Document Type : Review Paper


1 College of Engineering, Mechanical & industrial Department, Sultanate of Oman

2 College of Engineering, Mechanical & industrial Department, P. O. Box. 33, Postal Code: 123 Al-Khoud, Sultanate of Oman.


To save the environment and utilize the waste heat associated with exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, it is crucial to design an efficient system that can recover this heat loss and convert it into useful energy. This study is devoted to developing, through an experimental approach, a practical technical solution to minimize the waste heat of the exhaust gases and convert it into a source of power for further applications in the vehicle. Six thermoelectric generators (TEG1-1263-4.3) were attached to the exhaust pipe in an arrangement of three connected in parallel and three connected in series. The thermoelectric generators were in a square shape of size 30 mm x 30 mm, and operated at a maximum temperature of 320. The experiments were conducted for a vehicle speed limit between (10 km/h - 60 km/h). It has been found that at a vehicle speed of 55 km/h, the exhaust pipe surface temperature reached approximately 116oC. For six models of TEGs, the output voltage was 4.13 volts. And the system efficiency was found to vary between 3.6% -15.9%, depending on the surface temperature of the exhaust pipe, i.e., the surface temperature that is in contact with the hot side of the thermoelectric generators. Such outputs refer to the efficiency of TEGs to be used as a heat recovery system. Furthermore, the produced power can be used for feeding other applications within the vehicle, such as using a small fridge for a cooling process. 

Graphical Abstract


  • Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) were directly recovering the waste heat from the exhaust and converting it into power.
  • The TEGs generate power when there is a temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of the exhaust pipe.
  • EGs waste heat recovery system (WHRS) produced 4.6 W that was used for the cooling process within the vehicle.
  • TEGs waste heat recovery system achieved a real thermal efficiency of 15.9%, closer to ideal thermal efficiency.
  • Implementing TEGs WHRS provides a higher potential to be a successful low-weight heat recovery system that could be installed on the vehicles


Main Subjects

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