Document Type : Review Paper


1 Civil Engineering Department, University of Technology-Iraq, Alsinaa Street 52, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq

2 Civil Engineering Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq.

3 Membrane Technology Research Unit, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Technology-Iraq, Alsinaa street, 52, 10066, Baghdad, Iraq


Dyes are an essential group of organic pollutants with a long history of harming aquatic life and humans. Prior to disposal, polluted dye wastewater must be adequately treated to prevent adverse impacts on persons and the environment. Although there are several techniques for dye removal, most of them share a similar drawback: they generate secondary pollution to the environment. Membrane separation is highlighted in this article because it is one of the most efficient dye removal techniques available nowadays due to its high removal capacity, ease of operation, and clean water generation. Polymeric membranes are frequently used in membrane-based separations because of their greater flexibility, ease of pore formation process, and lower cost than other membrane materials. Although polymeric membranes are preferable materials for membrane production, they are usually hydrophobic and, hence, sensitive to fouling. Therefore, much research has been done to modify the polymeric membrane. More recently, metal nanoparticles (NPs) have been introduced to the polymer matrix to minimize fouling potential and enhance membrane performance. This study describes several polymeric membranes utilized in dye separation that have been modified using nanomaterial. Also, the study illustrates how adding these components affects the membranes' performance in rejecting the dye. Additionally, it highlights the importance of membrane-nanomaterial interactions and the effect of these materials' additions on membrane performance over time.

Graphical Abstract


  • The importance of two types of Nanocomposite membrane in dye effluent treatment is reviewed
  • Nanocomposite Membranes have: high dye effluent separation efficiency, anti-fouling, and stability
  • The importance of the interaction mechanism between polymeric materials and nanoparticles is presented
  • The influence of incorporated nanoparticles on long-term performance and stability is discussed.


Main Subjects

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