Document Type : Research Paper


1 Marine Science Center, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.

2 Chemical Engineering Dept., College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.

3 Chemical Engineering Dept., College of Engineering, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.


Pure iron is used as an additive for food and drugs to provide the human body with an important element which is iron. For this purpose, iron should be pure and in powder form, the extraction process can supply this type of iron. In this study, extraction of iron from an aqueous solution was done by cyclohexanone as an extractant. The parameters of extraction and stripping processes were studied and assessed the best values which give a high yield of separated iron from ore or any source of iron. For the preliminary study, three general parameters were studied and the best values are agitation time (10 min.), agitation speed (400 rpm), and temperature (30C). In the main study for the extraction process, there are four parameters were investigated and the optimum values are phase ratio (O/A) (1/1), iron concentration (conversely relationship), extractant concentration (proportional relationship), and normality (5 N). The best values for stripping process parameters are phase ratio(A/O) (1/2 – 1/1) and normality of strip solution (0.1 N).  The extraction technique is very important in Pharmaceutical industries to produce different suitable metals associated with food and drugs. The extraction technique was detected as an appropriate method to separate iron and introduce it in pure powder form.

Graphical Abstract


  • Assessment of extraction technique for separation iron.
  • Study the effect of parameters on extraction and stripping processes.


[1] C. P. Gravenor, G. J. Govett and T. Rigg, A Hydrometallurgical Process for the Extraction of Iron from Low-Grade Ores, Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, (1964) 421-428.
[2] P.A. Noirot and M. Woziniak, Application of A General Model to The extraction of Uranium from Phosphoric Acid by A Hydroxyalkylide Phosphoric Acid, Hydrometallurgy, 13 (1985) 229-248.
[3] G.M. Ritcey and A.W. Ashbrook, Solvent Extraction: Principle & Application to Process Metallurgy, 1 (1984) 2nd ed, Amsterdam.
[4] M.R. Rosocka and F.J. Alguacil, Recent trends in metals extraction, Revista de Metalurgia journal, 349 (2013) 292-315.
[5] International Atomic Energy Agency, Uranium extraction technology, Technical reports series, Vienna, ISSN 0074-1914; 359) STI/DOC/10/359, 1993.
[6] F. Carmen, M. G. Barry and J. Barrie, New approaches for extracting and recovering metals from maintaining’s, Journal of Analytical Science and Technology, 106 (2016) 71–78.
[7] J. Saville, Process for the extraction of platinum group metals, European patent 0173425 A1, March, 5th, 1986.
[8] S. Adolphe, Process of Extracting Gold, Platinum, Silver, Nickel, Copper, &c, U.S. Patent 299778, March, 16th, 1909.
[9] W.P. Charles, Separating the Platinum Group Metals by Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Platinum Metals Review: E- journal, 25 (1981) 106-112.
[10] A.M. Gaudin, Principles of Mineral Dressing, McGraw-Hill, TMH ed., New Delhi, 1971.
[11] N. Devi and S. Mishra, Liquid-liquid extraction of copper (II) from chloride media by Cyanex 923 in kerosene, The Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 112 (2012) 859-864.
[12] R. Farouq and Y. Selim, Solvent extraction of iron ions from hydrochloric acid Solutions, Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society, 62 (2017) 3432- 3434.
[13] A. Nouioua and D. Barkat, Liquid-liquid extraction of iron (III) from ouenza iron ore leach liquor by tributylphosphate, Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 9 (2017) 1473-1484.
[14] M. Kumano, T. Yabutani and J. Motonaka, Recovery and extraction of heavy metal ions using ionic liquid as green solvent, International Journal of Modern Physics B, 20 (2006) 4051-4056.
[15] X. Mao, Solvent extraction of iron (III) from chloride acid solutions by decanal, 3rd International conference on material, mechanical and manufacturing engineering (IC3ME), China, (2015) 126-132.
[16] P. Navarro, C. Vargas, J. Castillo and R. Sepúlveda, Experimental study of phase entrainment in copper solvent extraction, Engineering Journal Dyna, 87 (2020) 85-90.
[17] T. Sato, Liquid-liquid Extraction of Iron (III) from Hydrochloric Acid Solutions by Tributyl Phosphate, Journal of resources and materials, 118 (2002) 612-616.
[18] A. Sokolov, D. Valeev and A. Kasikov Solvent, Extraction of Iron(III) from Al Chloride Solution of Bauxite HCl Leaching by Mixture of Aliphatic Alcohol and Ketone, Journal of Metals, 11 (2021) 1-15.
[19] J. Saji and M.L.P. Reddy, Liquid–liquid extraction separation of iron III from titania wastes using TBP–MIBK mixed solvent system, Hydrometallurgy, 61 (2001) 81-87.
[20] G. M. Ritcey, and A. W. Ashbrook, Solvent Extraction: Principle & Application to Process Metallurgy, Elsevier,1st edition, 1979.
[21] C. Change, M. Chiu, C. Hoh and K. Wang, Separation of Iron from Zirconium in Concentrated Hydrochloric Acid by Solvent Extraction, Hydrometaurgy, 17 (1986) 1-13.