Document Type : Research Paper


Department Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Modibbo Adama University, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria


The draught requirement of a single-furrow animal-drawn mouldboard plough implement was determined on sandy loam soils from June to July 2021 at Modibbo Adama University, Yola. The effect of speeds (0.65, 0.83, and 1.05 ms-1) and depths (8, 13, and 18 cm) upon the draught was investigated. Soil analysis, animal specification, and results of tillage experiments are reported. A pair of oxen weighing 538 kg was used as a power source.  A 1 x 3 x 3 factorial experimental design was arranged in a Randomized Complete Design (RCD) for the study on a test plot of 50 m long x 25 m wide and replicated three times. The highest mean draught values of 458.43 N and the lowest mean draught values of 456.03 N were obtained at a speed and depth combination of 1.05 ms-1 and 0.183 m and 0.65 ms-1 and 0.083 m, respectively, with a unit draught of 11.07kpa. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) between speed and depth had a significant effect at a 1 % level of probability (P≤0.01) on draught requirement. Linear regression equations showed an increase in draught with an increase in tillage depth and speed. The high coefficient of determination r2 values show that the plough is operated more economically at a mean speed of 0.83 m/s and a depth of 0.135 m. These regression equations can predict draught during the design of animal-drawn tillage implementation. Substantial energy savings can be obtained with proper animal-tillage implements combination.

Graphical Abstract


  • This study used two oxen (White-Fulani) with a draught capability of 633.33N.
  • A spring-loaded dynamometer (5000N) was used to measure the pull force at a tractive angle of 20o.
  • The draught force increases with an increase in depth and speed of operation.
  • The draught force depended on the depth and width of cut, speed, type of soil, agronomic requirement, and animal.


Main Subjects

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