Synthesis and Fabrication of ZnO Nanorods on Silicon for Methanol Gas Sensor
Engineering and Technology Journal,
2019, Volume 37, Issue 3B, Pages 74-81
AbstractZinc Oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) were successfully synthesized via hydrothermal method. The growth process was conducted with seed layer concentration of 30 mM. The as-synthesized nanostructures were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectrophotometer. The analysis results revealed a pure Wurtzite ZnO hexagonal nanostructures with preferred orientation (002) along c-direction. The calculated band gap and crystallite size are 3.2 eV and 53.18 nm respectively. A methanol gas sensor was fabricated based on the annealed ZnO NRs on the silicon substrate. Optimized sensitivity at 250 ppm methanol vapor with fast response and recovery time was achieved. So, ZnO NRs film can serve as a good candidate for a methanol gas sensing device.
 P. Nunes, B. Fernandes, E. Fortunato, P. Vilarinho,
and R. Martins, “Performances presented by zinc
oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis”, Journal
of Thin Solid Films, Vol. 337, pp. 176–179, January,
 T. P. Chou, Q. F. Zhang, G. E. Fryxell and G. Z.
Cao, “Hierarchically structured ZnO film for dyesensitized solar cells with enhanced energy conversion
efficiency,” Advanced Materials, Vol. 19, No. 18, pp.
2588-2592, September, 2007.
 U. Rau, and M. Schmidt, “Electronic properties of
ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells aspects of
heterojunction formation”, Journal of Thin Solid Films
Vol. 387, pp.141–146, May, 2001.
 T. Soki, Y. Hatanaka, and D. Look, “ZnO diode
fabricated by excimer-laser doping”, Appl. Phys. Lett.
Vol. 76, No. 22, pp. 3257-3258, May, 2000.
 U. Alver, T. Kılınç, E. Bacaksız, T.
Kucukomerogla, S. Nezir, I.H. Mutlu, and F. Aslan,
“Synthesis and characterization of spray pyrolysis zinc
oxide microrods”, Thin Solid Films Vol. 515, pp.
3448–3451, February, 2007.
 M.H. Huang, Y. Wu, H. Feick, N. Tran, E. Weber,
and P. Yang, “Catalytic growth of zinc oxide
nanowires by vapour transport”, Adv. Mater. Vol. 13,
pp. 113-116, January, 2001.
 G.K. Paul, and S.K. Sen, “Sol-gel preparation,
characterization, and studies on electrical and
thermoelectrical properties of gallium doped zinc
oxide films”, Mater. Lett. Vol. 57, pp. 742–746,
 E.M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, H. V. Wenckstern, A.
Rahm, H.-C. Semmelhack, K.-H. Han, G. Benndorf,
C. Bundesmann, H. Hochmuth, and M. Grundmann,
“High electron mobility of epitaxial ZnO thin films on
c-plane sapphire grown by multistep pulsed-laser
deposition”, Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol. 82, pp. 3901-3903,
 M.J.H. Henseler, W.C.T. Lee, P. Miller, S.M.
Durbin, and R.J. Reeves, “Optical and photoelectrical
properties of ZnO thin films and the effects of
annealing”, J. Cryst. Growth Vol. 287, pp. 48-53,
 A. D. Faisal, "Synthesis of ZnO comb-like
nanostructures for high sensitivity H2S gas sensor fabrication at room temperature", Bull. Mater. Sci.,
Vol. 40, No. 6, pp. 1061–1068, October, 2017.
 J.M. Bian, X.M. Li, X.D. Gao, W.D. Yu, and
L.D. Chen, “P-type ZnO films by monodoping of
nitrogen and ZnO-based p-n homojunction”, Appl.
Phys. Lett. Vol. 85, pp. 4070 – 4072, December, 2004.
 H. Zeng, J. Cui, B. Cao, U. Gibson, Y. Bando,
and D. Golberg, “Electrochemical deposition of ZnO
nanowire arrays: organization, doping, and properties”,
Sci. of Adv. Mater. Sci. Vol. 2, 336–358, September,
 D. P. Singh, “Synthesis and growth of ZnO
nanowires”, Sci. Adv. Mater. Vol. 2, pp. 245–272,
 H. Zhang, N. Du, B. Chen, D. Li, and D. Yang,
“Carbon nanotube-ZnO nanosphere heterostructures:
low-temperature chemical reaction synthesis,
photoluminescence, and their application for room
temperature NH3 gas sensor”, Sci. Adv. Mater. Vol. 1,
pp. 13–17, April, 2009.
 X. Ren, and C. Jiang, “Synthesis of ZnO nanotube
arrays and heterostructures of Cu–ZnO coaxial
nanotubes by electrodeposition–oxidation method”, J.
Nanosci. Nanotechnol. Vol. 10, pp. 5093–5098,
 K. Zhu, Z. Yan, and W. Chen, “Fabrication of
hourglass-like ZnO particles with enhanced blue
emission”, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. Vol. 10, pp.
6594–6598, October, 2010.
 A. D. Faisal, "Optimization of CVD parameters
for long ZnO NWs grown on ITO/glass substrate",
Bull. Mater. Sci., Vol. 39, No. 7, pp. 1635–1643,
 P. X. Gao, C.S. Lao, W.L. Hughes, and Z.L.
Wang, “Three-dimensional interconnected nanowire
networks of ZnO”, Chem. Phys. Lett. Vol. 408, pp.
174–178, June, 2005.
 A. D. Faisal, "Influence of seed layer on
morphology and structure of ZnO nanowires
synthesized on silicon via hydrothermal method", AlMustansiriyah Journal of Science, Vol. 27, No 3, pp.
 K. Ramamoorthy, C. Sanjeeviraja, K.
Sankaranarayanan, P. Misra, and L.M. Kukreja,
“Development of a novel high optical quality ZnO thin
films by PLD for III–V opto-electronic devices”, Curr.
Appl. Phys. Vol. 6, pp. 103-108, December, 2006.
 J.M. Khoshman, and M.E. Kordesch, “Optical
constants and band edge of amorphous zinc oxide thin
films”, Thin Solid Films Vol. 515 Issue 18, pp. 7393–
7399, June, 2007.
 K. Zheng, Q.M. Xue, D. Guo, S. Liu, and E.G.
Wang, “Ultra-thin zinc oxide film on Mo(100)”, Thin
Solid Films Vol. 515, Issue 18, pp. 7167-7170, June,
 F. Kadi Allah, S. YapiAbé, C.M. Nunez, A.
Khelil, L. Cattin, M. Morsli, J.C. Bernède, A.
Bougrine, M.A. del Valle, and F.R. Diaz,
“Characterisation of porous doped ZnO thin films
deposited by spray pyrolysis technique”, Appl. Surf.
Sci. Vol. 253, pp. 9241–9247, September, 2007.
 C.S. Barret, and T.B. Massalski, “Structure of
Metals”, Pergamon Press, Oxford, New York, 1980.
 B.D. Cullity, and S.R. Stock, “Elements of X-Ray
Diffraction”, Third Ed., Prentice-Hall, New York,
 Q. Zhou, J. Z. Wen, P. Zhao, and W. A.
Anderson," Synthesis of vertically-aligned zinc oxide
nanowires and their application as a photocatalyst,"
Nanomaterials, Vol. 7, Issue 9, pp. 1-13, January,
 J. Fan, T. Li, and H. Heng, "Hydrothermal
growth of ZnO nanoflowers and their photocatalyst
application," Bull. Mater. Sci., Vol. 39, No. 1, pp.19–
 R. S. Sabry, B. M. Ahmed, and T. A. A.
Hassan," Simple hydrothermal synthesis of the ZnO
hexagonal nanotubes", Australian Journal of Basic and
Applied Sciences, Vol.10 (18), pp.303-309, 2016.
 B. K. Rohidas B., Y.-J. Hsu, Y.-F. Lin, and S.-
Y. Lu," Hydrothermal synthesis, characterizations and
photoluminescence study of single crystalline
hexagonal ZnO nanorods with three-dimensional
flowerlike microstructures", Superlattices and
Microstructures Vol. 69, pp.239–252, 2014.
 R. B. Kale, Y.J. Hsu, Y. F. Lin and S.Y. Lu,
“Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization and
photoluminescence study of single crystalline
hexagonal ZnO nanorods with three dimensional
flowerlike microstructures”, Superlattices and
Microstructures, Vol. 69, pp. 239-252, 2014.
 E. Darezereshki, M. Ranjbar, and F. Bakhtiari,
"One-step synthesis of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3)
nanoparticles by a wet chemical method," Journal of
Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 502, pp.257-260, 2010.
 C. Suryanarayana , and G. Norton. X-Ray
Diffraction: A Practical Approach. Springer Science +
Business Media, LLC, 233 Spring Street, New York,
NY 10013, USA: Plenum Press; 1998.
Y. T. Prabhu, K. V. Rao, V. Sesha S. Kumar, and
B. S. Kumari, " X-Ray Analysis by Williamson-Hall
and size-train plot methods of ZnO nanoparticles with
fuel variation ", World Journal of Nano Science and
Engineering, Vol. 4, pp.21-28, 2014.
 Z. H. Ibupoto, K. Khun, M. Eriksson, M. Alsahi,
M. Atif, A. Ansari and M. Willander, “Hydrothermal
growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods using a
biocomposite seed layer of ZnO nanoparticles”,
Materials, Vol. 6, pp. 3584-3597, 2013.
 Y. I. Jung, B. Y. Noh, Y. S. Lee, S. H. Baek, J. H.
Kim Visible emission from Ce-doped ZnO nanorods
grown by hydrothermal method without a post thermal
annealing process, Nanoscale Research Letters Vol. 7,
Issue 43, pp. 1-5, 2012. DOI: 10.1186/1556-276X-7-
 F. Urbach, “The long-wavelength edge of
photographic sensitivity and of the electronic absorption of solids”, Phys. Rev., Vol. 92, pp. 1324,
 G. K. Mani, and J. B. B. Rayappan, “A highly
selective room temperature ammonia sensor using
spray deposited zinc oxide thin film”, Sensor and
Actuators B, Vol. 183, pp. 459-466, 2013.
 M. Majhi, " Growth and characterization of SiO2
thin film on silicon substrates", MSc. Thesis, National
Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Rourkela-769008,
Orissa, India, 2013.
 Z. Yin, X. Wang, F. Sun, X. Tong, C. Zhu, Q.
Lv, D. Ye, S. Wang, W. Luo and Y. Huang, “ Aligned
hierarchical Ag/ZnO nano-hetrostructure arrays via
electrohydrodynamic nanowire template for enhanced
gas-sensing properties”, Scientific Report, [7-12206],
pp. 1-10, 2017. DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-12553-7.
 L. Liao, Z. Zhang, B. Yan, Z. Zheng, Q. L. Bao,
T. Wu, C. M Li, Z. X. Shen, J. X. Zhang, H. Gong, J.
C. Li and T. Yu, “Multifunctional CuO nanowire
devices: P-type field effect transistors and CO gas
sensor, Nanotechnology, Vol. 20, pp. 1-6, Dec. 2009.
 R. Kumar, O. Al-Dossary, G. Kumar, and A.
Umar, "Zinc oxide nanostructures for NO2 gas-sensor
applications: A Review", nano-micro Lett. Vol.7 (2),
 B.A.Vessalli, C.A.Zito, T.M.Perfecto,
D.P.Volanti and T. Mazon, "ZnO nanorods/graphene
oxide sheets prepared by chemical bath deposition for
volatile organic compounds detection," J. of Alloys
and Compounds Vol. 696, pp. 996-1003, 2017.
 N.Banerijee, K. Dutta, H.Misr and P.
Bhattacharcharyya," Capacitive mode methanol
sensing by ZnO nanorods based devices", Int. J.
Material ,Mechanics and Manufacturing Vol.5, No. 2,
- Article View: 31
- PDF Download: 16