Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Chemical and Petrochemical Engineering – College of Engineering and Architecture - University of Nizwa; Oman – Nizwa, PC 616, POB 33

2 Petroleum Development Oman; Oman - Muscat, PC 100, POB 81


Produced water (PW) is water that comes out of the well with the crude oil during crude oil production. The quality of produced water varies significantly based on the geochemistry of the producing formation, the type of hydrocarbon produced, and the characteristics of the producing well. A well-known obstacle hindering the re-use of the produced water, in different sectors, is the high content of dissolved oxygen (DO) as it can cause corrosion and polymer degradation. In this study, we report the experimental investigations for de-oxygenating samples of PW collected from Omani oil fields via a gas lift unpacked and packed column. Two types of packing (polyethylene rushing rings and spherical glass balls) were used. Upon treating the PW samples grafted with different concentration of polyacrylamide; 100-500 ppm, through different purging techniques at various N2 throughputs, a considerable reduction in the content of the dissolved oxygen (from saturation level to less than 1 ppm) was detected in the first duration (3 minutes). Upon examining purging durations up to 300 minutes, the DO removal efficiency was slightly improved; however, residues of DO (approaching 0.5 ppm) was left unremoved which indicates the necessity for elaborating another approach for treating the shallow DO levels.

Graphical Abstract


  • De-oxygenating samples of PW collected from Omani oil fields were attempted via a gas lift column
  • Co-current and counter-current purging schemes applied via un-packed and packed column
  • A considerable reduction in the DO from saturation to less than 1 ppm was detected in 3 minutes
  • Examining purging durations up to 300 minutes slightly improved DO removal
  • Residues of DO (approaching 0.5 ppm) were left unremoved.


Main Subjects

[1] Energy Information Administration. International energy outlook 2009. US Department of Energy, DOE/EIA-0484 (2009).  Online, last accessed 10 Feb. 2022 at:  www.eia.doe. gov/oiaf/ieo/index.html.
[2] Azetsu-Scott K, Yeats P, Wohlgeschaffen G. Precipitation of heavy metals in produced water: influence on contaminant transport and toxicity. Mar Environ Res., 63 ( 2007)146–167.
[3] Kaur G, Mandal AK, Nihlani MC, et al. Control of sulfidogenic bacteria in produced water from the Kathloni oilfield in northeast India. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad., 63 (2009) 151–155.
[4] Ebenezer T. Igunnu and George Z. Chen. Produced water treatment technologies. IJLCT., 9 (2014) 157–177.
[5] Fakhru’l-Razi A, Pendashteh A, Abdullah LC, et al. Review of technologies for oil and gas produced water treatment. J Hazard Mater., 170 (2009) 530–551.
[6] Hayes T, Arthur D. Overview of emerging produced water treatment technologies. In: The 11th Annual International Petroleum Environmental Conference, Albuquerque, NM. 2004.
[7] Ray JP, Rainer Engelhardt F. Produced water: technological/environmental issues and solutions. Environ Sci Res.,46 (1992) 1–5.
[8] Sirivedhin T, McCue J, Dallbauman L. Reclaiming produced water for beneficial use: salt removal by electrodialysis. J Membr Sci., 243 (2004) 335–343.
[9] Daniel Arthur J, Langhus BG, Patel C. Technical Summary of Oil & Gas Produced Water Treatment Technologies. NETL, 2005.
[10] Mohammad A. Al-Ghouti, Maryam A. Al-Kaabi, Mohammad Y. Ashfaq, Dana Adel Da’na. Produced water characteristics, treatment and reuse: A review. J. Water Process Eng., 28 (2019) 222-239.
[11] Society of Petroleum Engineers. Challenges in Reusing Produced Water. Online, last accessed 10 Feb. 2022 at:
[12] Durdevic, P., Raju, C. S., Yang, Z. Potential for Real-Time Monitoring and Control of Dissolved Oxygen in the Injection Water Treatment Process. IFAC-Papers OnLine., 51 (2018) 170–177.
[13] Skovhus T.L., Enning D., Lee J.S. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion in the Upstream Oil and Gas Industry, CRC Press, 2017
[14] Popoola L.T., Grema A.S., Latinwo G.K., Gutti B., Balogun A.S. Corrosion problems during oil and gas production and its mitigation. IJIC., 4 (2013) 35.
[15] IAN B., MARTIN A., DAVID T. Removal of dissolved oxygen from water: A comparison of four common techniques. Talanta ., 41 (1994) 211-215.
[16] Andrea Larson, Water Environment Federation workshop on produced water, Online, last accessed on 27 May 2021 at: Microsoft PowerPoint - Presentation 25Apr19 Final (
[17] Richard R. Horner. Fundamentals of Urban Runoff Management: Technical and Institutional Issues 1994, Terrene Inst
[18] Snavelyj E. S. Chemical Removal of Oxygen from Natural Waters. Journal of petroleum technology. JPT., 23 (1971) 443-446.
[19] Zeko I, Stack M. A note on a design protocol for de-oxygenation of water. Electrochemistry Communications., 103 (2019) 12–16.
[20] William G. CochranGertrude M. Cox. Experimental Designs, 2nd Edition, Wiley classic library1992.
[21] Monica Z. Bruckner. The Winkler Method - Measuring Dissolved Oxygen. Montana State University. Online, last accessed 10 Feb. 2022 at
[22] Technical Resource Library. Cole Parmer. Online, last accessed Feb. 2022 at
[23] Akihiko Hirayama Omani Oil Fields Produced Water: Treatment and Utilization. Society of Petroleum Engineers, SPE 74413, Feb. 2002. d:10.2118/74413-MS