Civil Engineering Dep., University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.


This research investigates the behavior of Stone Matrix Asphalt mixtures (SMA) modified with styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) polymer at four percentages (1, 2, 3 and 4%) by weight of asphalt cement. The moisture susceptibility and rutting were taken into consideration in this study. To achieve the objective of this research the superpave system is conducted to design the asphalt mixtures. The physical properties of aggregate, bitumen and other mix materials were assessed and evaluated with the laboratory tests. The mixtures were prepared using penetration Graded (40-50) bitumen and a chemical named Polypropylene Fibers was used as a stabilizing additive. Fibers have been used in SMA mixtures for two main reasons: To increase the toughness and fracture resistance of hot mix asphalt (HMA) and to act as a stabilizer to prevent drain down of the asphalt binder. The laboratory tests include indirect tensile strength test, Marshall stability and retained Marshall Stability test (RMS). For rutting test the Roller wheel compactor is used for preparing the asphaltic samples and Wheel tracking device is used to evaluate the rutting of asphaltic slabs. The results showed that the SBS polymer asphalt mixture gave better moisture sensitivity and better fracture resistance according to the study.It is noted that indirect tensile strength ratio (TSR) increases by 93.1 % and the rut depth decreases by 32.5 % when adding 3% SBS polymer to SMA


[1] M. Ratnasamy and B. K. Bujang Huat, “laboratory diameteral fatigue performance of stone matrix asphalt with cellulose oil palm fiber,” University Putra Malaysia, American Journal of Applied Sciences, 3, 9, ISSN 1546-9239 © 2006 Science Publications.
[2] V. Rimsa, R. Kacianauskas and H. Sivilevicius, “Finite element simulation of the normal interaction of particles in the visco-elastic solid,” Mechanics and Control, No, 30, 245–253, 2011.
[3] E. R. Brown John E. Haddock Rajib B. Mallick Todd A. Lynn March, “Development of a mixture design procedure for stone matrix asphalt (SMA),” NCAT Report No. 97-3, 1997.
[4] Designing and Constructing SMA Mixtures – State-of-the- Practice, Quality Improvement Series 122, National Asphalt Paving Association (NAPA), 2002.
[5] D. Mangan, M. Butcher, April 2004, “Stone mastic asphalt,” Australian Asphalt Pavement Association, 2004.
[6] L. D. L. Cla´udio, A. Jose´ and F. C. Protasio, “Stabilizing additives in stone mastic asphalt,” Clean Techno Environ Policy DOI 10.1007/s10098-008-0146-7,24 January 2008
[7] E.R. Brown, J.E. Haddock, R.B. Mallick and J. Bukowski, “Performance of stone matrix asphalt (SMA) in the US.” NCAT Report No. 97-1, 1997, Auburn University, Alabama.
[8] Z. I. Qasim , A.H. Abed and Z. I. Qasim, “Impact of the superpave hot mix asphalt properties on its permanent deformation behavior,” MATEC Web of Conferences 162:01041, January 2018,
[9]H. Behbahani, S. Nowbakht, H. Fazaeli and J. Rahmani, “Effects of fiber type and content on the rutting performance of stone matrix asphalt,” J. Applied Sci., 2009.
[10] G. Waanders and H. Els, “Split mastix asphalt und dränasphalt in den niederlanden. erfahrungen und untersuchungen in der provinz overijsel,” Asphalt, 95, 4, 8–17, 1995.
[11] A. H. Abed, “Improving of asphalt technology in Iraq by using superpave system,” Iraqi Highways and Bridges, Al-Nahrain University, 2015.
[12] L. A, Cooley, “Evaluation of OGFC mixtures containing cellulose fibers,” NCAT Report 00-05, Auburn, Alabama, 2000.
[13] S. Bose, C. Kamaraj and P.K. Nanda, “Stone mastic asphalt (SMA) – a long life pavement surface,” International Seminar on Innovations in Construction and Maintenance of Flexible Pavements, Agra, 2-4 September, Technical Papers, Volume 1, pp 169-17, 2006.
[14] AASHTO Designation: M 325-08, “Standard specification for stone matrix asphalt (SMA),” 2012.
[15] Z. I. Qassim, A. Abed, and Z. I. Qasim, “Impact of the superpave hot mix asphalt properties on its permanent deformation behavior,” MATEC Web of Conferences 162:01041, January 2018
[16] A. H. Abed, Z. I. Qasim, H. Al-Mosawe, and H. H. Norri, “The effect of hybrid anti-stripping agent with polymer on the moisture resistance of hot mix asphalt mixtures,” Cogent Engineering, August 2019.
[17] E. R. Brown, & L. A. Cooley, “Designing stone matrix asphalt mixtures for rut-resistant pavements,” (Report No. 245).Washington, DC: National Cooperative Highway Research Program, National Research Council, Transportation Research Board, 1999.
[18] SCRB/R9, “General specification for roads and bridges,” Section R/9, Hot-Mix Asphalt Concrete Pavement, Revised Edition. State Corporation of Roads and Bridges, Ministry of Housing and Construction, Republic of Iraq, 2003.
[19] AASHTO T-283, “Resistance of compacted bituminous mixture to moisture-induced damage,” 2015.
[20] ASTM, “ASTM D4867: Standard test method for effect of moisture on asphalt concrete paving mixtures,” Annual Book of standards American Society for Testing and Materials, Vol.04.03, ASTM, USA, 2012.
[21] European Standards EN 12697, “Bituminous mixtures Test methods for hot mix asphalt,” CEN/TC 227, 2005.
[22] E. T. Al-Azawee, and Z. I.Qasim, “The influence of crumb rubber modifier (CRM) on the properties of asphalt concrete mixtures, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, Vol. 9, Issue 10, 201–212, 2018.
[23] Z. I. Qasim , H.M. Hamdou, and N.G. Alkawaaz, “Application of mechanistic empirical approach to predict rutting of superpave mixtures in Iraq,” MATEC Web of Conferences 162:01041, January 2018.