Mechanical Engineering Dept., University of Technology, Baghdad-Iraq, Alsina’a street,10066 Baghdad, Iraq.


This research is performed to study and investigate the influence of adding some ketone compounds on performance, emissions, and heat balance of spark ignition engine. The compound used in this study is butanone (C4H8O). The importance of the research lies in increasing the octane number by adding specific percentages of butanone and showing its impact on improving the combustion process, performance and reducing pollutants. This ketone has been added to the basic fuel (gasoline) with three concentration ranges (3, 6 and 9%), respectively.  All experimental tests were carried out on gasoline engine type (Nissan QG18DE), four cylinders, and 4-stroke. The acquired results showed that adding of ketones affects the physical properties of gasoline, where the density changed from (710 kg/m3) for net gasoline to (724 kg/m3) for butanone at an adding ratio of (9%). The octane number also increased for all types of ketones compared with pure fuel, and it will be improved from (86) for pure gasoline to (93.1) for butanone at an adding ratio of (9%). While the calorific value will be decreased from (43000 kJ/kg) for gasoline to (41665.44) for butanone at an adding ratio of (9%). The addition of ketones improves the emissions characteristic of the engine. The best reductions of (UHC, CO2, CO and NOx) were (47.51, 24.9, 27.35 and 35.91%), respectively recorded by butanone addition at a ratio of (9%). In the case of performance, the best increments of brake power, brake thermal efficiency and volumetric efficiency were (14.5, 7, 14.94 and 11.64%), respectively, which is achieved by adding (9%) of butanone.


  • Adding of ketones affect the physical properties of gasoline.
  • the density changed from (710 kg/m3) for net gasoline to (724 kg/m3) for butanone at adding ratio of (9%).
  • The addition of ketones improves the emissions characteristic of engine. The best reduction of (UHC, CO2, CO and NOx) was (47.51, 24.9, 27.35 and 35.91%) recorded by butanone addition at ratio of (9%).


Main Subjects

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