Three kinds of extracts (hot , boil water and ethanolic extracts) had been prepared from populous euphratica leaves .Known chemical reagent was applied to different various function groups( flavonoid , alkaloid , polyphenoles , Tannins, Saponions and Proteins) present in the plant leaves. Different concentration of these extract (120, 180 and 240 mg/ml) were used against various bacterial spp.( Escherichia coli ، Klebsiella pneumonae ، Salmonella typhi , Shigella sonei and Protus mirabilus ) to detect the antibacterial activity. The result of the antibacterial activity of populous euphratica leaves extract has been varied according to the kind of extract used and bacterial spp. applied. The results clear that the mean diameter of inhibition zone increased with increasing concentration of the extract used and The results showed that the mean diameter of inhibition zone in the range 4-26 mm for hot water extract , 4-22 mm for boiling water and 2-14 mm for ethanolic extract .Finally , the results of hot water extract plant leaves has shown of the higher biological activity (26 mm) for E.coli among other extract of the same concentration(120 , 180 and 240 mg/ml) and 22 mm to extract boiling water in Shigella soni The alcoholic extract higher inhibition zone 14 mm recorded in each of the (Salmonella typhi Shigella soni, Protus mirabilus).Statistical analysis of the results of all kinds of extracts was showed significant different(p<0.01).