Managing the Excess Floodwaters in the Lake Hemrin Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques
Engineering and Technology Journal,
2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 779-791
AbstractLake Hemrin is located in the middle east of Iraq, about 50 km from the Iraqi-Iranian border. The lake is the main fish source and provides water for nearby farms. However, due to various socio-economic and environmental management issues, the Hemrin system is a difficult water resources challenge. Moreover, Lake Hemrin receives floodwaters annually over its storage capacity; therefore, there is a risk of flooding in the areas downstream of the lake. To this end, this research developed optimization solutions to design flood escape paths in the area using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Genetic Algorithm (GA). Among three initial proposals, i.e., Adhaim River, Wadi Naft, and Salahdin, the developed models optimized each of the proposals and suggested that Wadi Naft would require only 3.88 km3 of cut and fill volume compared to Adhaim River of 34.33 km3. However, the latter would serve more people and agricultural lands. GA and AHP techniques to optimize flood escape paths have shown that these models can discover shorter pathways requiring less cut and fill costs while retaining other flood escape features. The proposed optimal flood escape path can substantially influence the construction of flood-prevention strategies in the area.
- images at Hemrin Lake basin was employed.
- Optimizing flood escape paths from Hemrin Lake and away from Diyala River was investigated.
- AHP and Genetic Algorithm were combined to achieve the optimization goal.
- Experts agreed that agricultural lands are more important than population density and residential areas.
 Awchi, T.A., Kalyana, M.M. Meteorological drought analysis in northern Iraq using SPI and GIS. Sustain. Water Resour. Manag. 3, 451–463 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40899-017-0111-x
 Ghali, H. M. and Azzubaidi, R. Z. “Managing the Flood Waves from Hemrin Dam”, Journal of Engineering, 27 (2021) 42–52. doi: 10.31026/j.eng.2021.07.04.
 Berz, G., Kron, W., Loster, T. et al. World Map of Natural Hazards – A Global View of the Distribution and Intensity of Significant Exposures. Natural Hazards 23 (2001) 443–465. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011193724026
 Jeyaseelan, A. T. (2003). Droughts & floods assessment and monitoring using remote sensing and GIS. Satellite remote sensing and GIS applications in agricultural meteorology, 291-313.
 de Brito, M. M. and Evers, M.: Multi-criteria decision-making for flood risk management: a survey of the current state of the art, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 16 (2016) 1019–1033. https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-16-1019-2016.
 Dawood, Alaa, Yousif Kalaf, Nagham Abdulateef, and Mohammed Falih. "Investigation of surface area of lakes and marshes from satellite images by using remote sensing and geographic information system integration in Iraq." In MATEC Web of Conferences, vol. 162, p. 03016. EDP Sciences, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201816203016
 Kuriqi, A., Hysa, A. (2021). Multidimensional Aspects of Floods: Nature-Based Mitigation Measures from Basin to River Reach Scale. In: Ferreira, C.S.S., Kalantari, Z., Hartmann, T., Pereira, P. (eds) Nature-Based Solutions for Flood Mitigation. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, vol 107. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/698_2021_773
 Tariq A, Shu H, Kuriqi A, Siddiqui S, Gagnon AS, Lu L, Linh NTT, Pham QB. Characterization of the 2014 Indus River Flood Using Hydraulic Simulations and Satellite Images. Remote Sensing.; 13 (2021) 2053. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13112053
 Parvin GA, Shimi AC, Shaw R, Biswas C. Flood in a Changing Climate: The Impact on Livelihood and How the Rural Poor Cope in Bangladesh. Climate.; 4 (2016) :60. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli4040060
 Dottori, F., Szewczyk, W., Ciscar, JC. et al. Increased human and economic losses from river flooding with anthropogenic warming. Nature Clim Change 8 (2018)781–786. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-018-0257-z
 Y. . W. Ameen, Thair H. Abdullah, and Qassem H. Jalut, “Hydrologic Modeling for Sedimentation in Hemrin Reservoir Using HEC-HMS”, DJES, 11 (2018) 67–72. https://doi.org/10.24237/djes.2018.11410
 Jafar Y. Al-Jawad, Hassan M. Alsaffar, Douglas Bertram, Robert M. Kalin, A comprehensive optimum integrated water resources management approach for multidisciplinary water resources management problems, Journal of Environmental Management, 239 (2019) 211-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.03.045.
 Jawak, S. , Kulkarni, K. and Luis, A., A Review on Extraction of Lakes from Remotely Sensed Optical Satellite Data with a Special Focus on Cryospheric Lakes. Advances in Remote Sensing, 4 (2015) 196-213. doi: 10.4236/ars.2015.43016.
 Sheffield, J., Eric F. Wood, M. Pan, H. Beck, G. Coccia, A. Serrat‐Capdevila, and K. Verbist. "Satellite remote sensing for water resources management: Potential for supporting sustainable development in data‐poor regions." Water Resources Research, 54 (2018) 9724-9758. https://doi.org/10.1029/2017WR022437
 Gesch, D., M. Oimoen, J. Danielson, and David Meyer. "Validation of the ASTER global digital elevation model version 3 over the conterminous United States." The International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences 41 (2016): 143. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/isprsarchives-XLI-B4-143-2016
 Saaty, T. L. (1977). Modeling unstructured decision-making-AHP. In International Conference on Mathematical Modeling.
 Saaty, Thomas L., 1994. "Homogeneity and clustering in AHP ensures the validity of the scale," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 72(3), pages 598-601, February.
 Miller, G. A., The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63 (1956) 81–97. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0043158
 Lee, Seokho. A spatial decision support system for guiding the selection of tourism development sites. Texas A&M University, 2001.
 Tanweer, Alam, Qamar Shamimul, Dixit Amit, and Benaida Mohamed. "Genetic Algorithm: Reviews, Implementations, and Applications." International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy 10, no. 6 (2020). https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2007.12673
 Hariyadi, Putri Mutira, Phong Thanh Nguyen, Iswanto Iswanto, and Dadang Sudrajat. "Traveling salesman problem solution using genetic algorithm." Journal of Critical Reviews 7, no. 1 (2020): 56-61. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2007.12673
- Article View: 28
- PDF Download: 17