A Comparison Study on the Effect of Various Layered Sandy Soil Deposited on Final Settlement under Dynamic Loading
Engineering and Technology Journal,
2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 594-604
AbstractThe foundation is expansion in base of column, wall or other structure in order to transmit the loads from the structure to under footing with a suitable pressure with soil property. There are two conditions to design foundation: 1. The stress is applied by footing on soil is not exceeded allowable bearing capacity ( ). 2. The foundation settlement and differential settlement are due to applied loads are not exceeding the allowable settlement that based on the type and size of structure, the nature of soil. Rigid square machine footing with dimension 200*200 mm with two types of relative density (50 and 85)% medium and dense density respectively are using in this study in different 28 models to show the effect of layered sandy soil in two configuration, medium-dense MD and dense-medium DM on the final settlement in magnitudes and behaviors under dynamics loads applying with different amplitude of loads (0.25 and 2) tons at surface with amplitude-frequency 0.5 Hz with explain the effect of reinforcements material on reduction the magnitude of settlement. The final results appeared with respect to the specified continuous pressure and the number of loading cycles, the resulting settlement from the dynamic loading increases with the increase in the dynamic pressure magnitude, the variation on densities of layered soil effect on the amount of settlement due to different loads applied. It’s found that for increasing load amplitude increasing of settlement values particularly with low density soil when other variables are constant. As the amplitude of loading is increased from 0.25 ton to 2 tons, the settlement has been increased. MD soil density lower values of settlement can be obtained with type I of reinforcement where load amplitude equal to 0.25 ton with percent of enhancement between (28.4-34.3)% for different configuration of layers of reinforcement, for load amplitude equal to 2 tons the value of enhancement of settlement reached to about (35-38.4)%; while for DM density soil values of settlement can be obtained with type I of reinforcement where load amplitude equal to 0.25 ton percent of enhancement between (20-34.35)% for different configuration of layers of reinforcement, but the best value of enhancement of settlement get with load amplitude equal to 2 tons reached to about (38.7-41.17)%.
 R.W Cunny and R.C Sloan, “Dynamic loading machine and results of preliminary small-scale footing test,” ASTM STP 305,1961, 65-77.
 S. Shenkman and K.E. McKee, “Bearing capacity of dynamically loaded footings,” ASTM STP 305, 1961, 78-80.
 J. G. Jr. Jackson and P.F Hadala, “Dynamic bearing capacity of soils,”.Report 3. The application of similitude to small-scale footing tests. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Stations, Vicksburg, Mississippi, 1964.
 W. F. Carrol, “Dynamic bearing capacity of soils vertical displacements of spread footings on clay,” Report 5. Statics and impulsive loadings, U.S. Army Corps of Engrs. Tech. Report 3-599, Waterways Experiments Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi, 1963.
 G.P. Raymond and F.E. Komos, “Repeated load testing of a model plane strain footing,” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 15, 2, 190-201, 1978.
 W.F. Brummund and G.A. Leonards, “Subsidence of sand due to surface vibrations,” ASCE, Journal of Soil Mechanics and foundation Div, Vol. 98, pp. 27- 42, 1975.
 V. A. Guido, D.K. Chang and M. A. Sweeney, “Comparison of geogrid and geotextile reinforced earth slabs,” Canadian Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 23, 4, 436–440, 1986.
 K.H. Khing, B.M. Das, V.K. Puri, E.E. Cook, and S.C. Yen. “Bearing capacity of strip foundation on geogrid reinforced sand Geotextiles and Geomembranes,” Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd., England,1992.
 K.H. Khing, B.M. Das, S.C. Yen, V.K. Puri, and E.E. Cook, “Interference effect of two closely-spaced strip foundation on geogrid-reinforced sand,” Geotech. And Geological Engrg. Jl., Chapman and Hall, London, 1992
 B.M. Das, E.C. Shin, G. Singh, and V.K. Puri, “Bearing capacity of strip foundation on geogrid reinforced saturated clay”. Conference proceedings on Developments in Computer Aided Design and Mudding for Civil Engineering, Civil-com Press, Eginburgh, U.K, 1995.
 O. S. Saar, “Dynamics in the Practice of the Structural Design,” WIT Press, 2005.
 N. K. Rao, “Foundation design: theory and practice,” John Wiley and Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd., 2011.
 F. E. Richart, “Foundation vibrations,” Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, ASCE 127 (Part I), pp. 207-220, 1962.
 D. D. Barkan, “Dynamics of bases and foundations,” McGraw Hill New York, pp.1102-1120, 1962.
 K. G. Bhatia, “Foundation for industrial machines,” 1st ed., published by D-CAD Publishers, New Delhi, pp. 675, 2008.
 B. M. Das and G. Ramana, “Principles of soil dynamics,” Book, Cl- Engineering. 2011.
 S. C. Francois, K. W. Haegeman, G. Degrande, “A numerical model for foundation settlements due to deformation accumulation in granular soils under repeated small amplitude dynamic loading,” International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth, 2010.
 A. F. Ibrahim Al-Ameri, “Transient and steady state response analysis of soil foundation system acted upon by vibration,” Ph.D. Thesis, Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineer in, College of Engineering Civil Engineering Department, University of Baghdad, Iraq, 2014.
 M.Y. Fattah, N. M. Salim, M. S. Ismaiel, “Influence of geogrid reinforced loose sand in transfer of dynamic loading to underground structure,” Eng. &Tech. Journal, Vol.34, Part A, No.11, pp. 1915-1927, 2016.
 V. K. Puri, S. Kumar, B. M. Das, S. Prakash, B. Yeo, “Settlement of reinforced subgrades under dynamic loading,” Former Graduate Student, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SIUC Carbondale, IL 62901-6603, 2017.
 Z. W. S. Abbawi, “Evaluation of improvement techniques for ballasted railway track model resting on soft clay,” Ph.D. Thesis, Building and Construction Engineering Department, University of Technology, Iraq, 2010.
 H. H. Karim, Z. W. Samueel, and K.K. Huda, “Iraqi Gypseous Soil Stabilized by Ordinary and Encased Stone Columns,” International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET),7, 6, pp. 179–192, 2016.
 H. H. Karim, Z. W. Samueel and K. K. Huda, “Performance of geosynthetic‐reinforced gypseous soil,” International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, 2017,.  Qingdao Chemetals Industries Co., Ltd., No. 1, 41st Bldg., 1 Zhanghua Road, Qingdao, Shandong, China, 2001.
 ASTM D854, “Standard test methods for specific gravity of soil solids by water pycnomete,” 2006.  ASTM D 422, “Standard test method for particle size,” 2006.  ASTM D4253, “Standard test methods for maximum index density and unit weight of soils using a vibratory table,” 2006.  ASTM D4254, “Standard test methods for minimum index density and unit weight of soils and calculation of relative density,” 2006.  ASTM D3080, “Standard test method for direct shear test of soils under consolidated drained conditions,” 2004.  J.E. Bowles, “Foundations analysis and design,” McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, New York. 1996.
- Article View: 30
- PDF Download: 17