Document Type : Research Paper


Civil Engineering Department,University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq.


This research presents the results of 14 tests, where the pile is subjected to static lateral loads. The tests are carried out on pile models with different length / diameter ratios embedded in sand with different relative densities. The influence of embedment length to diameter ratios (L/D), relative density and mode of failure of the pile on the ultimate lateral resistance of piles are investigated. A series of different ratios of embedded length to constant diameter ranging from 12 to 30 was used to perform this study. From the results of the experimental models, it is found that, the length to diameter ratio is a significant variable that influences the ultimate resistance of the piles, where lateral static loads were employed to the single pile by a static lateral load using a device designed for this purpose, and due to the static lateral load the pile was deflected. The ultimate lateral resistance of a pile is investigated to specify the behavior of the pile under the effect of lateral loads as a rigid or flexible pile.


  • The slenderness ratio affects the behavior of flexible piles under lateral loads.
  • Relative density of sand specifies failure mode of pile under the lateral loading.
  • Ultimate lateral resistance of piles affected by the density and slenderness ratio.


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