Document Type : Research Paper


1 Civil Engineering Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq.

2 civil engineering department, university of technology


The temperature and stress caused by the load can be cited as two main parameters leading to breakage in asphalt pavement, especially rutting (permanent deformation). So, to reduce the problems of rutting of roads, several actions have been taken, including improving pavement quality and the structure design methods. The increase in the attention of respective engineers in the last few years to modify and improve the asphalt performance through providing different types of additives and replacing the raw materials of asphalt mixture with recycled materials to improve the environment and reduce the cost of modified pavement mixture. This study discussed the use of low-density waste polyethylene as an asphalt modifier in percentages of (2, 4, and 6) % by the weight of asphalt and their impact on the performance of asphalt mixtures at high temperatures. This study showed that using plastic waste (low-density polyethylene) as a bitumen modifier improved the performance of asphalt mixtures at different high temperatures. This was achieved by reducing the rut depth by (80.5) % and (82.3) % at temperatures of 50 C and 60 C, respectively, using low-density polyethylene waste at an optimum value of about 4% by weight of asphalt in addition to enhancing the Marshall stability by using this percentage of polymer.

Graphical Abstract


  • Using low-density polyethylene in asphalt paving enhances the road construction systems and the environment''s protection against pollution. 
  • A remarkable improvement in the performance of asphalt paving was achieved using different percentages of low-density polyethylene.
  • The optimum percentage of LDPE additive was verified as 4% by weight of asphalt through all laboratory results (Marshall tests).


Main Subjects

[1] M. Ameri, D. Mirzaiyan, and A. Amini, Rutting resistance and fatigue behavior of gilsonite-modified asphalt binders, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 30 (2018) 04018292.
[2] A. H. Al-Rubaie and H. H. Joni, Assessment the performance of asphalt mixtures modified with waste tire rubber at high temperatures, in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2021.
[3] D. A. Anderson, D. W. Christensen, H. U. Bahia, R. Dongre, M. Sharma, C. E. Antle, et al., Binder characterization and evaluation, volume 3: Physical characterization, Strategic Highway Research Program, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1994.
[4] G. Airey, Styrene butadiene styrene polymer modification of road bitumens, Journal of Materials Science, 39 (2004) 951-959.
[5] H. Ziari, A. Amini, A. Moniri, and M. Habibpour, Using the GMDH and ANFIS methods for predicting the crack resistance of fibre reinforced high RAP asphalt mixtures, Road Materials and Pavement Design, 2020.
[6] M. Y. Fattah, M. M. Hilal, and H. B. Flyeh, Assessment of mechanical stability performance of asphalt mixture using Superpave gyratory compactor, Journal of Transportation Engineering, Part B: Pavements, 145 (2019) 04019004.
[7] A. Amini and R. Imaninasab, Investigating the effectiveness of Vacuum Tower Bottoms for Asphalt Rubber Binder based on performance properties and statistical analysis, Journal of Cleaner Production, 171 (2018) 1101-1110.
[8] M. Nouali, E. Ghorbel, and Z. Derriche, Phase separation and thermal degradation of plastic bag waste modified bitumen during high temperature storage, Construction and Building Materials, 239 (2020) 117872.
[9] A. I. Asphalt Institute, Asphalt Mix Design Methods, MS-2, 2014.
[10] L. Jun, Z. Yuxia, and Z. Yuzhen, The research of GMA-g-LDPE modified Qinhuangdao bitumen, Construction and Building Materials, 22 (2008) 1067-1073.
[11] A. Al-Hadidy and T. Yi-qiu, Effect of polyethylene on life of flexible pavements, Construction and Building Materials, 23 (2009) 1456-1464.
[12] A. S. Abbas and F. A. Mohamed, Production and Evaluation of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel from Thermal Pyrolysis of Virgin Polyethylene Plastics, Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, 16 (2015) 21-33.
[13] P. Lastra-González, M. A. Calzada-Pérez, D. Castro-Fresno, Á. Vega-Zamanillo, and I. Indacoechea-Vega, Comparative analysis of the performance of asphalt concretes modified by dry way with polymeric waste, Construction and Building Materials, 112 (2016) 1133-1140.
[14] S. Fernandes, L. Costa, H. Silva, and J. Oliveira, Effect of incorporating different waste materials in bitumen, Ciência & Tecnologia Dos Materiais, 29 (2017) e204-e209.
[15] Y. M. E. Aboalmaali, Performance of Modified Asphalt MixtureSuitable for Thin Overlay, Ph.D. thesis, HIGHWAY AND TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, MUSTANSIRIYAH UNIVERSITY, Baghdad. Iraq, (2020).
[16] H. H. Joni, H. H. Zghair, And A. A. Mohammed, Rutting Parameters Of Modified Asphalt Binder With Micro And Nano-Size Of Metakaolin Powder, Journal Of Engineering Science And Technology, 15 (2020) 3465-3480.
[17] H. H. Zghair, H. H. Joni, and M. S. Hassan, Evaluating The Effects of Micro and Nano Size of Silica Filler on Asphalt Cement Properties, Eng. Technol.  J., 38 (2020) 1832-1841.
[18] C. Fang, R. Yu, Y. Zhang, J. Hu, M. Zhang, and X. Mi, Combined modification of asphalt with polyethylene packaging waste and organophilic montmorillonite, Polymer Testing, 31 (2012) 276-281.
[19] H. H. Jony, M. M. Hilal, and D. S. Helan, Effect of Polymer Additives on Permeability of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures, Eng. Technol.  J., 36 (2018) 75-83.
[20] L. Brasileiro, F. Moreno-Navarro, R. Tauste-Martínez, J. Matos, and M. d. C. Rubio-Gámez, Reclaimed polymers as asphalt binder modifiers for more sustainable roads: A review, Sustainability, 11 (2019) 646.
[21] M. Y. Fattah, W. Abdulkhabeer, N., and M. M. Hilal, Characteristics of Asphalt Binder and Mixture Modified With Waste Polypropylene, Eng. Technol.  J., 39 (2021) 1224-1230.
[22] S. Angelone, M. C. Casaux, M. Borghi, and F. O. Martinez, Green pavements: reuse of plastic waste in asphalt mixtures, Materials and Structures,. 49 (2016) 1655-1665.
[23] M. Attaelmanan, C. P. Feng, and A. Al-Hadidy, Laboratory evaluation of HMA with high density polyethylene as a modifier, Construction and Building Materials, 25 (2011) 2764-2770.
[24] M. A. Al-Jumaili and H. A. Al-Jameel, Reducing Rutting in Flexible Pavement Using Specified Polymers with HMA, in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2020.
[25] A. H. Abed and H. U. Bahia, Enhancement of permanent deformation resistance of modified asphalt concrete mixtures with nano-high density polyethylene, Construction and Building Materials, 236 (2020) 117604.
[26] M. S. Ahmad, Low density polyethylene modified dense graded bituminous macadam, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, 16 (2014) 366-372.
[27] U. J. Nkanga, J. A. Joseph, F. V. Adams, and O. U. Uche, Characterization of bitumen/plastic blends for flexible pavement application, Procedia Manufacturing, 7 (2017) 490-496.
[28] H. Z. Farahani, M. Palassi, and S. Sadeghpour Galooyak, Thermal analysis of bitumen modified with LDPE and CR, Petroleum Science and Technology, 35 (2017) 1570-1575.
[29] R. E. SCRB, Standard Specifications for Roads and Bridges., in Section R/9, Hot-Mix Asphaltic Concrete Pavement., ed, 2003.
[30] M. A. AbdAl-Hussein, Characteristics of Asphalt Binder (Fresh and Aged) Modified with Waste Oils and Plastics, Msc, MSc. thesis, Civil Engineering Department, University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq, university of technology, 2019.
[31] T. AASHTO, 324, Hamburg Wheel-Track Testing of compacted Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA), ed: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO, 2013).
[32] B. E. 22, Bituminous Mixtures–Tests Method for Hot Mix Asphalt. Part 22: Wheel Tracking Test., ed, 2003.