Numerical Simulation of the Self-Imaging at Different Cascaded Optical Fiber Specifications
AbstractCascaded optical fiber single mode-no core-single mode fiber (SNS) attracted attention for being the base of various photonic devices. These devices are used in optical communication, fiber sensors, and fiber laser technology. The effect of variable NCF specifications, length, diameter, external refractive index (ERI), propagating wavelength on the self-imaging position, and the multimode interference (MMI) is studied. The study aims to simulate and analyze cascaded optical fiber by using the finite element beam envelope method (BEM). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that studied the self-imaging in cascaded optical fiber longitudinally by using BEM. The NCF length is important in determining the coupled out intensity and peak transmission wavelength. The field in the cascaded fiber is simulated for single and multi-wavelengths to evaluate the maximum transmission and study the structure's tunability. A tunable filter is simulated, where varying the length of the NCF about 0.6 mm produces a wavelength shift of about 40 nm. The BEM is effective in studying the field propagation in large guiding photonic devices
- · Multimode interference and self-imaging in the cascaded SNS fiber have been investigated numerically via COMSOL Multiphysics 5.5.
- · To get high self-imaging quality, it is not necessary to be restricted to the rule of P = 4, 8...
The BEM is effective in studying the field propagation in large guiding photonic devices.
 X. Ma, D. Chen, Q. Shi, G. Feng, and J. Yang, Widely tunable thulium-doped fiber laser based on multimode interference with a large No-core fiber J. Light. Technol., 32 (2014) 3234–3238.
 K. Zhang, I. Alamgir, and M. Rochette, Midinfrared Compatible Tunable Bandpass Filter Based on Multimode Interference in Chalcogenide Fiber, J. Light. Technol., 38 (2020) 857–863.
 R. Tamayo, J. Soto, and M. Sánchez, MMI filters configuration for dual-wavelength generation in a ring cavity erbium-doped fibre laser, J. Eur. Opt. Soc., 12 (2016) 5.
 J. K. Hmood, New Design of Optical Filters Based on Single Mode-Multimode-Single Mode Fiber Structure for Optical Fiber Communication Systems, Eng. Tech. J., 29 (2011) 3172–3184.
 N. Irawati, A. M. Hatta, Y. G. Y. Yhuwana, and Sekartedjo, Heart Rate Monitoring Sensor Based on Singlemode-Multimode-Singlemode Fiber, Photonic Sensors, 10 (2020) 186–193.
 F. S. Al-thahapy and A. A. Al-dergazly, Tuneable Photonic Fiber Bragg Grating for Magnetic Field Sensor, Preprints, (2016).
 J. K. Hmood, Novel Optical Fiber Sensor Based on SGMS Fiber Structure for Measuring Refractive Index of Liquids and Gases, IRAQI J. Appl. Phys., 7 (2011) 17–21.
 L. Soldano and E. Pennings, Optical Multi-Mode Interference Devices Based on Self-Imaging : Principles and Applications, J. Light. Technol., 13 (1995) 615, 1995.
 S. W. Allison and G. T. Gillies, Observations of and applications for self-imaging in optical fibers, Appl. Opt., 33 (1994) 1802, 1994.
 H. Baker, J. Lee, and D. Hall, Self-imaging and high-beam-quality operation in multi-mode planar waveguide optical amplifiers, Opt. Express, 10 (2002) 297.
 X. Zhu, A. Schülzgen, H. Li, and S. Suzuki, Single-transverse-mode output from a fiber laser based on multimode interference, Opt. Lett., 33 (2008) 908.
 R. Selvas, I. Torres-Gomez, and A. Martinez-Rios, Wavelength tuning of fiber lasers using multimode interference effects, Osa, 13 (2005) 9439–45.
 X. Lian, Q. Wu, G. Farrell, C. Shen, Y. Ma, and Y. Semenova, Discrete Self-Imaging in Small-Core Optical Fiber Interferometers, J. Light. Technol., 37 (2019). 1873–1884.
 J. Yu, J. Zhang, and Q. Shenga, All-fiber CW optical parametric oscillator tuned from 1642.5 to 1655.4 nm by a low-loss SMS filter, Results Phys., 17(2020) 103136.
 F. Mangini, M. Ferraro, M. Zitelli, and A. Niang, Experimental observation of self-imaging in SMF-28 optical fibers, Opt. Express, 29 (2021) 12625.
 O. Shulika and I. Sukhoivanov, Advanced Lasers Laser Physics and Technology for Applied and Fundamental Science, 1 st ed. Mexico: springer, (2015).
 K. Tian, G. Farrell, X. Wang, and Y. Xin, High sensitivity temperature sensor based on singlemode-no-core-singlemode fibre structure and alcohol, Sensors Actuators, A Phys., 284 (2018) 28–34.
 J. Zheng, J. Li, T. Ning, L. Pei, S. Jian, and Y. Wen, Improved self-imaging for multi-mode optical fiber involving cladding refractive index, Opt. Commun., 311 (2013) 350–353.
 Y. Raichlin and A. Katzir, Fiber-optic evanescent wave spectroscopy in the middle infrared, Appl. Spectrosc., 62 (2008) 55–72.
 T. Mukai and H. Fukano, “Multipoint refractive index measurement using multimode interference-based fiber-optic sensors driven by an integrable tunable laser assembly, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 59 (2020) 5.
 P. Zhang, T. Wang, W. Ma, K. Dong, and H. Jiang, Tunable multiwavelength Tm-doped fiber laser based on the multimode interference effect, Appl. Opt., 54 (2015) 4667.
 Y. Zhou, S. Lou, Z. Tang, T. Zhao, and W. Zhang, Tunable and switchable C-band and L-band multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser employing a large-core fiber filter, Opt. Laser Technol., 111 (2019) 262–270.
 A. Castillo-Guzman, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Selvas-Aguilar, Widely tunable Erbium-doped fiber laser based on multimode interference effect, OSA, 18 (2010) 591–597.
 Q. Wang, G. Farrell, and W. Yan, Investigation on single-mode-multimode-single-mode fiber structure, J. Light. Technol., 26 (2008) 512–519.
 S. Younus, A. Al-Dergazly, and A. Abass, Characterization of Multimode Interference Based Optical Fiber, 2nd Int. Conf. Eng. Sci. Mater. Sci. Eng. dyala, 2021,
 Y. Mizuyama, How to Use the Beam Envelopes Method for Wave Optics Simulations, COMSOL Blog, 15 (2018) 27–29.
 X. Zhu, A. Schülzgen, and H. Li, Detailed investigation of self-imaging in largecore multimode optical fibers for application in fiber lasers and amplifiers, Opt. Express, 16 (2008) 16632.
 J. Zhao, J. Wang, and C. Zhang, Refractive Index Fiber Laser Sensor by Using Tunable Filter Based on No-Core Fiber, IEEE Photonics J., 8 (2016) 1–8.
 Q. Meng, X. Dong, K. Ni, Y. Li, B. Xu, and Z. Chen, Optical fiber laser salinity sensor based on multimode interference effect, IEEE Sens. J., 14 (2014) 1813–1816.
 M. Y. Elsayed, S. M. Sherif, A. S. Aljaber, and M. A. Swillam, Integrated lab-on-a-chip optical biosensor using ultrathin silicon waveguide soi mmi device, Sensors (Switzerland), 20 (2020) 1–12.
- Article View: 68
- PDF Download: 29