Document Type : Research Paper


University of Technology, Control and Systems Engineering Department-Iraq.


The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the performance of two intelligent controllers; the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, and the proportional-integral-derivative-acceleration (PIDA) controller, based on optimization algorithm for higher order systems. In this work, bat control algorithm has been utilized to find and tune the optimal weight parameters of the controllers as simple and fast tuning technique to find the best unsaturated state and smooth control action for the systems based on the intelligent controllers. The simulation results using (Matlab Package) show that both controllers with the bat control algorithm can give excellent performance but the performance of the PIDA controller is better than that of the PID controller in terms of reducing the rising time (Tr), peak time (Tp), settling time (Ts), maximum overshoot (Mp), and steady-state error (Ess). Furthermore, the fitness evaluation value is reduced.


[1] E. Sariyildiz, H. Yu, and K. Ohnishi, “A practical tuning method for the robust PID controller with velocity feed-back,” Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) machines, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 208-222, August 2015.
[2] D. C. Meena, and A. Devanshu, “Genetic algorithm tuned PID controller for process control,” International Conference of IEEE on Inventive Systems and Control (ICISC), Coimbatore, India, pp. 1-6, August, 19-20 January 2017.
[3] M. I. Solihin, L. F. Tack, and M. L. Kean, “Tuning of PID controller using particle swarm optimization (PSO),” Proceeding of the International Conference on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, Hotel Equatorial Bangi-Putrajaya, Malaysia, pp. 458-461, 14 - 15 January 2011.
[4] I. Chiha, N. Liouane, and P. Borne, “Tuning PID controller using multiobjective ant colony optimization,” Hindawi Publishing Corporation Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing, Vol. 2012, Article ID 536326, pp. 1-7, 2012.
[5] J. Han, P. Wang, and X. Yang, “Tuning of PID controller based on fruit fly optimization algorithm,” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, Chengdu, China, pp. 409-413, 5 – 8 August 2012.
[6] S. Sornmuang, and S. Sujitjorn, “GA-based optimal PIDA controller design,” ISTASC'10 Proceedings of the 10th WSEAS international conference on Systems theory and scientific computation, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 192-197, 20 – 22 August, 2010.
[7] D. K. Sambariya, and D. Paliwal, “Comparative design and analysis of PIDA controller using Kitti's and jung-dorf approach for third order practical systems,” British Journal of Mathematics & Computer Science, Vol. 16, No. 5, pp. 1-16, 2016.
[8] N. Pringsakul, C. Thammarat, S. Hlangnamthip, and D. Puangdownreong, “Obtaining optimal PIDA controller for temperature control of electric furnace system via flower pollination algorithm,” WSEAS Transactions on Systems and Control, Vol. 14, pp. 1-7, 2019
[9] D. K. Sambariya, and D. Paliwal, “Design of PIDA controller using bat algorithm for AVR power system,” Advances in Energy and Power, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 1-6, 2016.
[10] A. Sharma, H. Sharma, A. Bhargava, and N. Sharma, “Optimal design of PIDA controller for induction motor using spider monkey optimization algorithm,” International Journal of Metaheuristics, Vol. 5, Nos. 3/4, pp. 278-290, 2016.
[11] K. E. Dagher, “Design of an Auto-Tuning PID controller for systems based on slice genetic algorithm,” Iraqi Journal of Computers, Communications and Control & Systems Engineering (IJCCCE), Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 1-9, 2013.
[12] X. Liu, C. Xu, C. Huang, and W. Shiand, “The research of tobacco leaf roasting control tactics based on fuzzy PID, ” Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing, Vol. 1, Springer, pp. 185-190, 2011.
[13] M. S. Saad, H. Jamaluddin and I. Z. M. Darus, “PID controller tuning using evolutionary algorithms,” WSEAS Transactions on Systems and Control, Vol. 7, Issue 4, pp. 139-149, October 2012.
[14] X-S Yang, and X. He, “Bat algorithm: literature review and applications,” International Journal of Bio-Inspired Computation, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 141-149, 2013.
[15] N. A. Nor’Azlan, N. A. Selamat, and N. M. Yahya, “Multivariable PID controller design tuning using bat algorithm for activated sludge process,” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering , Vol. 342, pp. 1-9, 2018.
[16] D. K. Sambariya, and D. Paliwal, “Design of PIDA controller using bat algorithm for AVR power system,” Advances in Energy and Power, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 1-6, 2016.