Parametric Optimization of Laser Conduction Welding between Stainless Steel 316 and Polyethylene Terephthalate Using Taguchi Method
Engineering and Technology Journal,
2022, Volume 40, Issue 12, Pages 1-8
AbstractA pulsed Nd:YAG laser with a fiber optic delivery system was used to accomplish a dissimilar joining of 316 stainless steel (SUS316) to polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Laser Conduction Welding (LCW) was applied as a welding technique to achieve a lap metal/polymer joint by applying the laser from the metal side. The heat was transferred from the metal layer to the polymer layer, which caused the melting and then solidifying of the polymer at the interface. The effect of three welding parameters, laser energy density, pulse duration, and welding speed, on joint force, was studied and discussed. To measure the joint force tensile shear test was conducted. Furthermore, the Taguchi method was used as a design experiment method to optimize the welding parameters by designing an orthogonal L9 matrix. The signal-to-noise ratio of each trial was calculated and plotted. The best welding parameters that gave the highest joint force were achieved. The maximum tensile force obtained was 525 N at 250 J/cm2 energy density, 15 ms pulse duration, and 20 mm/min welding speed. Finally, the comparison between the weakest and the strongest joints was carried out to show the difference between welding with the optimal parameters and any other set of parameters.
- The study showed the effectiveness of using Nd:YAG laser in welding dissimilar materials.
- The study results indicated that all the used parameters affected the joint force. However, the energy density had the highest effect among the other parameters, followed by the pulse duration and the welding speed.
- The bubble formation in the polymer side led to the weakening of the joint force. However, it can be avoided by distributing the laser energy equally on the weld line.
 Lambiase, Francesco. "Mechanical behavior of polymer–metal hybrid joints produced by clinching using different tools. Materials & Design 87 (2015) 606-618. doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2015.08.037
 Liu, Jia, Wenfu Cui, Yan Shi, Hongyin Zhu, and Zhong Li. "Effect of surface texture and ultrasonic on tensile property of 316L/PET dissimilar joints." Journal of Manufacturing Processes 50 (2020) 430-439.doi.org/10.1186/s10033-021-00645-5
 Holtkamp, Jens, Andreas Roesner, and Arnold Gillner. "Advances in hybrid laser joining." The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 47 (2010) 923-930. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-009-2124-6
 Yusof, Farazila, Miyashita Yukio, Mutoh Yoshiharu, and Mohd Hamdi Abdul Shukor. "Effect of anodizing on pulsed Nd: YAG laser joining of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and aluminium alloy (A5052)." Materials & Design 37 (2012) 410-415. doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2012.01.006
 Hubeatir, Kadhim A. "Laser transmission welding of PMMA using IR semiconductor laser complemented by the Taguchi method and grey relational analysis." Materials Today: Proceedings 20 (2020) 466-473. doi: 10.1016/j.matpr.2019.09.167
 J. Zhou, and H. L. Tsai. "Developments in pulsed and continuous wave laser welding technologies." In Handbook of Laser Welding Technologies, Woodhead Publishing,(2013) 103-148e. doi: 10.1533/9780857098771.1.103
 Assuncao, Eurico, Stewart Williams, and David Yapp. "Interaction time and beam diameter effects on the conduction mode limit." Optics and Lasers in Engineering., 50 (2012) 823-828. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2012.02.001
 H. Al-Kazzaz, M. Medraj, X. Cao, and M. Jahazi. "Nd: YAG laser welding of aerospace grade ZE41A magnesium alloy: Modeling and experimental investigations." Materials Chemistry and Physics 109 (2008: 61-76. doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2007.10.039
 A. M. Chelladurai, K. A. Gopal, S. Murugan, S. Venugopal, and T. Jayakumar. "Energy transfer modes in pulsed laser seam welding." Materials and Manufacturing Processes 30 (2015) 162-168. doi.org/10.1080/10426914.2014.965829
 W. A. Ayoola, W. J. Suder, and Stewart W. Williams. "Parameters controlling weld bead profile in conduction laser welding." Journal of Materials Processing Technology 249 (2017) 522-530. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2017.06.026
 Klein, Rolf. Laser welding of plastics: materials, processes and industrial applications. John Wiley & Sons, (2012). doi:10.1002/9783527636969
 JR. Kannatey-Asibu, Elijah. Principles of laser materials processing. John Wiley & Sons, 4 (2009). doi:10.1002/9780470459300
 E. M. Anawa, and A. G. Olabi. "Using Taguchi method to optimize welding pool of dissimilar laser-welded components." Optics & Laser Technology., 40 (2008) 379-388. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2007.07.001.
 Miyashita, Yukio, Masaru Takahashi, Masashi Takemi, Kosei Oyama, Yoshiharu Mutoh, and Hironori Tanaka. "Dissimilar materials micro welding between stainless steel and plastics by using pulse YAG laser." Journal of solid mechanics and materials engineering., 3 (2009) 409-415. doi.org/10.1299/jmmp.3.409.
 I. Hussein, Furat, E. Akman, B. Genc Oztoprak, M. Gunes, O. Gundogdu, E. Kacar, K. I. Hajim, and A. Demir. "Evaluation of PMMA joining to stainless steel 304 using pulsed Nd: YAG laser." Optics & Laser Technology 49 (2013) 143-152. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2012.12.028.
 Huang, Yijie, Xiangdong Gao, Yaowu Song, Nanfeng Zhang, and Nvjie Ma. "Visual inspection of pulsed Nd: YAG laser welding of PMMA and stainless steel 304." In 2017 IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST), IEEE., (2017)1-6. doi: 10.1109/IST.2017.8261528.
 LE. Jia, , Haifeng Yang, Yisai Wang, Baocai Zhang, Hao Liu, and Jingbin Hao. "Research on temperature-assisted laser transmission welding of copper foil and polyethylene terephthalate." Journal of Manufacturing Processes 57 (2020) 677-690. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2020.07.026.
 Dwivedi, Shashi Prakash, Satpal Sharma, and Vivek Singh. "Optimization of laser transmission joining process parameters on joint width of PET and 316 L stainless steel joint using RSM." Journal of Optics., 45 (2016) 106-113. doi.org/10.1155/2014/197060.
 F. I. Al-Najjar, "Evaluation of Weld Bead Width and Strength of PMMA Joining to st. st. 304 using Pulsed Nd: YAG Laser." University of Baghdad, Baghdad (2013). doi 10.1016/j.optlastec.2012.12.028.
 F. M. Shaker, K. A. Hubeatir, and M. M. AL-Khafaji. "Effect of CW green laser parameters on welding width and strength of PMMA polymer." In AIP Conference Proceedings, AIP Publishing LLC., 2213(2020) 020192. doi: 10.1063/5.0000276
 J. Imran, Hadeel, Kadhim A. Hubeatir, and Mohanned M. Al-Khafaji. "CO2 Laser Micro-Engraving of PMMA Complemented By Taguchi and ANOVA Methods." In Journal of Physics: Conference Series, IOP Publishing., 1795 (2021) 012062. doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1795/1/012062.
 Jiao, Junke, Qiang Wang, Feiya Wang, Shaoping Zan, and Wenwu Zhang. "Numerical and experimental investigation on joining CFRTP and stainless steel using fiber lasers." Journal of Materials Processing Technology 240 (2017) 362-369. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2016.10.013
 Noh, Fatimah Syamilah, Harizam Mohd Zin, Khalid Alnasser, Nukman Yusoff, and Farazila Yusof. "Optimization of laser lap joining between stainless steel 304 and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)." Procedia engineering., 184 (2017) 246-250. doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.04.092.
- Article View: 34
- PDF Download: 38