Document Type : Research Paper


1 university

2 production and metallurgy department

3 Production and Metallurgy Dept/ University of Technology/ Iraq


The present paper investigates the nanomaterial coatings effect on turbine blades by laser processing. The present paper explores the impact of laser cladding parameters on the corrosion behavior of the resulting surface. Powders of Inconel 600 were deposited on the steel substrate. The surface can be thought of as the most important part of every engineering component. Unlike the rest of the component's volume, the surface is exposed to wear and becomes the place where most cracks form and corrosion initiates. Corrosion is one of the most harmful problems affecting turbine blades. In the current investigation, coating nanomaterials, namely Inconel 600, have been used to resist corrosion. The specimens of tests have been obtained from the part of the turbine blades in Al-Doura Station, located south of Baghdad. These specimens are separated into two groups: The 1st group is received specimens, and the 2nd group is with nanoparticle coating, including Inconel 600 coating applied by laser cladding. The procedure of cladding was implemented utilizing the following parameters :(11 j) pulse energy, (6 Ms.) pulse width, (12 Hz) pulse frequency, (132 W) laser average power, and (1.83 KW) laser peak power. The results show that the microstructure of steels after laser processing is greatly refined with equiaxed grains and highly homogeneous as compared with those of steels before laser treatment, resulting in a significant improvement in strength, toughness, and fatigue corrosion.

Graphical Abstract


  • Laser modification was performed on the blades of a turbine.
  • Powders of Inconel 600 were deposited on the steel substrate.
  • Wear resistance was attributable to the surface hardening layer and wear debris layer.
  • The laser-affected region is divided into oxide, severe deformed, and moderate zone.
  • The microstructure of steels after laser processing is greatly refined with equiaxed grains.


Main Subjects

[1] M. Ganjali, M. Ganjali, S. Asgharpour, and P. Vahdatkhah, Recent Advances in the Design of   Nanocomposite Materials via Laser Techniques for Biomedical Applications, Adv Nanostructured Compos, 278–295, 2019.
[2] M. Brandt, S. Sun, N. Alam, P. Bendeich, and A. Bishop, Laser cladding repair of turbine blades in power plants: from research to commercialisation, Int Heat Treat Surf Eng, 3 (2009) 105–114.
[3] W.-Z. Wang, F.-Z. Xuan, K.-L. Zhu, and S.-T. Tu, Failure analysis of the final stage blade in steam turbine, Eng Fail Anal, 14 (2007) 632–641.
[4] R. K. Bhamu, A. Shukla, S. C. Sharma, and S. P. Harsha, Low-Cycle Fatigue Life Prediction of LP Steam Turbine Blade for Various Blade–Rotor Fixity Conditions, J Fail Anal Prev, 21(2021) 2256–2277.
[5] S. Prifiharni, H. Perdana, T. B. Romijarso, B. Adjiantoro, A. Juniarsih, and E. Mabruri, The hardness and microstructure of the modified 13Cr steam turbine blade steel in tempered conditions, Int J Eng Technol, 8 (2017) 2672–2675.
[6] C. Valente, T. Morgado, and N. Sharma, LASER cladding—a post processing technique for coating, repair and re-manufacturing, in Materials Forming, Machining and Post Processing, Springer, 2020, 231–249.
[7] J. Yao, Q. Zhang, F. Kong, and Q. Ding, Laser hardening techniques on steam turbine blade and application, Phys Procedia, 5 (2010) 399–40.
[8] M. Katinić, D. Kozak, I. Gelo, and D. Damjanović, Corrosion fatigue failure of steam turbine moving  blades: A case study, Eng Fail Anal, 106 (2019) 104136.
[9] M. Nurbanasari, Crack of a first stage blade in a steam turbine,Case Stud Eng Fail Anal, 2 (2014) 54–60.
[10] A. Khalifeh, Stress corrosion cracking damages, in Failure analysis, IntechOpen, 2019.
[11] R. Ebara, Corrosion fatigue crack initiation behavior of stainless steels, Procedia Eng, 2 (2010) 1297–1306.
[12] S.-X. Li and R. Akid, Corrosion fatigue life prediction of a steel shaft material in seawater, Eng Fail Anal, 34 (2013) 324–334.
[13] D. H. Abdeen, M. El Hachach, M. Koc, and M. A. Atieh, A review on the corrosion behaviour of nanocoatings on metallic substrates, Materials (Basel), 12 (2019) 210.
[14] P. Nguyen-Tri, T. A. Nguyen, P. Carriere, and C. Ngo Xuan, Nanocomposite coatings: preparation, characterization, properties, and applications, Int J Corros, 2018.
[15] R. S. A. Hameed, A.-A. H. Abu-Nawwas, and H. A. Shehata, Nano-composite as corrosion inhibitors for steel alloys in different corrosive media, Adv Appl Sci Res, 4 (2013)126–129.
[16] G. Wang, Nanotechnology: The new features, arXiv Prepr arXiv181204939, 2018.
[17] L. K. Bhagi, P. Gupta, and V. Rastogi, A brief review on failure of turbine blades,Proc STME-2013 Smart Technol Mech Eng Delhi, 25–26, 2013.
[18] W. Vanderlinde, Energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Microelectron Fialure Anal Desk Ref, 434, 2019.
[19] Z. A. Abdulwahab, S. A. Ajeel, and S. I. Jafar, Influence Of Laser Cladding on Behavior of Fatigue and Fatigue Corrosion, in IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 961, 2022, 12035.
[20] A. Nair and A. Khan, Studies on effect of laser processed stellite 6 material and its electrochemical behavior, Optik (Stuttg), 220, 2020, 165221.
[21] O. A. Soylu, Determination of relationship between weld quality and mechanical strength in different steels. Middle East Technical University, 2004.
[22]  D. Radaj, State‐of‐the‐art review on extended stress intensity factor concepts, Fatigue Fract Eng Mater Struct, 37(2014)  1–28.
[23] K. F. Walker, J. M. Lourenço, S. Sun, M. Brandt, and C. H. Wang, Quantitative fractography and modelling of fatigue crack propagation in high strength AerMet® 100 steel repaired with a laser cladding process, Int J Fatigue,  94 (2017)  288–301.