Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Current Issue
Volume 40 Issue 12 (Production and Metallurgy Engineering

Volume 40, Issue 12 (Production and Metallurgy Engineering, Material Engineering, 4 Articles), December 2022


Investigation Nano-coating for the Corrosion Protection of Petroleum storage tanks Steel

Zainab Z. Ali; Baha S. Mahdi; Ameen D. Thamer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 12, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.131942.1074

This work studies the protection from corrosion in the inner surface of petroleum storage tanks by applying nano-coating on the AISI1018 steel type used in these tanks. BNi-2 alloy, used as coating layer, was deposited using the DC sputtering technique to obtain protection layers of nano-coating. The cyclic potential dynamic polarization technique is used to study and evaluate the resistant metal to localize corrosion, for example, pitting and crevice corrosion. The samples were evaluated in a 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution using the polarization method to determine the corrosion rate. The input parameters of deposition included ion current 16 mA, vacuum 10-1 mbar, time of deposition was 60 minutes, and the distance between target and substrate was 2.5 cm. The surface roughness of the uncoated specimens was (0.1466 µm), and after coating, it decreased to (0.0933µm). The most important factor that affects the corrosion of the coated steel surface is the surface topography of steel before coating, as it is known that the spattering process coats the facing surface to target better than the inclined surface topography. Therefore, some micro scratches non-coated well worked as nucleation for corrosion as detected in stereo microscope images for coated and uncoated surfaces. By calculating the corrosion rate from cyclic potential dynamic polarization for coated and uncoated workpieces, pitting and crevice corrosion improved approximately ten times compared to the uncoated AISI1018 steel surface.

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of ZK60 Mg Alloy Processed by Cyclic Expansion-Extrusion (CEE) at Different Temperatures

Ahmed M. Marheb; Akeel D. Subhi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 12, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133572.1194

In this work, the cyclic expansion extrusion (CEE) process was applied to ZK60 Mg alloy. The correlation between the evolved microstructure and mechanical properties was investigated. The CEE process was performed at a constant ram speed (15 mm/min) and at different processing temperatures (190, 270, and 350 °C). Optical and scanning electron microscopes, X-ray diffraction instruments, Vickers hardness tester, and tensile testing machine were utilized to examine the influence of CEE processing temperature on the characteristics of ZK60 Mg alloy. The XRD analysis showed that two phases were presented in the matrix of ZK60 Mg alloy, namely α-Mg and MgZn2, in small amounts. The CEE process reduced the size of α-Mg grains due to dynamic recrystallization, especially at the processing temperature of 190 °C. A slight coarsening of the α-Mg grains was observed with increasing processing temperature to 270 and 350 °C. The hardness value ​​of ZK60 Mg alloy was enhanced by about 11 to 19% using the CEE process compared to the as-extruded sample. The processing temperature greatly affected the mechanical properties, where a significant improvement of about 24% yield strength, 9% ultimate tensile strength, and 38% elongation was observed using a processing temperature of 190 °C. The characterization of the tensile fracture surface of the tested samples indicated that the ductile-brittle fracture mode was responsible for the failure.

Characterization of the Efficiency of Photo-Catalytic Ultrafiltation PES Membrane Modified with Tungsten Oxide in the Removal of Tinzaparin Sodium

Reham R. Abdullah; Kadhum M. Shabeeb; Aseel B. Alzubaydi; Alberto Figoli; Alessandra Criscuoli; Enrico Drioli; Qusay Alsalhy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 12, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134070.1219

One of the polymeric membranes' main limitations is their susceptibility to fouling, lowering the membrane's performance with time. Therefore, incorporating nanomaterials in polymer matrices has attracted great attention in wastewater treatment applications. It's a promising approach for enhancing membrane hydrophilicity and performance.  Herein, ultrafiltration nanocomposite membranes were synthesized by applying the phase inversion method through immobilizing (0.1-0.4 wt.%) tungsten oxide (WO2.89) nanoparticles in a polyether sulfone (PES) matrix. Membrane's anti-fouling performance was evaluated against tinzaparin sodium. The data showed that the pure water flux improved with increasing nanoparticle loading, reaching its optimum value of 54.9 kg/m2 h at 0.4 wt.% WO2.89 nanoparticles compared to the neat membrane's 30.42 kg/m2 h. The results also demonstrated that the rejection efficiency and flux recovery ratio (FRR) against tinzaparin sodium was enhanced, by 44.89% and 12.69%, respectively, for the membranes modified with 0.4wt.% WO2.89 nanoparticles loading compared to the neat PES membrane. The data also showed that after exposing the nanocomposite membranes to UV light irradiation (λ=365 nm) and intensity (1200mW/cm2) for 1h, a further enhancement by 8.34% in FRR as compared to the membranes with the same percentage of nanoparticles loading without irradiation. It is concluded that the photocatalytic activity of WO2.89 nanoparticles in the decomposition of organic molecules on/close to the membrane surface was the impact that caused this improvement in membrane anti-fouling property

Parametric Optimization of Laser Conduction Welding between Stainless Steel 316 and Polyethylene Terephthalate Using Taguchi Method

Maraw A. Khioon; Kadhim A. Hubeatir; Mohanned M. AL-Khafaji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 12, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132560.1131

A pulsed Nd:YAG laser with a fiber optic delivery system was used to accomplish a dissimilar joining of 316 stainless steel (SUS316) to polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Laser Conduction Welding (LCW) was applied as a welding technique to achieve a lap metal/polymer joint by applying the laser from the metal side. The heat was transferred from the metal layer to the polymer layer, which caused the melting and then solidifying of the polymer at the interface. The effect of three welding parameters, laser energy density, pulse duration, and welding speed, on joint force, was studied and discussed. To measure the joint force tensile shear test was conducted. Furthermore, the Taguchi method was used as a design experiment method to optimize the welding parameters by designing an orthogonal L9 matrix. The signal-to-noise ratio of each trial was calculated and plotted. The best welding parameters that gave the highest joint force were achieved. The maximum tensile force obtained was 525 N at 250 J/cm2 energy density, 15 ms pulse duration, and 20 mm/min welding speed. Finally, the comparison between the weakest and the strongest joints was carried out to show the difference between welding with the optimal parameters and any other set of parameters.

The Impacts of Calcium Ions Substitution in Hydroxyapatite with Neodymium and Zinc on Biological Properties and Osteosarcoma Cells

Suha Q. AL-Shahrabalee; Hussein A. Jaber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 12, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133915.1217

Hydroxyapatite (HA) is one of the important biomaterials in the medical field, especially in bone treatment, because of its biological properties close to human bone. A simple co-precipitation technique was used to integrate neodymium and zinc into HA by adding neodymium nitrate and zinc nitrate as a source of substituted elements during synthesis through the wet precipitation method with controlled temperature and pH. Finally, substituted HA was sintered at 800°C after completing the biomaterial preparation. The resulting Nd-Zn/HA was globe-like with nanoparticle size. The Ca+Nd+Zn/P ratio was equal to 1.63, which is relatively close to the molar ratio of bone. Also, the ability of Nd-Zn/HA to cause apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells was discovered. The anti-tumor actions are amplified when increasing the concentration of substituted HA. Therefore, Nd-Zn/HA is a potentially effective biomaterial in osteosarcoma treatment. Meanwhile, it has antibacterial and fungicidal properties against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans—one of the important properties required in biomaterials to protect the part that is being treated after the biomaterial is implanted inside the body. The inhibition zone of Nd-Zn/HA ranged between (20-31)mm, much higher than gentamicin and nystatin.