Document Type : Review Paper


1 Mechanical Engineering Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq.

2 University of Technology-Iraq


This study investigates the effects of Eichhornia Crassipes Biodiesel (ECB) with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) dual-fuel on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions characteristics. A four-stroke, single-cylinder and water-cooled diesel engine was used. The engine was operated with pure Iraqi diesel (PID) as a reference fuel, 40% ECB-60% PID, and duel fuel mode (DFM) (40% ECB-60% PID-2.4 l/min LPG). The experimental testing was carried out at 1500 rpm constant engine speed, compression ratio 18, and time injection 23° bTDC under various load conditions (25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) full load. Using a gas analyzer, the engine emissions, including carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), and nitrogen oxides (NOx), were measured. An OPABOX smoke unit was used to determine the smoke intensity. The result manifested that the 40% ECB reduced the thermal brake efficiency (BTH) by 7% at partial load, compared with the PID. Exhaust emissions tests at full load displayed a reduction in CO2, CO, HC, and smoke by 44.4%, 70.34%, 31%, 76%, and 47%, respectively, with increasing NOx emission by 17.02% compared with the PID. The (LPG- 40% ECB) DFM at full load elucidated a reduction in CO2, CO, and smoke by (52.38%-14.28%), (81.48%-37.5%) and (86.28 %-41.7%), respectively, while there was an increase in HC and NOx emission by of (15.38%-40%) and (34.2%-20.07%), respectively, compared with the PID and 40% ECB, where the BTH in DFM was higher than 40% ECB by 9.07%. Finally, the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) decreased by (10.11%-11.2%) compared with PID and 40% biodiesel.

Graphical Abstract


  • The combustion was enhanced with the addition of E.
  • The engine operation was smooth and had less fuel consumption when using biodiesel and LPG. 
  • Engine running on dual fuel mode (40%ECB-LPG) is more economical.
  • HC emission decreases with ECB.


Main Subjects

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