Document Type : Research Paper


1 geotechnical engineering, highway and bridge branch, civil engineering department, university of technology, Baghdad, Iraq

2 Civil Engineering Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq.

3 civil department, university of technology, Baghdad, Iraq


Increasing the cross-sectional area of the piles or adding wings to the piles are two strategies for increasing the bearing capacity of the piles to resist lateral stresses. Small and full-scale finite element models were used to investigate the effect of adding the wings on the laterally loaded pile bearing capacity in this study. Four embedded ratios (4, 6, 8, and 10) were used with various wing dimensions and numbers. The results showed that adding wings to the pile increases the resistance to lateral loads and reduces the lateral displacement significantly. +To achieve the highest lateral resistance, the wings should be fixed parallel to the lateral load applied to the pile and close to the pile head. The ultimate lateral applied load is proportional to the rise in relative density. The lateral pile capacity was increased by 16.5%, 18.4%, and 33% in dense, medium, and loose sand, respectively, at the same length to diameter ratio (L/D). Increasing wing length improves lateral capacity significantly. At a failure, the lateral pile capacity was 18% and 8.5 % for Lw, equal to 112 mm and 56 mm, respectively. Another study's purpose was to determine how increasing the number of wings affected pile resistance. The lateral pile capacity at failure was increased by 9.8 % for two wings, 18.4 % for three wings, and 18 % for four wings.

Graphical Abstract


  • The final lateral applied load is proportional to the relative density increase at the same length to diameter ratio (L/D).
  • When the load is low, the wing efficiency is highest, and when the load is large, the wing efficiency drops.
  • Increasing the wing length would significantly increase the pile's lateral capacity compared to the standard pile.
  • Increasing sand density from loose to medium, then dense, affects the bending moment significantly. It enhanced the bending moment's magnitude.


Main Subjects

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