Document Type : Research Paper


Chemical Engineering Department/University of Baghdad/Baghdad, Iraq


Nanotechnology can be used to develop drilling fluid additives that can improve the drilling fluid's properties. Using two types of nanoparticle (NP) additives in water-based drilling fluids have been studied in this paper. Three major drilling mud systems, namely potassium chloride (KCl) as a basic mud, KCl/aluminum oxide (Al2O3) NPs, and KCl/iron (Fe2O3) NPs, were prepared and studied for enhancement of rheological properties and shale inhibition. It was found that the drilling mud contained NPs in concentrations of 0.25, 0. 5, 0.75, and 1 g. Al2O3 and Fe2O3 NPs added to KCl/polymer mud systems resulted in a 50% and 30% change in shale volume, respectively. The results demonstrated that incorporating NPs into the KCL mud system enhanced shale inhibition. Adding NPs to the KCL-WBM increased yield point, plastic viscosity, and gel strength. The COF of KCL-polymer was reduced by 48% and 34% when added Al2O3 and Fe2O3 NPs at 0.5 and 0.75g, respectively. When Al2O3 and Fe2O3 NPs were used, particularly at 1g, the amount of mud filtration decreased from 13.1ml to 8.8 ml and 8.4 ml, respectively. Overall, it was found that adding Al2O3 and Fe2O3 NPs to the KCl-WBM can improve rheological, swelling, and filtration properties as well as lubrication.

Graphical Abstract


  •  Nanoparticles reduced filter loss up 41 and32% by Fe2O3 and Al2O3, respectively.
  •  Reduction (COF) between pipe and wellbore up 48 and 34% by Al2O3 and Fe2O3,respectively.
  •  Wellbore swelling reduction up 50 and 30% by Al2O3 and Fe2O3, respectively


Main Subjects

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