Document Type : Research Paper


1 Civil Engineering Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq.

2 Civil Eng. Dept., University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq , Tel Mohammed

3 Civil Eng. Dept., University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq


In this paper, the self-sensing properties of cementitious composites under compressive loads were investigated by utilizing hybrid functional fillers, which are responsible for creating an electrical network that is used to build the self-sensing capability within the traditional cement-based mixtures. Most of the previous works depict the self-sensing capability with the aid of one type of functional fillers or fibers. The present paper attempts to utilize two types of functional fillers, representing a gap filling within the subject. Four hybrid proportions of Graphite (G) (wt.%) and carbon fibers (CF) (vol.%) were introduced. These are (0.5, 1.0), (1.0, 0.75), (1.5, 0.50) and (2.0, 0.25) respectively. In addition to carbon-based materials, polypropylene, polyolefin, and steel fibers are used as reinforcing fibers. One type of fiber was utilized in each manufactured mixture with a constant rate of 2% by volume of the mixture. A plain mixture without functional fillers has also been manufactured. The samples were non-destructively tested by an ultrasonic device before a uniaxial compression test was performed. To verify the self-sensing properties of the manufactured samples, the electrical resistance of the samples was recorded during load application each second. The self-sensing behavior was better for mixtures containing high dosages of graphite with respect to the fractional change in electrical resistivity (FCER). Steel and polyolefin fibers showed good results in terms of compressive strength behavior. However, polypropylene fibers showed the lowest compression strength among all types of reinforcing fibers used.

Graphical Abstract


  • Self-sensing and mechanical behavior of ECC with hybrid functional fillers were assessed.
  • Carbon fibers and graphite powder were utilized to create the conductive network.
  • Steel, polyolefin, and polypropylene fibers were used to enhance the mechanical properties of ECC.
  • The mixtures with low dosages of graphite and high carbon fibers have more electrical conductivity with satisfactory compressive strength.
  • The self-sensing behavior is better for mixtures containing a high dosage of graphite (wt.%, 2) with a low dosage of CF (vol.%, 0.25).


Main Subjects

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