Document Type : Research Paper


1 Electrical Engineering Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a Street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq

2 Electrical Engineering Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a Street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq.

3 Electrical Engineering Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a Street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq


The biggest challenge in the solar system is to extract the maximum output power
from photovoltaic (PV) panels under different solar radiation and temperature
conditions. This paper presents a comparative study between perturb and observe
(P & O) and incremental conduction (INC) algorithms. These are the most popular
algorithms for tracking solar PV panels and extracting the maximum power point
(MPP) under different climate conditions. The studied PV system and the MPPT
techniques have been investigated by simulation using MATLAB/Simulink. The
simulation includes a boost converter, which increases the PV panel voltage by
controlling the duty cycle. The obtained results show that the P & O performance
close to MPP under constant test conditions (STC) is better than the variable
conditions due to oscillation. In contrast, the performance of the INC algorithm is
better than P & O in terms of speed to reach MPP, accuracy, and quality under
changes in radiation and temperature conditions

Graphical Abstract


  • Extract the maximum output power from photovoltaic (PV) panels under different solar radiation and temperature conditions.
  • A comparative study between perturb and observe (P & O) and incremental conduction
    (INC) algorithms.
    observe (P & O) and incremental conduction(INC) algorithms.
  • The boost converter design increases thevoltage of the photovoltaic panel by controlling the duty cycle.
  • The performance of the INC algorithm is better than that of P & O



[1] M. Kumar, 2016. Design and Simulation of Grid Connected PV System, M.Sc. thesis, IIT Univesity, Department Of Electrical Engineering.
[2] D. Bacha: Burger, B.:Etxeberria-Otadui, I.:Martins, J., S. :Picaul. PVs in Microgrids. IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, 9 (2015) 33–46.
[3] P. Ray, 2020. Microgrid : Operation, Control, Monitoring and Protection. Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
[4] W. Xiao, 2017. Photovoltaic Power System. in Photovoltaic Power System. John Wiley &Sons, USA.
[5] K. Sasi Kottayil, 2021, Smart Microgrids book, Taylor & Francis Group,USA.
[6] F. E. Tahiri, K. Chikh, M. Khafallah, & Saad, A. 2016. Comparative study between two Maximum PowerPoint Tracking techniques for photovoltaic system. Proceedings of 2016 International Conference on Electrical and Information Technologies, ICEIT (2016) 107–112.
[7] K. Jain, Gupta, M., & A. Kumar Bohre, Implementation and Comparative Analysis of P&O and INC MPPT Method for PV System. India International Conference on Power Electronics, IICPE, 2018, 1–6.
[8] A. N. M. Mohammad, , Radzi, M. A. M., Azis, N., Shafie, S., & M. A. A. M. Zainuri. An enhanced adaptive perturb and observe technique for effcient maximum power point tracking under partial shading conditions. Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 10 (2020).
[9] A.Y. Mohammed., Modeling and Simulation of 1MW Grid Connected Photovoltaic System, M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Technology-Iraq, 2017.
[10] T. S. Kishore, , S. D. Kaushik, , & Y. Venu Madhavi. Modelling, Simulation and Analysis of PI and FL Controlled Microgrid System. Proceedings of  2019 3rd IEEE International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Communication Technologies, ICECCT (2019) 1–8.
[11] A. F. Hussein, & H. A. R. Akkar. Intelligent controller Design based on wind-solar system. Eng. and Technol. J.l, 39 (2021), 326–337.
[12] C. B. N. Fapi, , Wira, P., & M. Kamta, 2019. A Fuzzy Logic MPPT Algorithm with a PI Controller for a Standalone PV System under Variable Weather and Load Conditions. Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Applied Smart Systems, Icass, (2018) 24–25.
[13] M. Q. Ali, M. S. Tapou,  & H. A. Dhahad. Performance evaluation of Photovoltaic Panels by a Proposed Automated System Based on Microcontrollers. Eng. and Technol. J., 39 (2021) 9–21.
[14] T. Vijay Muni, Priyanka, D., & S. V. N. L. Lalitha. Fast acting MPPT algorithm for soft switching interleaved boost converter for solar photovoltaic system. J. Adv. Res. Dynam. Contr. Sys., 9 Special Issue, (2018) 996–1003.
[15] S. D. Al-Majidi, , M. F. Abbod, , & H. S. Al-Raweshidy. A novel maximum power point tracking technique based on fuzzy logic for photovoltaic systems. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 43 (2018) 14158–14171
[16] S. Saravanan, , & N. Ramesh Babu. Maximum power point tracking algorithms for photovoltaic system - A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 57 (2016) 192–204.
[17]  F. L. Tofoli, , D. De Castro Pereira, , & W. J. De Paula. Comparative study of maximum power point tracking techniques for photovoltaic systems. Int. J. Photoenergy, 2015 (i).
[18] H. Mahmood, M., I. Ali ‎, I., & A. Ahmed‎, O. Comparative Study of Perturb & Observe, Modified Perturb & Observe and Modified Incremental Conductance MPPT Techniques for PV Systems. Eng. and Technol. J., 38 (2020) 478–490.
[19] R. I. Putri, , S. Wibowo, , & M. Rifa’i. Maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic using incremental conductance method. Energy Procedia, 68 (2015) 22–30.
[20] B. Singh, , B. Verma, , & P. K. Padhy. Study of PO and INC PV MPPT techniques for different environment conditions. 2018 2nd IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Intelligent Control and Energy Systems, 3  (2018) 165–169.
[21] S. Lyden, , & M. E. Haque. Maximum Power Point Tracking techniques for photovoltaic systems: A comprehensive review and comparative analysis. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 52 (2015) 1504–1518.
[22] K. S. Faraj and J. F. Hussein, Analysis and comparison of DC-DC boost converter and interleaved DC-DC boost converter, Eng. and Technol. J., 38 (2020) 622-635.
[23] M. H. Rashid, Power Electronics Handbook, Butterworth- Heinemann, 2018.
[24] Chandramouli, A., & Sivachiadambaranathan, V. Design and analysis of a photovoltaic system with a DC-DC boost converter. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication, ICCMC, Iccmc (2019) 59–67.
[25] K. Basaran, , & N. S. Cetin. Designing of a fuzzy controller for grid connected photovoltaic system’s converter and comparing with PI controller. 2016 IEEE International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications, ICRERA (2017) 102–106.