Document Type : Research Paper


1 University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq,

2 University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq


Damage of elevated tanks during earthquakes can jeopardize the supply of drinking water and causes significant economic losses. Therefore, seismic analysis of tanks containing liquids requires special consideration. Knowledge of liquid hydrodynamic pressures developed during an earthquake is important for tank design. This paper aims to verify the dynamic reaction of structural systems of spherical elevated steel tanks containing water, and determine the natural frequencies that contribute to the physical response, as well as seismic analysis of the tank. A three dimensional Finite Element Model was developed to identify the main parameters involved in this response for three different fullness ratio (0.00%, 53.30% and 71.11%) using the ANSYS software. The model was implemented and validated based on the results of a previously conducted experimental study. Moreover, it was analyzed under the impact of the most severe earthquake that Iraq was exposed to in 2017 with a magnitude of 7.2 on the Richter scale. The results showed a very good agreement in natural frequency with a discrepancy (root mean square error) of 2% (0.05 Hz), 6.9% (0.15 Hz) and 9.5% (0.2 Hz) for the fullness ratio 0%, 53.3% and 71.11%, respectively In addition, the selected element type and the method of analysis are applicable. Moreover, results of displacement and stresses from earthquake analysis indicated that the spherical tank could lose stability in time 1.4 seconds of the proposed time for the worst part of the earthquake, when displacement records highest values in the direction of earthquake for the tank body at chosen points in the top, middle, and bottom of the tank body which were almost equally at all cases proposed in this study.


[1] M. S. Mhetreand G. R. Patil, “Analysis of Elevated Water Storage Structure Using Different Staging System”, IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) e-ISSN: 2278-1684, p-ISSN: 2320–334X PP 21-32, 2015.
[2] H. H. Karim, Z. W.Samueel, and D. A.Abdul Hussein, “Correlation of Soil Liquefaction Potential Index and Geotechnical Properties for Baghdad City, Iraq”. Engineering and Technology Journal, 38(6A), 813-824., 2020.
[3] Q. A.Hasan, S. F.Al-Wakel, and Z. R.Zaidan,“Numerical Investigations on Seismic Response of Structures under the Effect of Infinite Boundary of Soil-Structure Interaction”. Engineering and Technology Journal, 37(12A), 516-521. Retrieved from, 2019.
[4] A. A.Hussein, M. A. Al-Neami, and F. H. Rahil,“Evaluation of the Hydrodynamic Pressure Effect of Cylindrical Liquid Storage Tank on The Granular Soil Behavior Under Seismic Excitation”. Engineering and Technology Journal, 39(1A), 64-78., 2021.
[5] G. W. Housner, “The Dynamic Behavior of Water Tanks”,Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 381-387, 1963.
[6] M.A.Haroun, and M.K.Termaz, “Effects of soil-structure interaction effects on seismic response of elevated tanks”. Soil Dynamics Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 2, PP. 37-86, 1992.
[7] S.Seyoum, "Dynamic analysis of liquid containing cylindrical tanks",Msc thesis, university of Addis Ababa, October, 2005.
[8] S.Dutta, A.Mandal, and S.C.Dutta, “Soil–structure interaction in dynamic behavior of elevated tanks with alternate frame staging configurations”. Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 227, Issues 4-5, pp. 825-853, 2004.
[9] M. V.Gaikwad, and M.N.Mangulkar, “Comparison between Static and Dynamic Analysis of Elevated Water Tank”, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 6, ISSN 2229-5518, 2013.
[10] ANSYS Manual, Version18. (2018).
[11] H. Suchita, and H.Manoj, “Seismic performance of Elevated Water Tank”, International Journal of Advanced Engineering ResearchandStudies,Vol. I, 2011.
[12] O. Curadelli, D.Ambrosini, A. Mirassoand M. Amani, MecánicaComputacional Vol XXVII, págs. 1907-1920 (artículocompleto) Alberto Cardona, Mario Storti, Carlos Zuppa, 2008.