Tellurium dioxide (TeO2) nanoparticles were synthesized directly by pulsed laser ablation using Nd:YAG, λ=1064nm laser in pure water. The AFM and XRD measurements, in combination with FTIR and UV–Vis spectroscopy have been employed for the characterization of the prepared samples. The effects of operating parameters on nanoparticles composition, production rate and size were also studied. The XRD measurements revealed crystallization structure of TeO2 nanoparticles. The particle diameter by use of Scherer's equation was calculated to be about 28. nm and confirmed by AFM measurements. The UV–vis spectrum of the colloidal nanoparticles shows maximum absorbance around the UV region, indicating the formation of TeO2 nanoparticles, which confirmed by FTIR.