Document Type : Research Paper


1 Geomatics Engineering, Civil Engineering, University of Technology, Iraq, Baghdad

2 Civil Engineering Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq.


Three-dimensional (3D) real scale models delivered from digital photogrammetric techniques have rapidly increased to meet the requirements of many applications in different fields of daily life. This paper deals with the establishment of a 3D real scale model from a block of images (18 images) that were captured by using Canon EOS 500D digital camera to cover a test field area consisting of 90  artificial target points, 25 of them are ground control points (GCPs) while the remains are checkpoints (CPs). The analytical photogrammetric processes including the calculation of interior orientation parameters (IOPs) of the camera during the camera calibration process, exterior orientation parameters (EOPs) of the camera in each capturing, and the object space (ground) coordinates of the model are calculated simultaneously based on collinearity equation using bundle block adjustment method (BBA). Assessment and validation of the accuracy of the results is an important task in this study that was implemented to determine and analyze the errors of 3D coordinates through linear regression analysis (LRA). Root mean square error (RMSE) is the statistical parameter that was used in the statistical analysis of results. The standard error is another statistical parameter which also used to evaluate the accuracy of locations and rotation angles (EOPs) of cameras. The total RMSE (RMSE)xyz of GCPs is ± 2.530 mm while the total RMSE (RMSExyz) of CPs is ± 2.740 mm. The overall accuracy of the work is 5.000 mm.

Graphical Abstract


  • Determination of Three-dimensional (3D) real scale model coordinates. 
  • Determination of camera interior orientation parameters (IOPs).
  • Determination of camera exterior orientation parameters (EOPs).
  • The bundle block adjustment method (BBA) is used in photogrammetric processing based on collinearity equation.
  • Assessment of results through statistical analysis showed a reliable accuracy where the overall accuracy of work is 5 mm.


Main Subjects

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