Civil Engineering Dept, University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a Street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq.


Groundwater in Yusufiyah  represents the main water source for drinking and irrigation purposes in the dry season, so this research was conducted to assess and evaluate the hydrochemistry of groundwater in this area. (15) wells were selected for sampling in this area with depth ranges between 10-20 meters. , Groundwater generally flows from east to west and from northeast to southwest.Physical parameters for water samples were measured included temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and total dissolved solids (TDS),where the chemical parameters included major cations (Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+2, and K+) and major anions (NO3-1, SO4-2,Cl-, and HCO3-).  The results indicated that groundwater in the study area isnot suitable for human drinking due to high concentrations in(CL=435 ppm), (SO4-2 =769 ppm), (HCO-3=280 ppm),(TDS=2375 ppm), and (EC=2899µc). These values exceeded the standard limits of  WHO. On the other hand, results show that this water was suitable for irrigation (good and Permissible except for well no.1,8,12,13, which wasnot suitable for all irrigation crops due to an increase in (SAR, Na) to the Don classification 1995.

Graphical Abstract


  • Most wells in the study area have water types of NaCl and MgSO4, and the other wells are CaCl2 and Na2SO4.
  •  Groundwater in Al-Yusuifyia district is not suitable for drinking due to the high concentration of CL, SO4, HCO3, and TDS, EC..because they are exceeded the standard limit of WHO.
  •  For irrigation purposes, the well water is considered good and permissible.


[1] Deoli, B.,K., Bartarya, S. K. and Siddiqui, N. A.: Assessment of surface and groundwater Quality of Haridwar district of Uttarakhand. International Journal of Chem Tech Research, 10. 10, (2017)  95-118. ISSN : 0974-4290.
[2] Matta, G. and Kumar, A.: Monitoring and Evaluation of River Ganga System in Himalayan Region with Reference to Limnological Aspects. World Applied Sciences Journal, 33.2, (2015) 203-212.DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.24.itmies.80032.
[3] M. A. AL-Janabi, Hydrochemistry of the unconfined aquifer and the relationship of unsaturated zone sediments on the groundwaterButter Worth''s, London2. K. R. Karanth, 2008.
[4] World Health Organization (WHO), 2007. Guidelines for drinking water quality. 3th ed., 1 (2017) 595, Recommendation, Geneva.
[5] M. Detay, Water wells implementation, maintenance and Restoration, John Wiley & Sons, London, (1997) 379.
[6] N. M. Al Maimuri, A. R. Ali, &, A. M. Al-Sa’adi. Hydrogeologic sustainability and mitigation of Shallow Groundwater against High Saline and Chemical Pollutants, Engineering and Technology Journal, 2 (2019) 625. Online ISSN: 2412-0758
[7] IQS, Iraqi Standard, Iraqi Standard of Drinking Water 417 (2009), Second modification.
[8] A. H. AL-Fattlawi, G.Abukhanafer; A. AL- Salman; Removal of nitrate from contaminated groundwater using solar membrane distillation,  Engineering and Technology Journal, 37 (2019) 327. Online ISSN: 2412-0758   
[9] P. Land schoot; Irrigation water quality, Guidelines for Turfgrass sites,College ofagricultural sciences ,the Pennsylvania state university ,USA, http:// turfgrass irrigation water quality for turfgrass. CFM. 2007.
[10] C. M. Don, A grows guide to water quality, University College Station, Texas. 1995.
[11] C. W. Fetter. Applied hydrogeology, Charles Merrill publishing, Co. A. Bell and Howell Company, Columbus, Ohio, 488p. 1980.
[12] L. Hamill and F. G. Bill, Groundwater resource development.
[13] M. S. Hussein, I. A.Alwan, & T. A. Hussain. Hydrogeological and hydro chemical evaluation of groundwater in Karbala region using Geographic Information System (GIS), Engineering and Technology Journal, 38 (2020) 515-522. Online ISSN: 2412-0758
[14] FAO, AQUASTAT – FAO’s global information system on water and agriculture, FAO, Rome, Italy,, accessed 16 Mar 2010.
[15] K.M. Hiscock. Rivett, M. O. Davison R. M, Sustainable groundwater development. Geological Society,UK. 352p. 2002.