Document Type : Research Paper


1 chemical engineering department , university of technology , Baghdad, Iraq

2 Chemical Engineering Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a Street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq.


Dyes are utilized in various industrial applications, and some businesses' effluents include hazardous dyes. Humans, aquatic creatures, and the environment are all harmed by dyes. As a result, adequately treated dyes that manage wastewater must be before being discharged into nearby bodies of water. Adsorption has proven to be high and cost-effective in removing dyes from wastewater. The sorbent material for dye removal from industrial effluent is activated carbon, but its high cost limits massive-scale utilization. The use of cost-effective adsorbents for wastewater discharge dye elimination is discussed and analyzed in this paper. This review underlines and displays a preview of these IASs, including natural, industrial, and made-up materiality/wastes and their utilization in removing dyes. Experiments have shown that various inexpensive non-traditional adsorbents lead to effective dye removal. Accordingly, studies dealing with the search for effective and affordable sources from current resources are becoming increasingly crucial for eliminating dye. The excess desire for functional and affordable processing modes and adsorption significance has led to inexpensive alternative sorbents (IASs). The isotherm analysis and adsorption kinetics indicate that Langmuir / Freundlich, besides the pseudo-second-order model, is the most used pattern for convenient empirical adsorption datum. Low-cost by-products from the agricultural, residential, and industrial sectors have been identified as viable wastewater treatment alternatives. They make it possible to remove contaminants from wastewater while also contributing to waste minimization, recovery, and reuse. This review revealed that some IASs, have ratable adsorption capabilities and rapid kinetics, besides having vastly available.

Graphical Abstract


  • The application of inexpensive adsorbents to remove dyes from wastewater was reviewed.
  • The various removal technologies, along with their Pros and Cos were highlighted
  • Adsorption techniques were found to be very effective in dyes removal.
  • Adsorbent from biomass wastes is gaining increasing popularity.
  • Aerobic, anaerobic, or mixed processes also proved effective in removing dye.


Main Subjects

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