Document Type : Research Paper


Production Engineering and Metallurgy Dept. University of Technology - Iraq


Solid Waste Management (SWM) is a term used to determine greatest energy-efficient and least-polluting ways to deal with the different components and items of community’s Solid Waste stream. The solid waste could be either in solid or liquid form. Solid waste could be defined as, ”Any material that is not required by the owner, fabricator or processor.” Solid Waste could be classified as Domestic waste, Industrial waste, Waste from oil plant, Electronic-waste, Construction waste, Agricultural waste, Food treating waste, Bio-medical waste, and Nuclear waste. Due to social and environmental significances, waste reduces, reuse, and recycle have become necessities in minimizing the environmental damage that could happen through waste disposal. Steel products may be used in various construction and industrial applications, such as machines, bridges, buildings, vessels, highways, machinery, tools, and automobiles. It is estimated that the world’s annual production of Steel is 1500 Million tons and that 85% of annual steel production is recycled worldwide. In this research, a framework for steel fabrication waste management is suggested consists of three stages; these stages are scrap classification stage, reusable scrap stage, and non-reusable scrap stage. The framework is applied in one of the Iraqi Ministry of Oil Companies; the Heavy Engineering Equipment Company, which is an important industrial company specialized in steel fabrication and construction work.


[1] A. King, S.C. Burgess and C.A. McMahon,
“Reducing waste: remanufacture or recycle,”
Sustainable Development Journal, Vol. 14, No. 4,
pp. 257-267, 2006.
[2] K. Sivapalan, A. Mohamad, P.A. Mohamad, and
M.Y. Muhd Noor, “Waste to Wealth,” Malaysian
Incineration and Renewable Centre (MIREC),
Malaysian Institute of Nuclear Technology (MINT),
Bangi: Kajang, 2005.
[3] A. Van de Klundert and J. Anschutz, “Integrated
Sustainable Waste Management-The Concept,”
WASTE, Gouda: Netherlands, 2001.
[4] E.L. Papargyropoulou, Rodrigo, J.K. Steinberger,
N. Wright and Z. Bin Ujang, “The waste hierarchy as
a framework for the management solid waste,”
Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 76, pp. 106 -
115, 2014.
[5] L.B. Frenkel, A. Karagrigoriou, A. Lisnianski and
A. V. Kleyner, “Applied Reliability Engineering and
Risk Analysis: Probabilistic Models,” John Wiley &
Sons, 2013.
[6] P.A. Renzulli, B. Notarnicola, G. Tassielli, G.
Arcese and R. Di Capua, “Life Cycle Assessment of
Steel Produced in an Italian Integrated Steel Mill,”
Sustainability journal, Vol. 8, pp. 719, 2016.
[7] S. Christopher, “Sustainability and value of steel
recycling in Uganda,” Journal of Civil Engineering
and Construction Technology, Vol. 2, No. 10, pp.
212-217, October 2011.
[8] ISBN, “Sustainable steel; at the core of a green
economy,” World Steel Association, 978-2-930069-
67-8, 2012.
[9] J. Hopewell, R. Dvorak, and E. Kosior, “Plastics
Recycling: Challenges and Opportunities”
Philosophical Transactions, Royal Soc., Vol. 364,
(1526), pp. 2115–2126, 2009.
[10] D.A. Rasool, B.M. Fahad, Kh.M. Awaeed,
“Utilization of Waste Plastic Water Bottle as a
Modifier For Asphalt mixture Properties,” Journal of
Engineering and Development, Vol.20, No.2,March,
pp.89-108, 2015.
[11] T.A.A. Jabar, “An Experimental Study of
Aluminum Cans Recycling in Iraq,” A thesis
submitted to the Department of Materials
Engineering, University of Technology, 2014.
[12] D. Janke, L. Savov, H.J. Weddige and E.
Schulz, “Scrap-Based Steel Production and
Recycling of Steel,” Mater Tehnol., Vol. 34, No. 6,
pp. 387, 2000.
[13] A. Nkansah, F. Attiogbe and E. Kumi, “Scrap
Metals’ Role in Circular Economy in Ghana, Using
Sunyani as a Case Study,” African Journal of
Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 9, No.
11, pp. 793-799, 2015.
[14] M. Smol, “Towards Zero Waste in Steel
Industry: Polish Case Study,” Journal of Steel
Structures & Construction, Vol. 1, Issue 1, pp.100-
102, 2015.
[16] R. Smallman and R. Bishop, “Modern Physical
Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Science,
Process, Applications,” sixth edition, ButterworthHeinemann, reed educational and professional
publishing Ltd, 1999.
[17] L.A.H. Al-Kindi, “Sustainability for Heavy
Engineering Equipment Industries Using Lean
Concepts,” Eng. &Tech. Journal, Vol. 34, Part (A),
No. 4, pp. 739-753, 2016.