Document Type : Research Paper
Civil Eng. Dept. University of Technology - Iraq
The marshlands are of fundamental importance to Iraq, a unique ecosystem providing local inhabitants with an essential source of habitat and livelihoods. This paper aims to study the ecosystem behavior of Abu-Ziriq Marsh in the south of Iraq under different scenarios using the Ecosystem Functions Model Program (HEC-EFM) and Hydrologic Engineering Center Data Storage System Visual Utility Engine (HEC-DSSVue). To this end, data was converted from tri-monthly and semi-monthly to daily data using the HEC-DSSVue program. The daily data natural(flow, stage) was used for five years between 2013 and 2018. The prediction process was evaluated using three criteria: correlation coefficient (R), root mean square error (RMSE), and the Nash–Sutcliffe effectivity coefficient (NSE). Results of R, RMSE and NSE for the daily inflow discharge (stage) of natural were 0.98 (0.93), 1.55 (0.19) and 0.95 (0.73). Five scenarios of a percentage decrease in gage(flow, stage) with 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% were investigated. Results showed that the decrease in discharge from 2% to 8% did not significantly affect environmental relations and could be used by the competent authorities. However, when the discharge was reduced to 10%, the environmental relations were greatly affected and threatened the life of the organisms. In addition to that, results for wetland health reverse lookup at the fifth scenario show that Abu–Ziriq Marsh need (70.2%) as a percent of the time, when flows equal or exceed four m3/sec. This discharge was chosen because it can be supplied on most days of the year, which is the time needed to be revived when flows equal or exceed 4 (m3/sec).
- The Ecosystem Functions Model Program (HEC-EFM)
- Ecosystem requirements
- Abu-Ziriq marsh
- Water quantity
Cultural Organization, “Managing Change in the
Marshlands: Iraq‟s Critical Challenge Report of the
United Nations Integrated Water Task Force for Iraq
United nations White PaPer,” 2011.
 A.D. Knighton and G.C. Nanson, “Waterholes and
their significance in the anastomosing channel system
of Cooper Creek, Australia,” Geomorphology, vol. 9,
no. 4, pp. 311–324, 1994.
 J.V Ward, K. Tockner, and F. Schiemer,
“Biodiversity of floodplain river ecosystems: ecotones
and connectivity1,” Regul. rivers Res. Manag., vol. 15,
no. 1‐3, pp. 125–139, 1999.
 M.T. Maher and L.W. Braithwaite, “Patterns of
waterbird use in wetlands of the Paroo, A river system
of inland Australia.,” Rangel. J., vol. 14, no. 2, pp.
 A.H. Arthington, S.R. Balcombe, G.A. Wilson,
M.C. Thoms, and J. Marshall, “Spatial and temporal
variation in fish-assemblage structure in isolated
waterholes during the 2001 dry season of an arid-zone
floodplain river, Cooper Creek, Australia,” Mar.
Freshw. Res., vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 25–35, 2005.
 J.T. Puckridge, K.F. Walker, and J.F. Costelloe,
“Hydrological persistence and the ecology of dryland
rivers,” Regul. Rivers Res. Manag., vol. 16, no. 5, pp.
 S.R. Balcombe, S.E. Bunn, A.H. Arthington, J.H.
Fawcett, F. J. McKenzie‐Smith, and A. Wright, “Fish
larvae, growth and biomass relationships in an
Australian arid zone river: links between floodplains
and waterholes,” Freshw. Biol., vol. 52, no. 12, pp.
 J.C. Marshall, F. Sheldon, M. Thoms, and S. Choy,
“The macroinvertebrate fauna of an Australian dryland
river: spatial and temporal patterns and environmental
relationships,” Mar. Freshw. Res., vol. 57, no. 1, pp.
 R.J. Shiel, J.F. Costelloe, J.R. W. Reid, P. Hudson,
and J. Powling, “Zooplankton diversity and
assemblages in arid zone rivers of the Lake Eyre
Basin, Australia,” Mar. Freshw. Res., vol. 57, no. 1,
pp. 49–60, 2006.
 S.R. Balcombe and A.H. Arthington, “Temporal
changes in fish abundance in response to hydrological
variability in a dryland floodplain river,” Mar. Freshw.
Res., vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 146–159, 2009.
 H.M. Bedair, H.T. Al Saad, and N.A. Salman,
“Iraq‟s Southern Marshes Something Special To Be Conserved; A Case Study,” Marsh Bull., 2006.
 N. Al-Ansari, S. Knutsson, and A. Ali, “Restoring
the Garden of Eden, Iraq,” J. Earth Sci. Geotech. Eng.,
vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 53–88, 2012.
 Z. Oonge, “Environmental Flow Assessment
Using HEC-EFM and GIS : A Case Study of Kibos
River .,” The University of Nairobi School of
 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE),
“Ecosystem Functions Model (HEC-EFM) Quick Start
 M.S. Al Khafaji, H.A. Hussein, and A.A. Ali,
“Hydrological Operation Requirements for Restoration
and Improving Water Quality of Abu Zirig Marsh.,”
Eng. & Tech. Journal, vol. 28, no. 17, 2010.
 R.H. Al-Suhili, S.E. Ebrahim and H.J. Alkhazaali, “Optimum Water Allocation for Abu-Ziriq
Marsh Ecological Restoration,” Journal of
Engineering, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 683–692, 2012.
 N.V Bhattacharjee, J.R. Willis, K.W. Swinson,
and E. W. Tollner, “Water Management and habitat
suitability study along the Ocmulgee river,” in 21st
Century Watershed Technology Conference and
Workshop Improving Water Quality and the
Environment Conference Proceedings, 3-9 December
2016, IKIAM Universidad Regional Amazonica Quito,
Ecuador, pp. 1–7, 2016.
 Z.D. Hassan, “Using Remote Sensing Techniques
and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in
Sequences Study to Al-Hammar Marsh /South of Iraq
for the Period ( 1973-2010 ),” vol. 3795, 2012.
 C.N.D. John T. Hickey, Rochelle Huff, “Using
habitat to quantify ecological effects of restoration and
water management alternatives,” Environ. Model.
Softw., vol. 70, pp. 16–31, 2015.
 A.K. Shayyish, “Predictive Modeling of Hawiza
Marsh Eutrophication,” vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 2263–
 Z.A. Garstecki, “Biodiversity and Ecosystem
Management in the Iraqi Marshlands-Screening Study
on Potential World Heritage Nomination.,” 2011.
 N. Al-Ansari and S. Knutsson, “Possibilities of
Restoring the Iraqi Marshes known as the Garden of
Eden,” Water Clim. Chang. MENA-Region Adapt.
Mitig. Best Pract., 2011.
 M. of W. R. MOWR, “„Data of discharge and
depth of water in Abu Zarak marsh‟.,” 2005.
 IMET and IF, Italian Ministry for the
Environment and Territory and Iraq Foundation, "New
Eden, Water & Energy Project" Technical Book 1.
Abo- Ziriq Marshland Restoration Project,2005.
 S. Srinivasulu and A. Jain, “A comparative
analysis of training methods for artificial neural
network rainfall–runoff models,” Appl. Soft Comput.,
vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 295–306, 2006.
 M.A. Ghorbani, R. Khatibi, B. Hosseini, and M.
Bilgili, “Relative importance of parameters affecting
wind speed prediction using artificial neural
networks,” Theor. Appl. Climatol., vol. 114, no. 1–2,
pp. 107–114, 2013.
 L.F. Woodrow, “Managing Alamo Dam to
Establish Woody Riparian Vegetation on the Bill
Williams River, Arizona.,” M.Sc. Thesis, Civil Eng.,
University of California, California, 2009.
 T. John, “Improving Reservoir Management from
an Ecological Perspective,” M.Sc. Thesis, Civil Eng.
Unversity of California, USA, 2013.