Production Eng. and metallurgy. Dept, University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq


This study aims to obtain the optimal variable for depositing (HA, TiO2 and Composite) Nanomaterial on NiTi SMAs. Taguchi approach (with L9 array) was used to obtain the optimal conditions for coating produced by Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) techniques. The deposition process was done in different conditions (voltage, time, concentration and degree of grinding). Voltages were used (20, 40 and 60) volts, the time is (2, 4 and 6) min, the degree of the surface roughness (180, 500 and 1200) μm while the concentration of HA and TiO2 are (2, 4, and 6) g/L for each one. Chitosan (biopolymer) was used as binder material to the ceramic materials. The result of the Taguchi approach detected that the best conditions of HA layer are (20 V, 4 min, 2%C and the degree of surface 180), TiO2 is (20 V, 4 min, 4%C and the degree of surface 180) and composite layer is (60 V, 4 min, 4%C and the degree of surface 180). Solutions stability was measured by utilizing Zeta potential tests; which clarified good stability for all of them. Optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize and study the surface of the coating layers. The bonding adhesion was measured using a tape test in order to evaluate the adhesion bonding between the coating and substrate. It found that the percentage of removal coating area for samples were (8.8%for HA, 4.9% for TiO2 and 6.9% of the composite layer.


[1] S. Khanmohammadi, M. O. Ilkhchi, “Effect of suspension medium on the characteristics of electrophoretically bioactive glass coatings on titanium substrate,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 232-242, 2019.
[2] A. Braem, T. Mattheys, B. Neirinck, M. Ceh, S. Novak, J. Schrooten, O. Van der Biest, J. Vleugels, “Bioactive glass-ceramic coated titanium implants prepared by electrophoretic deposition,” Material Science Engineering ,32 2267-2273, 2012.
[3] M. Mehdipour, A. Afshar, M. Mohebali, “Electrophoretic deposition of bioactive glass coating on 316L stainless steel and electrochemical behavior study,” Appl. Surf. Science, 258 ,9832-9839, 2012.
[4] F. Pishbin, V. Mourino, S. Flor, S. Kreppel, V. Salih, M.P. Ryan, A.R. Boccaccini, “Electrophoretic deposition of gentamicin-loaded bioactive glass/chitosan composite coating for orthopedic implants,” Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 6 ,8796-8806, 2014.
[5] E. J. McPherson, L. D. Dorr, T. A. Gruen, M. T. Saberi, “Hydroxyapatite-coated proximal ingrowth femoral stems. A matched pair control study,” Clin. Orthop, 315 ,223-230, 1995.
[6] M. Farrokhi-Rad, Y. B. Khosrowshahi, H. Hassannejad, A. Nouri, M. Hosseini, “Preparation and characterization of hydroxyapatite / titania nanocomposite coatings on titanium by electrophoretic deposition,” Materials Research Express, 1-25, 2018.
[7] M. H. Abdulkareem, A. H. Abdalsalam, A. J. Bohan, “Influence of chitosan on the antibacterial activity of composite coating, (PEEK /HAp) fabricated by electrophoretic deposition,” Progress in Organic Coatings, 130,251-259, 2019.
[8] O.O.V. Biest, J.L. Vandeperre, “Electrophoretic Deposition of Materials,” Annual. Reviews. Material. Scince, 29,327-52, 1999.
[9] S. Put, J. Vleugels, O. Van der Biest, “Microstructural engineering of functionally graded materials by electrophoretic deposition,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 143 ,572-577, 2003.
[10] R. T. Candidato, P. Sokołowski, L. Pawłowski, G. Lecomte-Nana, C. Constantinescu, A. “Denoirjean, Development of hydroxyapatite coatings by solution precursor plasma spray process and their microstructural characterization,” Surf. Coat. Tech, 318 ,39-49, 2017.
[11] C.S. Chien, C.L. Chiao, TF. Hong, T.J. Han, TY. Kuo, Chwee Teck Lim, “Synthesis and characterization of TiO2 + HA coatings on TI-6AL-4V Substrates by Nd-YAG Laser Cladding,” James C.H.Goh(Eds.): ICBME; proceedings 23,1401-1404,2009.
[12] T.J. Webster, Richard W. Siegel, Rena Bizios. “Osteoblast adhesion on nanophase ceramics,” Biomaterials, 20,1221-7, 1999, 2012.
[13] K. M, Fujii H. The corrosion resistance of pure titanium in organic acids,” Biomaterials, 22,2931-6, 2001, 2015.
[14] L. Mohan, D. Durgalakshmi, M. Geetha, T.S.N. Sankara, R. Asokamani, “Electrophoretic Deposition of Nanocomposite (Hap +TiO2) On Titanium Alloy for Biomedical Applications,” Ceramics International, 1-32, 2009.
[15] H. Farnoush, J.A. Mohandesib, H. seyin¸ “Micro-scratch and corrosion behavior of functionally graded HA-TiO2 nanostructured composite coatings fabricated by electrophoretic deposition,” Journal of the mechanical behavior of medical materials, 6,31-40,2007.
[16] M. J. Khadim, N. E. Abdullateef, M. H. Abdulkareem, “Optimization of Nano Hydroxyapatite/chitosan Electrophoretic Deposition on 316L Stainless Steel Using Taguchi Design of Experiments,” Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences (NJES), 209,1215-1227, 2017.
[17] M. J. Khadim, N. E. Abdullateef, M. H. Abdulkareem, “Evaluation of Surface Roughness of 316L Stainless Steel Substrate on Nanohydroxyapatite by Electrophoretic Deposition,” Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences (NJES), 10,28-35, 2018.