results obtained from urease standard kit and urease purified from
the bacteria, this is due to the efficiency of urease purified from the bacteria. On the
other hand, the results showed that there is a significant difference (P≤ 0.01) in
urea concentrations obtained from urease- gamma iron oxide nanoparticles
solution due to the inhibition of the enzyme which lost its activity by nanoparticles.

Intrusion Detection System Based on Data Mining Techniques to Reduce False Alarm Rate

Sarah M. Shareef; soukeana hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 110-119
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.3

Nowadays, Security of network traffic is becoming a major issue of
computer network system according to the huge development of internet.
Intrusion detection system has been used for discovering intrusion and to
maintain the security information from attacks. In this paper, produced two
levels of mining algorithms to construct Network Intrusion Detection System
(NIDS) and to reduce false alarm rate, in the first level Naïve Bayes algorithm
is used to classify abnormal activity into the main four attack types from
normal behavior. In the second level ID3 decision tree algorithm is used to
classify four attack types into (22) children of attacks from normal behavior.
To evaluate the performance of the two proposed algorithms by using kdd99
dataset intrusion detection system and the evaluation metric accuracy,
precision, DR, F-measure. The experimental results prove that the proposal
system done high detection rates (DR) of 99 % and reduce false positives (FP)
of 0 % for different types of network intrusions.

The Growth Characteristics of RF-Magnetron Sputtered Nanocrystalline TiO2 Thin Films

Azhar K. Sadkhan; Suaad A. Mohammed; Mohammed K. Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 128-130
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.6

In this paper, RF Magnetron sputtered TiO2 thin films deposited on
glass slices at various powers (75,100,125 and 150) Watt for (1.5) hour and
different thickness (62.5-88-118 and 132.6) nm, the TiO2 thin films annealed with
400°C for 2 hour and the morphology and structure of these films are described
by X-ray diffraction XRD and atomic force microscopy AFM to show the phase
structure. X-ray diffraction investigation uncovered that the crystalline size of the
TiO2 thin films displays an expanding pattern with increasing the sputtering
power. The preferred orientation of (101) was watched for the films deposited
with sputtering power of (75,100,125 and 150) Watt.

The Approximate Solution of the Fornberg-Whitham Equation by a Semi-Analytical Iterative Technique

Sinan H. Abd Almjeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 120-123
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.4

In this work, two semi-analytical methods are introduced in
order to handle the solution of the Fornberg-Whitham equation. The
first one method has been proposed by Temimi and Ansari, namely the
TAM. The second method is the Banach contraction method which is
briefly called the BCM. Both methods do not require using any
additional assumptions. Our calculations are distinguished by an
efficiency and rapidity of obtaining the results, in comparison with the
previous studies for solving the same problem.

Effect of Temperature and Concentration on the Optical Properties of PVC Solutions

Esam A. Tawfiq; Shams. M. Abdul kareem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 170-174
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.14

In this paper, effects of temperature and concentration on the
absorption spectra for Polyvinyl chloride solutions are studied at wavelengths
from 200 to 400 nm and with the range of temperature 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60
degrees (Co). Electronic absorption spectra were examined over the
wavelength range 200-400 nm by different concentrations (1x10-3, 8x10-4,
6.5x10-4, 5x10-4 and 3x10-4)[M]. The UV spectra shifted slightly towards
large wavelength with increasing the temperature. The values of the energy
gap of polyvinyl chloride are decreasing as concentration and temperature
increased. The data shows that the refractive index of the polymer decreases
with increasing the wavelength and temperature. The relationship between the
absorption coefficient and photon energy of the PVC solutions are calculated.

The Influence of Immersion in Different Chemical Solutions on the Mechanical and Physical properties of (Epoxy/Styrene-Butadiene Rubber) Blend Reinforced with Nano Copper Oxide

Rana M. Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 104-109
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.2

The aim of this work was to evaluate some mechanical and physical
properties of a composite material which consists of (epoxy/styrene-butadiene
rubber) blend as a matrix, reinforced with copper oxide (CuO) with a weight
fraction 3%, and the composite material was manufactured by hand lay-up.
The optimum mixing ratio was (75:25) % of epoxy and (SBR) was chosen to
accomplish the work due to its highest impact strength (2.1KJ/m2). The tests
that were performed on the material were: tensile test, impact test, thermal
conductivity test, and the absorption test, in addition to the microscopic
imaging using scanning electron microscope (SEM), to determine the surface
morphology of the specimens. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrochloric
acid (HCl), both (0.1) normal concentration solutions, were used for the
immersion. The results showed that CuO nanofiller improved tensile and
impact properties of the blend, besides increasing resistance to diffusion of
chemicals into the material. The results showed that the immersion in HCl
solution increased the impact strength of the composite from (2.27KJ/m2) to
(3.38KJ/m2), and also increased the tensile strength from (9.2MPa) to (9.8
MPa), while immersion in NaOH solution decreased the tensile strength to
(7.3MPa), but increased the impact strength to (2.42KJ/m2). Thermal
conductivity was (0.21W/m.°C) before immersion in solutions, but changed to
(0.27W/m.°C) and (0.24W/m.°C) after immersion in HCl and NaOH
respectively. The weight gain after immersion in NaOH was higher than weight
gain after immersion in HCl.

Easy and New Chemical Synthesis of Stable Nano Sliver using Propylene Glycol and Glycerin as Reducing Agents

Abdulah A. Mohammed; Sarab T. Mahmood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 131-135
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.7

In this present work we have synthesized stable silver
nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) by chemical reduction with aqueous solutions of
silver nitrate (i) propylene glycol (ii) glycerin as reducing agents and guar
gum as a stabilizer. The reaction were done at room temperature and at
pH=8. Systematic characterizations of the Ag-NPs were done using UV-Vis,
zeta potential analysis, X-Ray diffraction (XRD), AFM and SEM which
reveal stable Ag-NPs. These measurements indicate that the particles are
mostly spherical in shape. The UV-Vis spectra of the result solution of Ag-
NPs show an absorption peak at 412 nm and 424 nm for using propylene
glycol and for using glycerin respectively. These color occurring due to
Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). The SEM measurements gave a particle
size of 40 -70 nm. Nano silver showed stability for long periods of time to
more than nine months, and this can be an economical and effective way for
wide scale synthesis of Ag-NPs which applicable for various medical

Optical Characterizations of RF-Magnetron Sputtered Nanocrystalline TiO2 Thin Film

Azhar K. Sadkhan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 156-159
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.11

TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films are widely used as antireflection coating
in solar cell, in this paper, RF magnetron sputtering technique is used to prepare
TiO2 thin film on glass substrates, TiO2 thin films deposited under different
powers (75,100,125 and 150) Watt for (1.5) hour resulted in different layer
thickness (62.5,88,118 and 132.6) nm respectively. The optical properties
examined by UV-VIS spectroscopy. TiO2 thin films exhibit a high transparency in
the region from about 350 nm above, we suggest that these results indicate the
most suitable growing conditions for obtaining high quality sputtered TiO2 thin
films with higher transparence performance for solar cell application. the optical
absorbance coefficient for all films were genuinely high esteems coming to above
104 cm-1, which implies that there is allowed direct transitions, the energy gab
reach to the typical value of the bulk TiO2 (3.5) eV.

Hydraulic Parameters of Groundwater Aquifers in Khan-Al-Baghdadi Area

Hussein I. Al-Sudani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 136-146
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.8

The mainly objective of groundwater studies is assessment the physical
characterizations of water-bearing layers. Conducting and analyzing aquifer
tests is one of the most efficient ways to assessment these characterizations. The
aim of this research is to carry out hydrogeological investigation in Khan Al-
Baghdadi area within Anbar Governorate in the west of Iraq to evaluate
hydraulic properties of the most important groundwater aquifers in order to
achieve optimum use of groundwater in term of sustainable water management by
using Cooper-Jacob and Theis Recovery Test methods to calculate transmissivity
and storage coefficient after field investigation of aquifers extended in the area
where geographical position, elevations, static water levels, depths, thicknesses
and maximum yields were carried out. The results showed that Khan Al-Baghdadi
area has only confined aquifer within the geological formation extended in area.
The average transmissivity and storage coefficient parameters, which calculated
using two wells, drilled in the area were (33.966-1171) m2/day and (2.2*10-4-
2.07*10-2) respectively, dependent on cooper-Jacob and Theis recovery solutions.
Transmissivity distribution contour map showed increased values towards
southwest part of the area while gradually decreased values was recorded in the
eastern and southeast part of the area.

Comparison between the Biological Activity of Agaricus bisporus Fruiting Bodies and Albizzia lebbeck Leaves Extract against Different Pathogenic Microoganisms

Israa A. Al-Temimay

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 166-169
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.13

In this study, antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate extracts of Agaricus
bisporus fruiting bodies and ethyl acetate extracts of Albizzia lebbeck leaves were
examined in-vitro with (2) two pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Proteus)
and yeast (Candida albicanus), following agar well diffusion method using
different concentrations (25, 50, and 100μl). The extracts of Agaricus bisporus and
Albizzia lebbeck were showed potent antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria
and yeast. Agaricus bisporus fruiting bodies extract was showed the highest
inhibitory effect versus growth of bacteria and yeast were tested in this study. The
E. coli and Proteus were found to show large sensitivity to the extracts of Agaricus
bisporus with 12 and 13mm inhibition zones respectively at 25 μl concentration
while Candida albicanus was more resistant to this extract with inhibition zone of
9mm at 25 μl concentration. In the same time the inhibition zone of Albizzia
lebbeck against E coli, Proteus and Candida albicanus were 12, 10.8, 6mm
respectively at 25 μl concentration.

Levels of Lead and Chromium Ions in Different Brands of Lipstick Sold at Local Markets in Iraq

Shaymaa H. Khazaal; Khalida F. Al-Azawi; Hamsa A. Eessa; Abdulnasser M. AL-Gebori; Hasan R. Obayes; Abeer H. Khasraghi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 147-151
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.9

Lead and Chromium ion samples of five commercial samples
of each of twenty brands of lipstick sold at locally markets in Iraq were
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Samples of
digested Lipstick were used, acid digestion method using acids HCl:
HNO3 in ratio 1:3 were used before analysis. Average for analyzed
samples were Pb, 0.10-4.85 ppm; Cr, 0.18-5.2 ppm. Samples No.9 and
No.4 showed the least concentrations of Pb and Cr respectively. These
values are not expected to be toxic to humans. However, exposure over
long periods might cause accumulation of the elements in the body and
even at low concentration; some metals could initiate allergic reactions.

Studying the Effect of Annealing Temperature on some Physical Properties of In2O3 Thin Films

Duaa A. Mohammed; Muslim F. Jawad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 124-127
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.5

In this study, In2O3 thin films were deposited on quartz substrates by
pulsed laser deposition technique at room temperature and followed by
thermally annealing at 300℃, 400℃ and 500℃ for 1 hour. The optical band
gap was found to increase with the annealing temperature from 3.5 to 3.85 eV
and the transmittance was observed above 90%. XRD results show that the films
are polycrystalline in nature and crystallizes with preferred orientation (222).
SEM images show that the films are

Measurement of Radon Gas Concentrations and Hazard Effects in Underground Water Samples in Karbala Governorate of Iraq

I. T. Al-Alawy; A. A. Hasan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2C, Pages 118-122
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2C.4

One of the most characterizations of social health is the existence availability of sources irrigation water. Since the main source of water, contamination is radon gas. Six regions in Karbala province in Iraq were chosen to evaluate Radon level in underground water-samples by using (SSNTD-CR-39) Detector. The current measurements showed that highest level was in Al-Horr region to be 4.152±2.2Bq/L, where lowest concentration was in Hay-Rumdan 2.165±1.6Bq/L. The maximum Annual-Effective Dose (AED) was found in Al-Horr to be 14.34±3.5μSv/y, whereas the minimal value indicated at Hay-Rumdan 8.66±3.1μSv/y. In general, it has been found that Radon-level concentration, in the studied groundwater-samples, was less than allowed permissible value 11.1Bq/L and annual effective-doses were below the recommended international value 1mSv/y. Therefore, groundwater in all underground water studied in Karbala province is safe where the focus of radon obsession is not a public concern.

Determination of Radon Concentrations in Soil Around Al-Tuwaitha Site Using CR-39 Detector

Khalid Mahdi; Auday T. Subhi; Najlaa R. Sharif; Ghuzlan S. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2C, Pages 108-112
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2C.2

In this work radon concentration in 37 soil samples collected from 17 regions surround the (Al Tuwaitha) were measured by using solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD.s) CR-39 with natural exposure of one month, and by comparison with standard samples. The radon concentration in the soil samples was about (9.583 ± 0.369
28.029 ± 0.631) Bq/m3 in locations one (Rotate Salman) and eight (An area agricultural near high-voltage towers) respectively, with rate of (20.939 ± 0.541) Bq/m3. The specific activity of radium (Ra) dissolved during generate radon were ranging between (9.857 – 3.37), with rate of (7.393), surface emission of radon gas rate in the soil was found between (0.144 – 0.422 Bq/m2.h) with rate of (0.314 Bq/m2.h) and their mass emission of radon gas rate has the highest value of (0.016 Bq / kg . h) and lower value (0.005 Bq / kg . h) with rate of (0.012 Bq / kg . h. These results are within the acceptable limit
that recorded by UNECEAR and ICRP.

The Effects of Sputtering Time on Cds Thin Film Solar Cell Deposited by DC Plasma Sputtering Method

Azhar K. Sadkhan; Sabah H. Sabeh; Mohammed K. Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2C, Pages 123-127
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2C.5

CdS thin films of different thickness have been prepared by dc sputtering technique on glass slides for a window layer of solar cells. The CdS target were sputtered in different sputtering times (1,1.5,2.5,3) hrs, working pressure (2×10-2) mbar and discharge voltage(2) kV.The structure of the nanoparticles films was investigated of CdS thin films by X-ray diffraction (XRD).The XRD patterns showed that the films were hexagonal (wurtzite) structure having strong preferential orientation along the (002) plane with particle size in the range of (41.04-41.46-41.88-42.53) nm, the peak at (002) preferred orientations of the films are shifted a little from left to right side and films converted to crystalline form. The morphology of the nanoparticles films was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) which indicates that the average grain size of CdS thin film is in the range of (41.3-44.2-51.6-50.08) nm. The roughness of films surface increases with increasing the sputtering time, which can be useful for the solar cell.

The effects of Cyanobactrum Chroococcus Minor and Oscillatoria amonea on Seed Germination of Plant Vigna radiate

Ghaidaa Alrubaie

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2C, Pages 103-107
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2C.1

Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic photosynthesis algae able to produce toxins and that cause problems in water quality, agriculture and aquatic organisms As well as concerns about the public health for humans. Among the cyanobacterial toxins, microcystins (MC) are the most common. In this study, Identification and Isolation of blue green algae Chroococcus minor and Oscillatoria amonea Belonging to the cyanobacteria division, BG-11 media were used to cultivation. In suitable laboratory conditions (25 ±2C°, 260μE/m2/sec) for 16:8 hrs. Light: dark. The culture was harvested after 30 days and determine the effects of the extracellular of both algae on seed germination for Vigna radiate. The results showed reduction in root and shoot length of the exposed seedlings. Observed throughout the study that with increased concentration of cyanobacterial cell extract been found on the growth radicle and shoots decreasing. It was found the begin decomposition of roots and is not configured to lateral root at treatment (5 ml D.W + 5ml extract) recorded 4.9 cm. the highest inhibitor in seed germination it is recorded 4.7 cm at treatment 10 ml extract

Determination Emitted Gasses from Using Three Types of Woods in Grilling Meats

Sedik A.K. Al-Hiyaly; Ahmed S. Al-Taie

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2C, Pages 113-117
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2C.3

The randomly using of different woods in grilling meats may cause several health and environmental effects due to various gasses emitted from burning such woods. The current work has examined the type and concentration of several emitted gases from burning raw tree wood, wood charcoal and palm fronds. This study has measured volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon mono oxide (CO), ozone (O3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The concentrations of these emitted gasses were measured at fire start point, 15, 30 and 60 minutes.It has been found that raw tree wood gave highest mean value of VOC ranged from 6.61± 0.57 to 173.67 ± 12.52 ppm whilst palm fronds showed mean values lying between 17.67 ± 2.726 ppm and 48.6 ± 0.123 ppm. On the other hand, wood charcoal had emitted mean values varying from 1.33 ± 0.17 to 2.97 ± 0.13 ppm. For carbon monoxide, raw tree wood gave mean values varied from 39.6 ± 4.65 ppm to 442.67 ± 71.6 ppm while palm fronds showed mean values ranged from 39.47 ± 4.706 ppm to 432.67 ± 51.598 ppm. In addition, wood charcoal has been found to have mean values varying from 17.67 ± 2.32 ppm to 62.33 ± 3.44 ppm. In case of ozone content, raw tree wood had almost similar mean values varied from 0.02 ± 0.0 ppm to 0.02 ± 0.01 ppm and palm fronds showed mean values ranged from 0.0267±0.009 ppm to 0.0433±0.005 ppm. In addition, wood charcoal had almost similar mean values (0.04 ± 0.0 – 0.043 ± 0.03) during all combustion intervals but higher than those of other burning materials. Regarding hydrogen sulfide, the raw tree wood had a rang mean value of 4.43 ± 1.699 ppm to 23.37 ± 0.69 ppm. Palme fronds have given mean value varying from 1.267±0.205 ppm to 1.267±0.205 ppm. Meanwhile, wood charcoal smokes were free from H2S. The sulfide dioxide emitted from raw tree wood showed mean value ranged from 0.33 ± 0.06 ppm to 1.173 ± 0.17 ppm. While palm fronds had almost constant mean values, during all combustion intervals, lying from 0.433±0.205 to 2.4±0.38 ppm. Wood charcoal had mean values varied from 0.3±0.04 ppm to0.57 ±0.09 ppm.

Transesterification of Castor Oil by Using Methanol and Ethanol (50/50) Mixture

Muna M. Khudhair; Sajeda A. Husain; Zahraa M. Jassim; Shefaa M. Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1B, Pages 59-63
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1B.10

Biodiesel is gaining considerable attention as a renewable source
of energy, as an alternative to petroleum fuel and can be used in engine
without modification in this paper, the profile of preparation of fatty acid
methyl ethyl ester from castor oil via a base-catalyzed transesterification was
investigated.. The variables chosen for the study were reaction time, oil to
(methanol and ethanol) mixture ratio, and reaction temperature at constant
concentration of KOH(catalyst) .The effects of these variables on viscosity and
specific gravity were studied.

Analysis of Image Noise Reduction Using Neural Network

Mohanad N. Abdulwahed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1B, Pages 76-87
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1B.13

Noise adding methods (impulse and Gaussian) are using in this
work, adding this type of noise employ to mensuration the image quality as
result, therefore transform of (RGB) colors to another type of color
impersonation that easy to deal with it, also sensitivity of human eyes to detect
the colors. Applying Noise reduction (mean method, mode method, median
method) ,By using a test image, we demonstrate that the filtering structure
yields an output image which is significantly better than those of median,
weighted median .The program of this work is written with Delphi Language,
which have some flexibility to deal with image that's not found in other
language. The great feature of this language and the ability to process the
image in memory (so the processing will be faster and easier), easy to access
the parameters through the subroutines (however the size of it), showing the
stored images that in memory to the displayer through one instruction.

Effect of Laser Pulses on Characterization of Zincoxide Thin Film Prepared by PLD

Suaad S. Shaker; Asma H. Mohammed; Majid S. Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1B, Pages 93-98
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1B.15

In this work, ZnO thin films have been deposition using pulsed laser
deposition (PLD) method on glass and Si (111) substrates at different laser
pulsed. Some properties of ZnO thin films were studied, the results of XRD
explain Zinc oxidethin films with hexagonal wurtzite structure with thickness
about 155and 200 nm. FTIR spectrum shows the existence of Zn – O bond that
appear the texture of ZnOnanostructures. The root mean square of thin films
were explained with the range 8.31–15.2 nm with particle size about 41.6 -
45.41and was only slightly dependent on number of laser pulses. Zinc oxide thin
films showed transmittance of over 80% .The photovoltaic characteristics
indicated an increase the short circuit current-open circuit voltage with
illumination power as increased number of laser pulses resulted increasing of
film thickness.

Preparation and Investigation of Flexural Strength and Impact Strength for Nano Hybrid Composite Materials of the Tri- Polymeric Blend used in Structural Applications

Sihama I. Salih; Wleed B. Salih; Mustafa S. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1B, Pages 12-24
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1B.3

Current work is aimed to preparation the nanocomposites laminates
of low density and good durability to use in structural applications. So, in this
paper, the preparation and compare of some mechanical properties of two
groups of tri-polymer blends composites consisting of ((93% unsaturated
polyester resin (UP)+(5%PMMA) (Poly methyl methacrylate)+2%NR
(Natural Rubber)) as the matrix materials. Added the reinforce materials
(silica (SiO2) and zirconia (ZrO2) nanoparticles) individually, with different
volume fraction of (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5%) to the ternary polymer blends according
to the following formula:- [((100-X) (93%UP)+2%NR+5%PMMA): (X%SiO2
or X% ZrO2)] The first group is composed of matrix material reinforced with
zirconia (ZrO2) nanoparticles with average diameter of nanoparticles
(56.88nm) and the second group is composed of matrix material reinforced
with silica (SiO2) nanoparticles with average diameter of nanoparticles
(24.59nm). Then used as a matrix material for the preparation of hybrid
laminar composites materials, reinforcement with one and two layers of
woven carbon fibers The research included the study of the influence of
volume fraction of nanoparticles on some of mechanical and physical
properties like flexural strength, flexural modulus impact strength, and impact
fracture toughness, in addition to test infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and all of
these tests were carried out at laboratory temperature. Search results have
shown that the values of (flexural modulus and impact strength and fracture
toughness) increases with the increase of the nanoparticles ratios in polymer
blend nano composite of prepared samples. While flexural strength value
decreases with the increase in the volume fraction of nanoparticles in polymer
blend nano composite. The fracture energy of the of hybrid laminar
composites is higher than those containing only the nanoparticles powders.
Morphology test by scanning electron microscope indicates that a good
adhesion or interfacial interactions between the Nano powders particles,
carbon fibers and components of ternary polymer blend. Which results in
higher the carbon fibers efficiency factor, and hence higher mechanical
strength. So, the hybrid laminar nano composites, which appear high flexural
modulus and impact strength and fracture toughness, can be foreseen to
provide valuable contribution to high performance structural applications.

Text File Hiding Randomly Using Secret Sharing Scheme

Yossra H. Ali; Hussein J. Mankhi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1B, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1B.1

Exchange of information through the channels of communication can be
unsafe. Communication media are not safe to send sensitive information so it is
necessary to provide the protection of information from disclosure to unauthorized
persons. This research presented the method to information security is done
through information hiding into the cover image using a least significant bit (LSB)
technique, where a text file is encrypted using a secret sharing scheme. Then,
generating positions to hiding information in a random manner of cover image,
which is difficult to predict hiding in the image-by-image analysis or statistical
analyzes. Where it provides two levels of information security through encryption
of a text file using the secret sharing and the generating random positions of hiding.
This method has been in hiding a text file and recovered without loss of
information, as well as not noticing any deformation of the image. Where it was
hiding a text file size of 20 KB in image cover (250x250) pixels, the result of MSE
is 0.696 and PSNR is 49.211.

Theoretical Study of comparative between the speed of penetration and cutting using a laser beam

Ekhlas J. Mahmood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1B, Pages 37-43
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1B.6

This research is devoted to study the effect of a laser beam
power TEA-CO2 , Nd- YAG laser, and thermal properties of the materials
when it is constant once and varying another once with the time on the
penetration and cutting speeds. It is concluded that the processes of
penetration and cutting by using laser Nd-YAG is the best comparative
with using of laser TEA-CO2, penetration speeds when (P = P0, C = C0,
and ρ = ρ0) by using laser Nd-YAG greater than penetration speeds by
using of laser TEA-CO2 by 15.5 approximately while penetration speeds
when (P = P(t), C = C0, and ρ = ρ0) by using laser Nd-YAG greater than
penetration speeds by using of laser TEA-CO2 by 8.519 approximately. In
addition, the temperature of the evaporation of material plays an
important role in the processes of penetration and cutting and whenever
temperature of the evaporation of material less the cutting and
penetration speeds are greater. (MATLAB 8) program was implemented
for all simulation processes are related.

Assessment of Some Heavy Metal Concentrations in Drilling Mud samples in Az Zubair Oil Field, Basra, Iraq

Sahar A. Amin; Abdul Hamid M. J. Al- Obiady; Rana R. Alani; Athmar A. Al-Mashhady

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1B, Pages 68-75
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1B.12

Analysis of eight heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn,
Ni, Pb and Zn) of 14 drilling mud samples collected from oil well at different
depths which is located in AZ Zubair oil field-Basra was done in this study .
The samples were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
Obtained results indicated that the heavy metal concentrations range from the
lowest value of 1.66mg/kg for Cd to the highest value of 1235.86mg/kg for
Fe. The abundance trend for the heavy metals concentration was in the
descending order of Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb, and Cd. Four parameters:
Enrichment Factor (EF), Contamination Factor (CF), Geo-accumulation
Index (Igeo) and Pollution Load Index (PLI) were assessed in order to
evaluate the degree of contamination.

Re-Use of Glass Wool Fiber as New Composite Polyester System

Raghad U. Abass

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1B, Pages 7-11
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1B.2

Four different ratios of composites were prepared by varying the
wool glass, at different additive weight percentages (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 wt. %)
in order to study the effect of glass wool reinforcement on mechanical and
chemical properties of GW-reinforced polyester composites. The vacuum
bagging technique was adopted for the fabrication of hybrid composite
materials. Afterword many mechanical properties as hardness, impact
resistance, and compression resistance for these hybrid composites were
evaluated according ASTM Standards. The mechanical properties were
improved as the fibers reinforcement content increased in the matrix
material. The chemical properties were improved as increased the weight of
glass wool. The chemical and mechanical properties have been increased
for maximum value when glass wool fiber has reached 0.6% wt.

Propose an Arabic CAPTCHA System based on Chaotic Maps

Mariam T. Sulaiman; Nidaa F. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1B, Pages 48-52
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1B.8

CAPTCHA is the facility that prevents web bots from accessing
the web services by generating tests to check whether the user is human or
computer program. In this paper, a new pseudo-random bits generator based
on chaotic system is offered to generate Arabic letters and numbers for
CAPTCHA system. The proposed generator uses two Jacobian elliptic
Chebyshev rational maps that are combined in the algorithm to produce a
block of 32bits in each iteration. A specified number of bits are selected from
the resulted blocks to be converted to a set of Arabic letters and numbers.
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) statistical test suite
are used to assess the generator randomness, all tests has been passed except
Longest Run of Ones in a Block Test, Binary Matrix Rank Test and Random
Excursions Test.

Generalized Dependent Elements of Generalized Reverse Derivation on Semiprime Rings

Shaimaa Yass

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1B, Pages 88-92
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1B.14

Let R be an associative ring, and Š:RR be a map, if there exists
an element eR such that Š(u)e= [u,e]e, for every uR, in this case e is called
Generalized Dependent Element of Š, and Ğ-D(Š) denote the set of all
Generalized Dependent Elements of Š. In this paper the result proved, let R be
semiprime ring, and F : RR is a generalized reverse derivation, related with
derivation d, then eĞ-D(F), iff, eZ(R) and eF(u) =0 for every uR.

Antioxidant activity of Linalool

Majid S. Jabir; Ali A. Taha; Usama I. Sahib

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1B, Pages 64-67
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1B.11

In recent years, Essential oils from their various aromatic plants had
been reported to be used in treating of many types of cancer due to their antitumor
activity. In addition, numerous studies had investigated the highest capability of
chemopreventive phytochemicals compound to act as anticancer drugs. In the
present research, the antioxidant activity of Linalool on free radicals compounds
was studied. The Antioxidant activity was performed using two methods, DPPH
and Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Scavenging Capacity. The DPPH scavenging
activity demonstrated that Linalool had antioxidant activity comparing with
ascorbic acid. Linalool demonstrated moderate antioxidant activity with
50.57471% compared with ascorbic acid that showed 86%. Meanwhile, H2O2
scavenging capacity methods investigated that Linalool exhibited moderate
scavenging activity 56.36% comparing with ascorbic acid that showed 65%. The
results of this study investigated that the Linalool can be used as easily accessible
source of natural antioxidants. It can able to be used in the treating several types
of cancers as a result of antioxidant activity of it.

C-Reactive Protein as a Marker in the Iraq Patients with Poisoning Thyroid Gland Disease

Maryam D. Kamel; Abbas A. Mohammed; Ali A. Ibrahim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1B, Pages 44-47
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1B.7

The present study aimed to investigate the possibility of using Creactive
protein (CRP) and the level of CRP in serum sample as a marker
for patients with poisoning thyroid gland disease. In addition, the
relationship between inflammation and poisoning thyroid gland. About 21
of serum samples were examined from patients with poisoning thyroid gland
(aged between 14 and 60 years old). Qualitative test was done to detect the
presence of CRP in the patient’s serum. The qualitative test showed that
21(100%) patients with poisoning thyroid gland give positive result to CRP.
The HPLC analysis done to determine the concentration of CRP in patient's
serum. The HPLC analysis showed that the level of concentration for CRP
in serum between (6.4-9.49mg/l). According to the results of the present,
the significant changes in the levels of CRP for the patients with thyroid
disorders observed in current study confirm that inflammation has an
important role on pathogenesis of thyroid dysfunctions regardless of their
thyroid dysfunction type. As well as the present study shown that, the CRP
is a useful marker for patients with poisoning thyroid gland.

Proposed Video Watermarking Algorithm based on Edge or Corner Regions

Nidaa F. Hassan; Rusul N. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1B, Pages 25-32
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1B.4

In this research, a watermark algorithm is proposed to embed a secret
message in a digital video. The proposed algorithm exploits edges and corners
regions in images, to be hosts for hiding secret bits. Embedding in these regions
is consider optimal since these regions featuring with colors variation, so
embedding will not effect on uniform distribution of colors, and on transparency
requirement. The process of embedding and extracting watermarked massage is
implemented by decomposition digital video to several images (frames), then
selecting the edges and corners regions to be host locations, Least Significant
Bit (LSB) techniques are used to embed watermarked message in images of
digital video. Investigations results proved that number of hidden bits in corner
region is small in comparison with edges regions, but it is harder to detect. Text
message before embedded in video frames is encrypted by Advanced Encryption
Algorithm (AES) to increase security and robustness of watermarking process.

Effects of Electrode Geometry on Energy Transfer Characteristics of Electrolytic Cells Used for Production of Metallic Nanostructures

Noor I. Naji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1B, Pages 33-36
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1B.5

In this work, the effects of geometries of stainless steel electrodes used in
electrolytic analysis cells were studied. These cells are used for preparation of
metallic nanostructures. These effects can be observed by studying energy transfer
characteristics of electrolytic cell as the electric field and current density are
determined by its electrode geometry. Four electrode geometries were used in this

Optical and Structural Properties of (In2O3:ZnO:Au) Nanocomposite Thin Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Method

Abdul Hadi K. Judran; Farah T.M. Noori; Nawres D. Hamza

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1B, Pages 53-58
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1B.9

Indium Oxide (In2O3) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were
mixed carefully with gold nanoparticles, which were synthesis, by turkevich
method. By using the method of spray pyrolysis different concentrations
(5:5:0 ml, 5:4:1 ml, 5:3:2 ml, 5:2:3 ml, 5:1:4 ml and 5:0:5 ml) from these
chemical compounds were used to preformed nanocomposite thin films of
thickness of (250-300) nm. The structural properties were studied for all
nanocomposite thin film samples with different concentrations. The existence
of Miller indices conforms to (211), (222), (400), (333), (440) and (622) major
lattice planes of the cubic spinel phase of In2O3 at 2θ =20.17, 33, 44.66, 50.95,
59.02, 72.48 and 73.12. While secondary lattice planes of (100) and (002) of
ZnO at 2θ = 31.5582 and 34.1617, also lattice planes of (111) and (200) of
Au were found at 2θ = 38.5799 and 45.6016. The work also extended to study
the optical properties, which included the transmission spectrum, absorption
spectrum, absorption coefficient, attenuation coefficient and estimation of
optical energy gap for all samples. The results of optical properties were
clearly demonstrated that the increasing of gold concentration is decreasing
the transmission, and decreasing the optical band gap from 3.10 to 3.05 eV,
but increasing the absorption coefficient and attenuation coefficient. Finally
The real and imaginary part of dielectric constant of (In2O3:ZnO:Au)
nanocomposite thin film with different concentrations decrease with