Document Type : Research Paper


1 Temenggong Ibrahim Teachers, Training Institute, Malaysia

2 Al-Mustaqbal Unversity College, Hillah - Iraq

3 Al Furat Al Awsat Technical University, Najaf - Iraq


A hydrogeologic study has been adopted to conceptualize the concepts of groundwater levels lowering in swamped area of Tyass, middle of Iraq. 2D dimensional groundwater model and, mitigation model have been used to mitigate the aquifer against high salinity and chemical pollutants by the mitigation theory of heterogeneous subsurface media which basically depends upon physical and mathematical derivation, evaluation of chemical pollutants and total dissolved salts (TDS) of subsurface water before and after mitigation process. The water table level was lowered up to 2.43m at the center of a pumping well of abstraction discharge (400m3/day) obtained after 2755days in steady state. The ions concentrations of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), mercury (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and TDS in groundwater of 0.4, 3.25, 1.15, 0.004, 0.033 mg/liter and 7000ppm respectively were reduced to less than the allowable limits according to WHO of 0.3, 3, 1, 0.003, 0.01mg/liter, 1200ppm respectively by adding 0.2WD of fresh water from Hillah river and using maximum no. of pumping wells of (19 at April) after 240 months. The mitigation period was reduced to 120 months when the addition of solvent volume was doubled. Mitigation process in heterogeneous against high saline levels and chemical pollutants has been proven to be a good tool to rehabilitation of polluted aquifers.


[1] L. Stenhouse, “Introduction to curriculum research
and development,” London: Heinemens, 1975.
[2] C. Macintyre, “The art of action research in the
classroom,” London: David Dulton Publishers, 2000.
[3] J. Dewey, “How we think: A restatement of the
relation of reflective thinking to the educative
process,” New York: D.C. Heath and Company, 1975.
[4] M. Van Manen, “Linking ways of knowing with
ways of being practical,” Curriculum inquiry, 6, 3,
205-228, 1977.
[5] D. McLaughlin, & P. Hanifin, “Reflection,
Rhetoric or Reality: A Case Study in Preservice
Teacher Education,” Australian Journal of Teacher
Education, 20, 1, 1995.
[6] B.E. Steffy, M.P. Wolfe, S.H. Pasch, & B.J. Enz,
“The model and its application,” In B.E. Steffy, M. P.
Wolfe, S. H. Pasch, & B. J. Enz, (Eds.), Life cycle of
the career Teacher pp. 1-25. California: Kappa Delta
Pi and Corwin Press, Inc, 2000.
[7] G.L. Taggart, A.P Wilson, “Promoting Reflective
Thinking in Teachers,” 44 Action Strategies. USA:
Corwin Press, Inc, 1998.
[8] M. Burbank, L. Ramirez & A. Bates, “Critically
Reflective Thinking in Urban Teacher Education: A
Comparative Case Study of Two Participants,”
Experiences as Content Area Teachers. The
Professional Educator, Vol. 36, No. 2, fall 2012, 2012.
[9] F. Dervent, “The Effect of Reflective Thinking on
The Teaching Practices of Preservice Physical Education Teachers. Issues in Educational Research,
25, 3, pg. 260-275, 2015.
[10] F.S. Bolin, “Helping student teachers think about
teaching,” Journal of Teacher Education, 39, 2, 48-54,
[11] A.E. Richert, “Teaching teachers to reflect: A
consideration of programme structure,” Journal of
Curriculum Studies, 22, 509-527, 1990.
[12] D.A. Schon, “Educating the reflective
practitioner: Towards a new design for teaching and
learning in the professions,” San Francisco: JosseyBass, 1987.
[13] D. Boud, R. Keogh, D. dan Walker, “Reflection:
Turning experience into learning,” London: Kogan
Page, 1985.
[14] J. Loughran, & D. Corrigan, “Teaching portfolios:
A strategy for developing learning and teaching in the
pre-service teacher education. Teaching and Teacher
Education, 11, 6, 565-577, 1995.
[15] J. Mezirow, “Transformative Dimensions of
Adult Learning,” San Francisco: JosseBass, 1991.
[16] M. Giovannelli, “Relationship between Reflective
Disposition toward Teaching and Effective Teaching,”
The Journal of Educational Research. 5, 293-309,
[17] G.J. Henderson, “Reflective Teaching: The Study
of Constructivist Practices,” New York: Cornell
University Press, 1996.
[18] S. Kemmis, & R. McTaggart, “The action
research planner,” Ed. ke-3. Victoria: Deakin
University, 1988.
[19] S. Grundy & S. Kemmis, “Educational action
research in Australia: the state of the art (overview),”
Dlm. Kemmis, S. & McTaggart, R. (pnyt). The action
research reader, hlm. 321-336. Ed. ke-3. Victoria:
Deakin University, 1981.
[20] C. Poyraz & S. Usta, “Investigation of Preservice
Teachers’s Reflective Thinking Tendencies,” In Terms
of Various Variances. International Journal on New
Trends in Education and Their Impilcations. April
2013. Vol (4), pg 126-135, 2013.
[21] L. Hoover, “Reflective writing as a window on
preservice teachers' thought processes,” Teaching and
Teacher Education. 10, 1, 83-93, 1994.
[22] B.P. Ying, “Pelaksanaan kerja kursus berportfolio
dalam kursus diploma perguruan Malaysia,” Tesis
Doktor. Falsafah. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,
Bangi, 2002.
[23] M.B. Miles and A.M. Huberman, “Qualitative
data analysis,” 2
nd Ed. Thousand Oaks, California:
Sage Publications, 1994.
[24] K.M. Zeichner, & D.P. Liston, “Teaching student
teachers to reflect,” Harvard Educational Review,
57(1), 23-49, 1987.
[25] H. Gelter, “Why is reflective thinking
uncommon,” Reflective Practice, 4(3), 337-344, 2003.
[26] M. Van Manen, “Writing Qualitatively,” or the
demands of writing Keynote Address: Third Nordic
Interdisciplinary Conference on Qualitative Methods,
[27] Z. Knowles, D. Gilbourne, B. Cropley, B. & L.
Dugdill, “Reflecting on reflection and journeys,” New
York: Routledge, 2004.
[28] A. Castro, “Themes in the research on preservice
teachers’ views of cultural diversity: Implications for
researching millennial preservice teachers,”
Educational Researcher, 39, 3, 198–210, 2010.
[29] M. Md. Jaafar, “Pelaksanaan kajian tindakan oleh
guru di sekolah,” Tesis Ijazah Sarjana, Fakulti
Pendidikan, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 2006.