Document Type : Research Paper


1 Civil Engineering Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a street,10066 Baghdad, Iraq

2 Civil Engineering Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a street,10066 Baghdad, Iraq.

3 Environment Research Centre, University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq


The use of biochar as a soil amendment has been the focus of many studies. It is believed to improve soil characteristics and increase crop yields. Still, a diverse range of feedstocks needs to be researched and converted to biochar for environmental purposes.To achieve sustainable biochar, it is favorable to be derived from residues available locally, and particularly interesting are those that have been turned to biochar near the application area. This study investigates the effects of locally date palm-derived biochars produced at four different temperatures (250, 350, 450, and 550oC) for 60 minutes on soil physicochemical properties, mainly; pH, bulk density, and total nitrogen availability. The biochar application ratios were 5% and 10% by weight to each soil sample. The soil was gathered from a local farm near Al-Kargoulia, textured as clay loam, and had a total nitrogen content of 25 mg/kg. From mixing through incubation, the experiment lasted 30 days. Biochars produced at (250-350oC) have a minor impact on soil characteristics, whereas biochar produced at (450-550oC) had a higher effect on soil properties. Bulk density was decreased due to biochar’s high porosity (up to 90%), while pH increased from 7.23 to 8.5. In contrast, nitrogen was affected highly and increased to 32.33 mg/kg.

Graphical Abstract


  • for modifying and improving soil structure, bulk density, and porosity.
  • Biochar's effect on nutrients and total nitrogen remarkably impacted soil fertility.
  • A higher biochar application rate had a higher significant effect on each soil sample.
  • Biochars produced at (250-350oC) have a minor impact on soil characteristics, whereas biochar produced at (450-550oC) had a higher effect on soil properties.
  • Bulk density was decreased due to biochar’s high porosity (up to 90%), while pH increased from 7.23 to 8.5.


Main Subjects

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