Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Main Subjects : Science

Preparation of Nickel Oxide Microparticles by Pulsed Laser Ablation and Application to Gas Sensors

Nedal A. Hussain; Luma Y. Abbas; Lamyaa A. Latif

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 6, Pages 1011-1018
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i6.1593

Nickel oxide (NiO) microparticles were synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in double deionized water and intensively studied using Nd:YAG laser. The obtained sample was examined by X-ray diffraction, XRD measurement which tests the existence of polycrystalline. The structural parameters introduced and surface morphology was studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy devices. The optical properties of microparticles in a liquid were investigated through UV-VIS spectroscopy. The CO/CO2 sensing properties of the NiO microstructure sensors were systematically investigated, and the effects of different laser fluencies on the CO/CO2 sensing characteristics were analyzed. XRD measurements reflected the existence of polycrystalline, the optical result shows that The absorption spectra peak centered around 360 nm and a tail extending to the red region (600 nm), the scanning electron microscopy images showed that the morphologies of NiO thin films have microspheres in various. The sample affected by laser fluence 1.9 J/cm2 which exhibits the best sensitivity for CO2 gas.

Wheelchair Movement Based on Convolution Neural Network

Maisa'a A. Kodher; Jammila H. Saud; Hani S. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 6, Pages 1019-1030
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i6.1615

This paper intends to develop a methodology for helping amputees and crippled people old, by ongoing voice direction and association between patient and personal computer (PC) where these blends offer a promising response for helping the debilitated people. The major objective of this work is accurately detected audio orders via a microphone of an English language (go, stop, right and left) in a noisy environment by the proposed system. Thus, a patient that utilizes the proposed system can be controlling a wheelchair movement. The venture depends on preparing an off-line dataset of audio files are included 10000 orders and background noise. The proposed system has two important steps of preprocessing to get accurate of specific audio orders, accordingly, the accurate direction of wheelchair movement. Firstly, a dataset was preprocessed to reduce ambient noise by using Butterworth (cutoff 500-5000 Hz) and Wiener filter. Secondly, in the input (a microphone) of the proposed discriminative model put a procedure of infinite impulse response filter (Butterworth), passband filter for cutoff input microphone from 150-7000 Hz for back-off the loud and environment noise and local polynomial approximation (Savitzky-Golay) smoothing filter that plays out a polynomial regression on the signal values. Thus, a better for filtering from ambient noise and keeping on a waveform from distortion that makes the discriminative model accurate when voice orders were recognized. The proposed system can work with various situations and speeds for steering; forward, stop, left and right. All datasets are trained by using deep learning with specific parameters of a convolutional neural network (CNN). These capacities are dependent on code written in MATLAB. The prototype uses Arduino UNO and a microphone (MIC)

Real-time Hand Gesture Extraction Using Python Programming Language Facilities

Azher A. Fahad; Hassan J. Hassan; Salma H. Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 6, Pages 1031-1040
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i6.1619

Hand gesture recognition is one of communication in which used bodily behavior to transmit several messages. This paper aims to detect hand gestures with the mobile device camera and create a customize dataset that used in deep learning model training to recognize hand gestures. The real-time approach was used for all these objectives: the first step is hand area detection; the second step is hand area storing in a dataset form to use in the future for model training. A framework for human contact was put in place by studying pictures recorded by the camera. It was converted the RGB color space image to the greyscale, the blurring method is used for object noise removing efficaciously. To highlight the edges and curves of the hand, the thresholding method is used. And subtraction of complex background is applied to detect moving objects from a static camera. The objectives of the paper were reliable and favorable which helps deaf and dumb people interact with the environment through the sign language fully approved to extract hand movements. Python language as a programming manner to discover hand gestures. This work has an efficient hand gesture detection process to address the problem of framing from real-time video.

A New Proposed Coding Method for Steganography Purpose

Suhad M. Kadhem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 1B, Pages 243-251
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i1B.1510

Transferring data in a safe way is one of the things that have been of interest since ancient times. Data hiding or steganography is a method used to protect the data during its transmission. Coding is a method to represent the data in another shape, so a high level of security is achieved by using coding and hiding data together. The proposed method is a hybrid between coding and hiding, but this paper focuses on proposed a data coding part only, such that the cover text (that used for information hiding) will be used to extract private information between the sender and the receiver for coding process, and the output of the proposed coding method can be used for information hiding process.
Apply the proposed coding method will provide a high level of security and complexity and produce ASCII of non-printed characters which can be employed for steganography purposes to obtain complete similarity between secret text and cover text.

Effect of CO2 Laser on Glazed Zircon Surface Complemented by ZrO2 Oxide

Zahraa A. Salman; Kadhim A. Hubeatir; Shihab A. Zaidan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 1B, Pages 252-261
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i1B.1552

In this paper, the effect of CO2 laser on glaze-dental Zirconia ceramics after adding ZrO2 nanoparticles to glaze is introduced, and its improvement methods are studied. Specimens have been prepared using CAD/CAM dental machines and sintered at 1530o-C. Then the surface was glazed with VITA glaze plus (5% and 10%) Nano ZrO2. A 15W continuous CO2 laser was used as the indicator power to irradiate the glaze layer. The main phase of the ceramic substrate is tetragonal Zirconia, and the alumina content in the corundum phase is a certain percentage. The appearance of the varnish on the ceramic substrate changes the X-ray diffraction pattern through the appearance of new phases, which changes the crystallite size and the percentage of lattice strain. The range of grain size measured by atomic force microscopy was 88.46 nm to 62.18nm. In addition, the surface roughness was changed due to the appearance of crystal cores and grain growth. In addition, the addition of ZrO2 and laser irradiation changed the residual stress on the surface, which was reflected in the hardness value increased from 575 kg/mm2 to 1215 kg/mm2 after the laser treatment with the addition of 5% ZrO2. Generally, in terms of the structure and hardness of the surface of the glaze layer, the addition of 5% ZrO2 is better than 10%. SEM tests also showed no cracks in the central part of the treated area. These characteristics increase hardness.

Assessment of Uranium in Urine Samples of Primary School Students

Sahar A. Amin; Azhar M. Haleem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 1B, Pages 41-46
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i1B.581

The environmental monitoring of radon in the children urine has been carried out by using solid state nuclear track detector CR-39. This study has been undertaken for the purpose of health risk assessments. The concentration of uranium values excreted with the boy's urine samples ranged from 0.203 Bq.L-1 (1.246 ng/L) and 2.201 Bq.L-1 (13.486 ng/L) with an average value of 0.698 Bq.L-1 (4.007 ng/L). While the concentration of uranium values excreted with the girl's urine samples ranged between 0.290 Bq.L-1 (1.777 ng/L) and 0.675 Bq.L-1 (4.135 ng/L), with an average value of 0.474 Bq.L-1 (2.901 ng/L). The amount of uranium deposited in the kidneys, according to ICRP's biokinetic model, and the annual radiation dose were also calculated. All values of the study samples were within the normal range and do not indicate any health hazard.

Isolation, Purification and Characterization of Novel Phytomitogen from Nigella sativa Seeds

Azhar M. Haleem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 1B, Pages 26-33
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i1B.568

The objective of the present study was to extract and purified proliferative factor for peripheral blood lymphocytes from Nigella sativa seeds. Dimeric 44, 32 and 26 -kDa glucosamine-specific lectins were extracted and purified from seeds of N. sativa L. by using different ionic strength solvents (deionized distilled water, phosphate buffer slain and 0.1 M HCl) purification procedure included, precipitation in saturated ammonium sulphate, then Sephadex G-100 gel filtration was used for further purification, finally electrophoresis by polyacrylamide gel to estimate the molecular weight in the presence of sodium dodecylsulphate. Single absorbance peak at 280 nm was recorded in each extracted method. The temperature and pH value on mitogenic activity was studied in temperature ranged from 4°C-60°C, the mitogenic activity reduced with gradual increase of temperatures, 50% of activity lost at temperature greater than 40°C, while the optimum pH for mitogenic activity ranged from 5-9, at pH value less than 3, and greater than 12 the activity disappeared. Interestingly, lectin extracted from N. sativa seeds have high activity especially that extracted with 0.1 M HCl and showed stability at temperature from 4°C to 10°C and pH from 5 to 9. The pure lectin is a homodimeric molecule of 26 kDa with subunit molecular mass of 12.9 kDa. The novel lectin exceed the PHA-Sigma in mitogenic activity.

Enhancing Quad Tree for Spatial Index Using Space Filling Curves

Ali A. Hussain; Rehab F. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 1B, Pages 15-25
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i1B.264

Spatial indexes, such as those based on the Quad Tree, are important in spatial databases for the effective implementation of queries with spatial constraints, especially when queries involve spatial links. The quaternary trees are a very interesting subject, given the fact that they give the ability to solve problems in a way that focuses only on the important areas with the highest density of information. Nevertheless, it is not without the disadvantages because the search process in the quad tree suffers from the problem of repetition when reaching the terminal node and return to the behavior of another way in the search and lead to the absorption of large amounts of time and storage. In this paper, the quad tree was improved by combining it with one of the space filling curve types, resulting in reduced storage space requirements and improved implementation time

In Vivo Effect of Different Doses of Silver Nanoparticles on the Seminiferous Tubules in Albino Rats: Histopathological Study

Ruqayah A. Salman; Abdulrahman K. Ali; Amenah Ali Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 1B, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i1B.1694

The study aims to investigate the effects of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on the seminiferous tubules in Albino rats. Several in vitro studies have been performed in different cell models, using various nanoparticles. Pure and spherical AgNPs with an average size of 30 nm, was injected into two groups of male albino rats (6 rats for each group) in different doses. Histopathological changes in testis tissues were showed a harmful effect of the silver nanoparticles, manifested by reducing the number of spermatogenic cells, and a decrease in the number of leyidg´s cells (group 1), and hypotrophy in seminiferous and enlargement in interstitial spaces in group 2.

Proposed Hybrid Classifier to Improve Network Intrusion Detection System using Data Mining Techniques

Sarah M. Shareef; Soukaena H. Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 1B, Pages 6-14
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i1B.149

Network intrusion detection system (NIDS) is a software system which plays an important role to protect network system and can be used to monitor network activities to detect different kinds of attacks from normal behavior in network traffics. A false alarm is one of the most identified problems in relation to the intrusion detection system which can be a limiting factor for the performance and accuracy of the intrusion detection system. The proposed system involves mining techniques at two sequential levels, which are: at the first level Naïve Bayes algorithm is used to detect abnormal activity from normal behavior. The second level is the multinomial logistic regression algorithm of which is used to classify abnormal activity into main four attack types in addition to a normal class. To evaluate the proposed system, the KDDCUP99 dataset of the intrusion detection system was used and K-fold cross-validation was performed. The experimental results show that the performance of the proposed system is improved with less false alarm rate

Fabrication and Characterization for Phosphate Nanofertilizer through Polymer Coating Technique

Azhar M. Haleem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 1B, Pages 34-40
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i1B.576

Many organic and inorganic materials were used to enhance plant growth and soil fertility, in the present study phosphate and polyvinyl alcohol ( PVA) was used to prepare nanocapsules fertilizer by using Emulsification Solvent Diffusion Method (ESDM), nanocapsules of phosphate and polymer provide long-term sustained-release preparations, ensure long existence of fertilizer in attach with the plant. Particle size distribution was evaluated in addition to particle shapes were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), the activity of Nano-fertilizer was studied on Nigella sativa production and its extracts activity. The emulsification solvent diffusion method (ESDM) provided a good yield of P-nanofertilizer, nanoparticles size distribution ranged 40-150nm with particle size range 74.23nm

Security Improve in ZigBee Protocol Based on RSA Public Algorithm in WSN

Nabaa A. Hasan; Alaa K. Farhan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3B, Pages 67-73
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3B.1

ZigBee is consuming low energy and providing the protection in Wireless Sensor Networks. ZigBee pro is supporting most applications. In spite of improved the security, ZigBee pro weak in key administration. In this paper, we depend on Logistic Map Diffie Hellman (LMDH) and SubMAC for Wireless Sensor Networks by ZigBee. In addition, we will improve the security in ZigBee by using the Rivest-ShamirAdleman (RSA) algorithm instead of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). LMDH used for improved key administration schema (protect key distribution) and SubMAC used for providing authentication and prevented Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) and Replay attacks, LMHD did not provide this service, so we use SubMAC to overcome with this problem, and use RSA to improve the security by encrypting the network key and ensure that the connection is secure between the nodes and then we can send the data safely. And the results ensure: the proposed is extra effective when compare with ZigBee pro from where the execution time and power consumption, in addition, it proved that security is improving.

Design Analysis of A Compensation Technique In FSO Communication System to Mitigate Atmospheric Turbulence Effect

Jenan A. Kalati; Shehab A. Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3B, Pages 82-85
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3B.3

Free-space laser communication systems usually experience strong channel fading caused by atmospheric turbulence. To mitigate the impact of atmospheric turbulence on free-space optical links using compensation techniques including adaptive optical (AO) system as advanced technique. Its three main components have remained constant: a wave front sensor to measure distortion, a wave front corrector to compensate for the distortion and a control system to calculate the required correction and necessary shape to apply to the corrector. Optical communication schemes utilizing adaptive optical at the transmitter are proposed. Numerical simulations show that the proposed schemes can significantly reduce the channel fading. The main goal of any adaptive optical system is to show a phase correction in the arriving wave front that converts the distorted wave front into a plane wave. A free space optical AO system to mitigate turbulence-induced phase fluctuations has been implemented by using a wavefront sensorless architecture The AO system was designed to correct the first 20 Zernike modes by using two separated active mirrors: a tip/tilt corrector and a DM with 32 actuators. Also, standard deviation of the atmospheric tilt was computed, DM stroke, the residual phase variance, the turbulence strength for different telescope apertures.

Effect of Hashimoto Disease in Diabetic Patients in National Center for Diabetes

Aufaira S. Nsaif; Wafaa R. Alfatlawi; Abdulnasser M. ALgobori

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3B, Pages 99-103
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3B.6

The most two common autoimmune disease in endocrinology was Diabetes mellitus (DM) and thyroid dysfunction (TD). This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of TD in DM patients of type 1. The current study is carried out in the National Center for Diabetes of Endocrine and Genetic (NCDEG), AL- Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad. This study comprised of (36) patients with hypothyroidism diagnosed clinically under supervision of specialist physician in endocrinology. Their ages ranged between (30-40) years, among them there were 17 males (48%) and 19 females (52%). In addition there were (36) healthy control their age ranged between (28-42) years, among them there were 21 males (58%) and 15 females (42%). Results showed highly significant increase in the rate of Chol, TSH, T3, and FBS in patient group when compared with healthy subject (p<0.001), also highly significant decrease of T4 (p<0.001). The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among type 1 DM patients is very high with hypothyroidism is being most common. This study recommended that screening of thyroid function must be done especially in uncontrolled diabetic patients.

Synthesis and Fabrication of ZnO Nanorods on Silicon for Methanol Gas Sensor

Abdulqader D. Faisal; Mofeed A. Jaleel; Fahad Z. Kamal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3B, Pages 74-81
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3B.2

Zinc Oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) were successfully synthesized via hydrothermal method. The growth process was conducted with seed layer concentration of 30 mM. The as-synthesized nanostructures were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectrophotometer. The analysis results revealed a pure Wurtzite ZnO hexagonal nanostructures with preferred orientation (002) along c-direction. The calculated band gap and crystallite size are 3.2 eV and 53.18 nm respectively.  A methanol gas sensor was fabricated based on the annealed ZnO NRs on the silicon substrate. Optimized sensitivity at 250 ppm methanol vapor with fast response and recovery time was achieved. So, ZnO NRs film can serve as a good candidate for a methanol gas sensing device.

Weathering Effect on Surface Characteristics of Superhydrophobic/ Hydrophobic Nanocomposites Coating

Hassan T. Jaafar; Balqees M. Aldabbagh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3B, Pages 92-98
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3B.5

Superhydrophobic and hydrophobic nanocomposites coating synthesized by electrospinning, polymer solution of (PS/DMF, PMMA/THF and Si/Th) were prepared in different wt% of composition for each solutions and also prepared with addition of TiO2 nanoparticles. Coated specimens were exposed to accelerated weathering test for 6 months. The aim of this research is to study weathering changes and physical properties of these superhydrophobic and hydrophobic nanocomposites coating to demonstrate these coatings in which can keeps their hydrophobicity properties for long period of time. Viscosity, surface tension, contact angle, roughness surface and hardness tests were calculated for all specimens before and after submitted to accelerate weathering test. Also SEM shows morphology of surfaces in which that (PS/DMF) coated specimen have higher amount of bulge or beads, (PMMA/THF) coated specimen having little amount of bulge or beads and defect as compared to specimen before coating, (Si/Th) owns less bulge or beads and defect but having little percent of contaminations at the surface as compared to other coated specimen.

A modified Matrices Approach in Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm

Abdul Monem S. Rahma; Atheer M. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3B, Pages 86-91
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3B.4

The cryptographic algorithms became the main proceeding for protection of very important data from unauthorized access. There are several cryptographic algorithms to ensure the data, but algorithms must be selected according to speed, strength and the implementation. Thus, choosing the advance encryption standard (AES) for encryption and decryption data because its speed and strength of encryption, flexible, complex processing and its resistance to Brute-force attack. This paper presents enhancement of the AES algorithm to increase the security of the encrypted documents by using different sizes data matrices based on multiple irreducible polynomials with order 2, 4, and 8. The proposed modifications results tested and provide a high randomness.

Catalytic Reaction of Ethanol into Light Olefins Over 2wt%CuO/HZSM-5

Fanar G. Hashim G. Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2B, Pages 41-44
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2B.2

There was increasing in the international needing for fossil fuel, which is formed from nonrenewable materials such as crude oil. Bio-ethanol considered one of the materials that can be produced from renewable sources like the fermentation of sugar cane. 2wt% CuO doped HZSM-5 has been modified by the impregnation method. All experimental runs have conducted at 500 °C, 1 atmosphere pressure and WHSV 3.5 h-1 in a fixed bed reactor. Catalyst, which modified in this work, was analyzed by SEM and XRD as well as TGA experiment. The analysis hydrocarbons products have done by gas chromatographs provided with flame ionization detector (FID) and thermal conductivity detector (TCD). It has been studied CuO doped HZSM-5 catalyst gives higher ethanol conversion and yield especially light olefins as compared to HZSM-5 parent catalyst. In addition, reduces the coke formation over HZSM-5, therefore, enhanced the life of HZSM-5 catalyst.
HZSM-5, ethanol to hydrocarbons, Catalyst, coke, deactivation

Wavelet-Based Denoising Of Images

Alauldeen S. Yaseen; Rafid S. Zamel; Jabbar H. Khlaief

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2B, Pages 54-60
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2B.4

Wavelet-analysis has become a powerful tool for denoising images. It represents a new way to achieve better noise reduction and increased contrast. Here, experimentally demonstrate abilities of discrete wavelet transform with Daubechies basis functions for improving the quality of noisy this research two methods has been compaired for modify the coefficients using soft and hard threshold to improv the visual fineness of noisy image depend on Root-Mean-Square error (RMS). The low RMS value and better noise reduction find in soft threshold method which is based on Daubechies wavelet (db8) for first example image RMS=0.101 and second example RMS=0.109

Optical and Thermal Characterizations of PMMA Composites

Raghad S. Al-Khafaji; Kareem A. Jasim; Adil M. Ibraheim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2B, Pages 61-66
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2B.5

Thick composite films were prepared employing hand – layup method . A definite quantity of PMMA ( 98%wt ) , fixed content ( 2% wt ) of rutile titanium dioxide TiO2 , gamma alumina ( ᵞ- Al2O3 ) and Zirconia powder ( ZrO2 ) , were added to polymer solution gradually and separately. Optical constants were obtained of the prepared samples using spectrometer (UV- VIS). The prepared composite samples were thermally characterized by differential scanning calorimeter ( DSC ). We notice increasing value of glass temperature and differential heat capacity ( ∆Cp ) for composites compared with pure PMMA .

Weak Convergence of Two Iteration Schemes in Banach Spaces

Salwa Abed; Zahraa M. Mohamed Hasan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2B, Pages 32-40
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2B.1

In this paper, we established weak convergence theorems by using appropriate conditions for approximating common fixed points and equivalence between the convergence of the Picard-Mann iteration scheme and Liu et al iteration scheme in Banach spaces. As well as, numerical examples are given to show that Picard-Mann is faster than Liu et al iteration schemes.

Modeling the Plasma Frequency for F2-Region Using Modified Chapman Function and NeQuick2 Model over Different Geographical Locations and Months

Ali H. Ni'ma

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2B, Pages 45-53
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2B.3

This study aims to modeling the plasma frequency profile of the F2 region as a function of geographical location and month of the y ear. The most important model and function used are Chapman function and NeQuick 2 model which have been defined both by exponential function. These models need some ionospheric parameters such as the critical frequency of F2 layer (foF2), maximum peak height (hmF2), semi thickness (ymF2), and the M factor (M (3000) F2). The results of these models are compared with the results of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model. For north hemisphere, the results of Chapman function has great fit with the results of IRI2012 model for low and high latitudes. For southern hemisphere the MAPE has greater values at high latitudes and drops to low latitudes. For NeQuick model, MAPE has a periodic behavior with latitudes. The monthly mean of the MAPE of the results obtained by modeling the plasma frequency profile using Chapman function and NeQuick2 model equal 0.466 and 0.259. The analysis of the MAPE for ten months gives a best correlation between the MAPE and foF2.

Improvement of Harris Algorithm Based on Gaussian Scale Space

Abdul Amir A. Karim; Rafal A. Sameer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1B, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1B.1

Features is the description of the image contents which could be corner, blob or edge. Corners are one of the most important feature to describe image, therefore there are many algorithms to detect corners such as Harris, FAST, SUSAN, etc. Harris is a method for corner detection and it is an efficient and accurate feature detection method. Harris corner detection is rotation invariant but it isn’t scale invariant. This paper presents an efficient harris corner detector invariant to scale, this improvement done by using gaussian function with different scales. The experimental results illustrate that it is very useful to use Gaussian linear equation to deal with harris weakness.

Properties of Fuzzy Closed Linear Operator

Jehad R. Kider; Noor A. Kadhum

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1B, Pages 25-31
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1B.5

In this paper we recall the definition of fuzzy norm of a fuzzy bounded linear operator and the fuzzy convergence of sequence of fuzzy bounded linear operators in order to prove the uniform fuzzy bounded theorem and fuzzy open mapping theorem. The definition of fuzzy closed linear operators on fuzzy normed spaces is introduced in order to prove the fuzzy closed graph theorem.

Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial activities of Uracil and Uracil–Oxalate Complexes with Cr(III) and Fe(III)

Shatha M.H. Obaid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1B, Pages 6-16
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1B.2

New complexes of the some trivalent transition metal ions of the uracil such as [M(Ura)3Cl3] and mixed ligand metal complexes with uracil and oxalic acid [M(Ura)2(OA)(OH2)Cl].H2O type, where (Ura)=Uracil, (OA= Oxalic acid dihydrate, (M= Cr+3 and Fe+3) were synthesized and characterized by the elemental analysis, FT.IR, electronic spectra, mass spectra and magnetic susceptibility as well as the conductivity measurements. Six–coordinated metal complexes were suggested for the isolated complexes of Cr+3 and Fe+3 with molecular formulas dependent on the nature of uracil and oxalic acid present. The proposed molecular structure for all complexes with their ions is octahedral geometries. The antibacterial efficiency was tested of metal salts, ligands and metal complexes to the pathogenic bacteria activity have been studied.

Preparation and Study the Structure of Pure and Impure Barium Titanate with Zr4+ Ion

Mojahid M. Najim; Wasan A. Hekmat

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1B, Pages 21-24
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1B.4

In this research, pure and impure barium titanate with Zr4+ ion with two molar ratios x= (5, 10) % have been synthesized by solid-state reaction technique. The powders calculations at two temperatures (950°C and 1400°C). An XRD technique was used in order to study the crystal structure of pure and impure barium titanate, which confirmed the formation of the tetragonal phase of BaTiO3, then calculate the lattice parameters of pure and impure barium titanate, the addition of zirconium ion Zr4+ lead to increases lattice parameters.

Morphological and Optical Properties of Porous Silicon

Mohammed S. Mohammed; Ruqaya A. Shlaga

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1B, Pages 17-20
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1B.3

In this work photo-electrochemical etching was used to synthesize uniform and non-uniform macro porous silicon from n-type with orientation (100). Specimens were anodized in a sol of 25% HF: C2H2OH at 1:1 rate. Morphology and porosity of the samples were studied. Optical characteristics (reflection and photoluminescence) of PS samples by changing current density (10, 12, 14 and 16 mA/cm2 ) for fixed etching time (8min) and power density (17mW/cm2 ) by using red laser illumination wavelength (645nm) were investigated. Porous silicon samples imaged via scanning electron microscope (SEM), which showed the topography of silicon surface and pores distribution.