Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ministry of Municipalities and Public Works, General Directorate of Sewerage, Baghdad, Iraq.

2 Civil Engineering Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a street,10066 Baghdad, Iraq.


The possibility of saving and sustaining natural materials by reusing waste is one of the most important goals researchers seek to achieve and prove its effectiveness and positive impact on the environment. In this study, domestic wastewater sludge was utilized in concrete production as partial cement changing with different ratios (0, 5, 10, and 15) % with dry sludge. The study showed that the compressive strength test showed that the partial replacement of cement by dry sludge caused reduction increased directly with the increase of sludge ratio compared with concrete reference specimens. The study found that dry sludge can be used up to 15% as a replacement in concrete sidewalks and roads because these applications use horizontal construction, which does not require the same high strength resistance as vertical construction. In addition, it was also found that using up to 10% dry sludge content in concrete may positively impact reducing sludge levels in the environment and the cost of cement production without a significant effect on the compressive and flexural strength of concrete. The study aimed to encourage government agencies and the business sector to employ excess quantities of domestic sludge in the construction industry, as well as to investigate the influence of partial replacement of cement with dry sludge on the compressive strength of concrete.

Graphical Abstract


  • Dry sewage sludge is obtained from Al-Jissr WWTP in Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Using sewage sludge as partial replacement of cement in concrete production.
  • Identifying the effect of sludge on the compressive strength of concrete.
  • The point of interest is finding new technology as sustained natural materials utilized in the construction sector.


Main Subjects

[1]    C.P.L. Grady, G.T. Daigger, N.G. Love, C.D.M. Filipe, Biological wastewater treatment: Third edition., 2011.
[2]    M. Pell, A. Wörman, Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems, Compr. Biotechnol. Second Ed., 6 (2011) 275–290.
[3]    G. Tchobanoglous, H.D. Stensel, R. Tsuchihashi, F. Burton, Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Resource Recovery, Fifth Edit., 2007.
[4]    T. Husnain, Y. Liu, R. Riffat, B. Mi, Integration of forward osmosis and membrane distillation for sustainable wastewater reuse, Sep. Purif. Technol., 156 (2015) 424–431.
[5]    I.S. Turovskiy, P.K. Mathai, Wastewater Sludge Processing., 2005.
[6]    F.S. Merritt, J.T. Ricketts, Building design and construction handbook, McGraw-Hill Professional, 2000.
[7]    A. Mohajerani, A. Ukwatta, T. Jeffrey-Bailey, M. Swaney, M. Ahmed, G. Rodwell, S. Bartolo, N. Eshtiaghi, S. Setunge, A proposal for recycling theworld’s unused stockpiles of treated wastewater sludge (biosolids) in fired-clay bricks, Buildings., 9 (2019).
[8]    T.R. Naik, Sustainability of concrete construction, Pract. Period. Struct. Des. Constr., 13 (2008) 98–103.
[9]    J. Visser, S. Couto, A. Gupta, I.L. Alvarez, V.C. Ligero, T.S. Mayor, R. Vinai, P. Pipilikaki, A. Largo, A. Attanasio, M.C. Huang, M. Soutsos, Sustainable concrete: Design and testing, Heron., 60 (2015) 59–91.
[10]  P. Woyciechowski, P. Łukowski, E. Szmigiera, G. Adamczewski, K. Chilmon, S. Spodzieja, Concrete corrosion in a wastewater treatment plant – A comprehensive case study, Constr. Build. Mater. 303 (2021) 124388.
[11]  S.T. Al-Nasrawi, Using Treated Sewage Sludge as Partial replacement of Cement to Enhance Production and Minimize Pollution, university of Technology, Iraq., 2003.
[12]  A. Yagüe, S. Valls, E. Vázquez, F. Albareda, Durability of concrete with addition of dry sludge from waste water treatment plants, Cem. Concr. Res., 35 (2005) 1064–1073.
[13]  M. Matar, Use of wastewater sludge in concrete mixes, The Islamic University of Gaza, Faculty of Engineering Civil, 2008.
[14]  M. Jamshidi, A. Jamshidi, N. Mehrdadi, Application of sewage dry sludge in concrete mixtures, Asian J. Civ. Eng., 13 (2012) 365–375.
[15]  A.D. Mandlik, S.A. Karale, Sludge Use in Concrete as a Replacement of Cement, Int. J. Res. Eng. Appl. Manag., 4 (2018) 22–27.
[16]  G. Mourtada Rabie, Using of Wastewater Dry and Wet Sludge In Concrete Mix, J. Civ. Environ. Eng., 06 (2016) 1–7.
[17]  G.M. Rabie, H.A. El-Halim, E.H. Rozaik, Influence of using dry and wet wastewater sludge in concrete mix on its physical and mechanical properties, Ain Shams Eng. J., 10 (2019) 705–712.
[18]  A. Al-Obaidi, R. Al-Anbari, M. Hassan, Sewage sludge reuse in concrete industry: a review, in: IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., IOP Publishing, Baghdad., 2021.
[19]  P. J. M.  Mehta, P. K., and Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 2006.
[20]  ACI. Committee 211.1-91: Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete (Reapproved 2009), (n.d.). (accessed April 3, 2020).
[21]  K. Li, Durability Design of Concrete Structures, 2016.
[22]  B. Alsubari, P. Shafigh, Z. Ibrahim, M. Alnahhal, M. Jumaat, Properties of Eco-Friendly Self- Compacting Concrete Containing Different Waste MaterialsProperties of eco-friendly self-compacting concrete containing modified treated palm oil fuel ash, Constr. Build. Mater. 158 (2017) 742–754.
[23]  J.K. Sahan, E.K. Sayhood, Behaviour of Fibrous Recycled Aggregate Concrete Short Axially Columns, Univercity of Technology, 2019.
[24]  ASTM C143/C143M, Standard Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic-Cement Concrete, Astm C143. (2015).
[25]  A. Jamshidi, M. Jamshidi, N. Mehrdadi, A. Shasavandi, F. Pacheco-Torgal, Mechanical performance of concrete with partial replacement of sand by sewage sludge ash from incineration, Mater. Sci. Forum.. 730–732 (2013) 462–467.
[26]  L. Emilio, R. Diaz, Concrete Durability_ Cementitious Materials and Reinforced Concrete Properties, Behavior and Corrosion Resistance-, 1st ed., Springer., 2017.
[27]  A. Demirbas, G. Edris, W.M. Alalayah, Sludge production from municipal wastewater treatment in sewage treatment plant, Energy Sources, Part A Recover. Util. Environ. Eff., 39 (2017) 999–1006.
[28]  R. Zarzuela, M. Luna, L.M. Carrascosa, M.P. Yeste, I. Garcia-Lodeiro, M.T. Blanco-Varela, M.A. Cauqui, J.M. Rodríguez-Izquierdo, M.J. Mosquera, Producing C-S-H gel by reaction between silica oligomers and portlandite: A promising approach to repair cementitious materials, Cem. Concr. Res., 130 (2020) 106008.