Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Materials Engineering/ University of Technology-Iraq


Natural materials have been extensively used as reinforcements in polymer matrices instead of non-degradable synthetic reinforcement such as carbon, glass or aramid. The use is because of their low density, good mechanical properties, availability, and biodegradability. Peanut shell is one such natural waste filler used, and it contains cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Natural fiber/particle sources are not only strong and lightweight but are relatively very cheap. This paper offers the comparison of the flexural, and impact energy test properties of the peanut shell reinforced with the epoxy resin matrix. Peanut shells add into the epoxy resin matrix with various weight fractions (2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) and have been fabricated by hand lay-up procedure. Flexural strength and flexural modulus changed from (140MPa) to (160 MPa), and from (2 GPa) to (7.79 GPa) respectively, impact strength, and fracture toughness changed from (2.5 KJ/m2) to (7 KJ/m2), and from (2.23 MPa.m1/2) to (7.07 MPa.m1/2), respectively as a function of the particle weight fraction. The highest flexural strength and modulus obtained samples (reinforced 4% wt. peanut shell), while samples (reinforced +8% wt. peanut shell) provided the highest impact strength and fracture toughness.


[1] T. Madhusudan and K. SenthiL, “Mechanical characterization of jute and rubber particles reinforced epoxy polymer composites,” IOSR Journal of Pharmacy, Vol.6, No.12, PP. 23-27, 2016.
[2] M. Chary and K. S. Ahmed, “Experimental characterization of coconut shell particle reinforced epoxy composites,” Journal of Materials and Environmental Sciences, Vol. 8, No.5 , PP. 1661-1667, 2017
[3] G.U. Raju and S. Kumarappa, “Experimental study on mechanical properties of Peaunt shell particle reinforced epoxy composites,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, Vol.30, No.12, PP.1029–1037, 2015.
[4] J. K. Oleiwi, S. I.salih and H.S. Fadhil, “Water absorption and thermal properties of PMMA reinforced by Natural fibers for denture application,” International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development (IJMPERD) Journal, Vol. 8, No.3, PP.1105-1116, 2018.
[5] A. J. Olaitan1, A. E.l Terhemen, G. D. King and O. R. Oluwatoyin, “comparative assessment of mechanical properties of peaunt shell and rice husk reinforced epoxy composites,” American Journal of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 3, PP. 76-86, 2017.
[6] R. H. Abdel-Rahim and R. A. Mohammed, “Experimental investigation of some properties of epoxy reinforced by egg shell particles,” International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, Vol.10, PP.152-163, 2019.
[7] B. H Manjunath and K. P. Rao, “Influence of fiber/filler particles reinforcement on epoxy composites. Composites,” International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ,Vol.3, No.3, 2013.
[8] Z. N. Fasihah and H. Ismail, “A Review on peanut shell powder reinforced polymer composites,” Polymer-Plastics Technology and Materials Vol.58, No.4, PP. 349-365, 2019.
[9] A. B. Abdul-Hussein, E. S. AL-Hassani, R. A. Mohammed, “Erosion wear behavior of industrial material reinforced epoxy resin composites and its coating with natural based material,” Eng. &Tech. Journal, Vol.33, No.4, Part A, PP. 902-918, 2015.
[10] Annual Book of ASTM Standard, "Standard test methods for flexural properties of unreinforced and reinforced plastics D 790- 86,” Vol. 10.01 , 1986.
[11] Annual Book of ISO- 180. Standard, “Standard test methods for unnotched izod impact testing of plastics,” ISO-180, PP.1-2, 2006.
[12] S. I. Younis, J. K. Oleiwi, R. A. Mohammed, “Some mechanical properties of polymer matrix composites reinforced by nano silica particles and glass fiber,” Engineering and Technology Journal, Vol.36, No.12, Part A, PP.1283- 1289, 2018.
[13] M. R. Rahman, M. N. Islam, M. M. Huque, S. Hamdan, and A. S. Ahmed, “Effect of chemical treatment on rice husk (RH) reinforced polyethylene (PE) composites,” BioResources, Vol. 5, No. 2, PP. 854–869, 2010.
[14] H. C. Obasi, “Peanut husk filled polyethylene composites: effects of filler content and compatibilizer on properties,” Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Polymers, Vol. 2015, Article ID 189289, PP. 1-9, 2015.
[15] R. A. Mohammed, “Effect of Al2O3 powder on some mechanical and physical properties for unsaturated polyester resin hybrid composites materials reinforced by carbon and glass fibers,” Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol.34, No.12, Part A, PP.2371-2379, 2016.
[16] P. N. Khanam, H. P. S. A Khalil, M. Jawaid, G. R. Reddy, C. S. Narayana and S. V. Naidu., "Sisal/carbon fibre reinforced hybrid composites: tensile, flexural and chemical resistance properties,” Journal of Polymers and the Environment, Vol. 18, No. 4, PP. 727–733, 2010.
[17] A. M. Al-Ghabban, R. A. Mohammed, J. R. Mahmood, “Analysing some mechanical properties of cinnamon powder reinforced with polymeric materials used in dental application,” Engineering and Technology Journal, Vol. 37, Part A, No. 3, 2019.
[18] W. H. Jassim, “Preparation of the epoxy / chicken eggshell composites to use in surfaces coating,” Ibn Al-Haitham J. for Pure & Appl. Sci., Vol.29, No.1, PP.439-449, 2016.
[19] J. K. Oleiwi, S. I. Salih & H. S. Fadhil, “Studying the flexural properties and max shear stress of self cure PMMA resin for denture applications,” The Iraqi Journal For Mechanical And Material Engineering, Vol.17, No4, PP. 746-75, 2017.
[20] R. A. Mohammed, “Study of some mechanical properties and erosive behavior by taguchi method for hybrid nano composites,” Engineering and Technology Journal, Vol. 36, Part A, No. 4, PP. 471-479, 2018.
[21] G.U. Raju and S. Kumarappa, “Experimental study on mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy composites filled with agricultural residue,” Polymers from Renewable Resources, Vol. 3, No. 3, PP.117-138, 2012.
[22] I. Tawakkal, R. Talib, K. Abdan and C. Ling, “Mechanical and physical properties of kenaf-derived cellulose (KDC)-filled polylactic acid (PLA) composites,” BioResources,Vol. 7, No. 2, PP. 1643–1655, 2012. [23] P. Joseph, G. Mathew, K. Joseph, G. Groeninck., and S. A. Thomas, “Dynamic mechanical properties of short sisal fibre reinforced polypropylene composites,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol. 34, No. 3, PP. 275–290, 2003.