Document Type : Research Paper


Electrical Engineering Department, University of Technology , Baghdad, Iraq


Due to increased load demands, distribution systems suffer from high power losses, low voltage levels, high current, and low reliability. To solve these problems, integrate distributed generator units (DG) into the distribution system. DG units are among the most popular methods of improving distribution system reliability, power losses, and bus voltage improvement through the placement and selection of distributed generator units in an optimal location and size. This work proposed Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization (EPSO) technology to find the optimum location and size of DG units to reduce power losses, improve bus voltage level, and employed the Transient Electricity Analyzer (ETAP) to evaluate the reliability of the distribution system network. ETAP is a programming tool for modeling, analysis, design, optimization, operation, and control of electrical power systems. These findings may be useful in conducting reliability assessments and correctly utilizing dispersed generation sources for future power system growth by power utilities and power producer companies. The proposed method was employed on the Iraqi distribution system (AL-Abasia distribution network (F10 feeder)). After adding three DG units to the distribution system, theer adding three DG units to the distribution system, the obtained simulation results showed a significant reduction in power losses, voltage levels, and reliability enhancement.

Graphical Abstract


  • The Enhanced Particle Swarm (EPSO) algorithm is proposed and successfully applied to the simultaneous distributed generation (DG) planning and distribution network.
  • The EPSO technique is proposed to handle the problem with the multiobjectives of total active power loss minimization and bus voltage profile improvement.
  • ETAP program was employed to assess the distribution system reliability after inserting the DG units in the optimal place and size.


Main Subjects

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