Document Type : Research Paper


1 bElectrical Engineering Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a Street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq

2 cComputer Engineering Dept., Middle Technical University, Baghdad, Iraq.


The era of the wireless communication-based indoor environment has resulted in several challenges represented by signal reflection, diffraction, and attenuation. Thereby, it affects several wireless-based applications such as positioning, localization, monitoring different objects. With such challenges, estimation error would be increased significantly, and the accuracy will be reduced. To handle such challenges, several new approaches were proposed by many researchers. The most interesting approach for the localization purpose was the hybrid localization approach. A combination of several parameters would be utilized to propose methods that take advantage of these parameters. In this work, a comprehensive analysis was carried out for results obtained based on the proposition of two hybrid algorithms for localization in an indoor environment. The first algorithm utilized the Received Signal Strength (RSS) and Angle of Arrival (AoA) parameter to be tested for both Omni and Directional antenna type Access point (AP) device. While the second algorithm was based on the use of Time of Arrival (ToA) and RSS, which have been calculated via Wireless InSite (WI) software. The analyzing results indicate that using AoA/RSS method with the Omni AP antenna has achieved higher accuracy for the overall normal distribution scenario. However, ToA/RSS has shown higher accuracy estimation for far point distribution. Meanwhile, AoA/RSS with Directional antenna AP has an accuracy limited with distribution location. Due to the characteristics of the directional antenna pattern.

Graphical Abstract


  • Best way to increase the accuracy of locating places inside large buildings.
  •  Hybrid algorithms are used to deploy the advantages of one algorithm to overcome the drawbacks of the other.
  • A hybrid algorithm based on AoA/RSS, with Omni and directional antennas, is used to estimate the locations


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