Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, water Resource, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimni City. Iraq

2 Civil, College of Engineering, university of sualimani, Sulaimnai, Iraq

3 Building & Construction Technical Engineering Dept., Islamic University, Najaf, Iraq.


Foundations of various construction projects usually can be either shallow or deep foundations. A mat foundation is one of the common shallow foundations typically utilized for various types of buildings. Foundations construct on various types of soils, which might be essential to understand the interaction scenario between them as they are two different types of materials. This study aims to discover the characteristics of the soil-foundation interaction for the suitable areas for the resettlement process in focus on a certain foundation type with a dimension of 10m x 10m x 0.5m, applied on twelve areas rich with fine-grained soil types in Sulaimaniyah governorate, northern Iraq, which suffer from some geotechnical problems such as building cracks. Application of loads was conducted in three stages; 35 tons, 70 tons, and 140 tons were directly applied on the utilized soils. The obtained results of the study prove that the 3D Plaxis is quite capable to predict the settlement of each foundation modeled on each utilized soil type. In addition, the modeling work achieved that the utilized foundation center stresses are notably smaller than the obtained foundation corner stresses. The obtained soil settlement values are not dependent on the soil-bearing capacity.

Graphical Abstract


  • The 3D Plaxis is capabl of predicting the settlement of each modeled foundation.
  • The utilized foundation center stresses are smaller than the foundation corner stresses.
  • The soil settlement values are not dependent on the soil bearing capacity


Main Subjects

[1] P. M. Najmaddin, N. B.Salih, T. A. Abdalla, Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of some Soil Geotechnical Properties Using Various Interpolation Methods (Case Study: Sulaimani Province, Iraq), j. soil sci. agric. eng, Mansoura Univ.,11 (2020) 275-281.
[2] H.T.T. Ngo , T.A. Pham, H.L.T., L.P.  Giap, Application of Artificial Intelligence to Determined Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cement-Stabilized Soil in Vietnam. Appl. Sci., 11(2021) 1949.
[3] K. A. Rashed, N. B. Salih, T. A. Abdalla, Correlation of Consistency and Compressibility Properties of Soils in Sulaimani City,.Sulaiman j. eng. sci. 4 (2017) 87-95.
[4] K. A. Rashed, N. B. Salih, T. A. Abdalla, Prediction of California Bearing Ratio from Consistency and Compaction Characteristics of Fine Grained Soils. NJES 24(2021) 123-129.
[5] N. B. Salih “Geotechnical characteristics correlations for fine-grained soils” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 737, (2020), 012099.
[6] Z. K. Abdalqadir, N. B. Salih, S. J. Salih, The improvement of the geotechnical properties of low-plasticity clay (CL) using steel slag in Sulaimani City/Iraq. Geomech. Geoengin. 17 (2022) 834-841.‏
[7] T. A. A. Salih, N. B. Salih, Hydrated Lime Effects on Geotechnical Properties of Clayey Soil. J. Eng. 26 (2020) 150-169.
[8] D. Loukidis, G. Lazarou, M. Bardanis, Numerical Simulation of Swelling Soil-Mat Foundation Interaction, Proceedings of the XVII ECSMGE-2019. Geo. Eng foundation of the future.https://doi.10.32075/17ECSMGE-2019-0461, F.1, 1-9.
[9] B. Das, N. Sivakugan, Settlements of shallow foundations on granular soil—an overview. Int. J. Geotech. Eng. 1(2007) 19-29.‏
[10] M. S. Hussain, Numerical Evaluation of Settlement of Strip Footing Resting on Cavity and Weak Soil Profile. Polytech. J., 11(2021) 87-97.
[11] V. Le Ba, N. N. Van, K. Le Ba, Study on the settlement of raft foundations by different methods. In MATEC Web of conferences, EDP Sciences.‏ 251 (2018) 04054.
[12] S. Bunyamin, S. Aghayan, Settlement Modelling of Raft Footing Founded on Oferekpe/Abakaliki Shale in South East Region of Nigeria. Comput. Eng. Phys. Model., 1(2018) 68-82.
[13] T. T. Sinthia, M. M. Shuvo, M. Rokonuzzaman  Numerical Investigation on Structural Behavior of Mat Foundation: A Parametric Study. Proc. Int. Conf. Civ. Eng. Sustain. Dev. (ICCESD 2016), KUET, Khulna, Bangladesh, ISBN: 978-984-34-0265-3.
[14] M. K. Vilas, K. Moniuddin, Finite element analysis of soil bearing capacity using plaxis. Int. J. Eng. Res. Technol. 4 (2015) 861-864
[15] J. E. Bowels. Foundation Analysis and Design. 5th edition, The McGraw Hill Companies, Singapore,1997.
[16] ASTM D 2937 – 10 (2010) Standard test methods for density of soil in place by the drive cylinder method. ASTM International Standards, West Conshohocken, PA.
[17] Head K.H., Epps, R. Manual of Soil Testing, 3rd Edition, Volume 2: Permeability, Shear Strength and Compressibility Tests. Whittles Publishing: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group,2011.
[18] ASTM D6758-08 (2008). Standard Test Method for Measuring Stiffness and Apparent Modulus of Soil and Soil-Aggregate In-Place by Electro-Mechanical Method. ASTM International Standards, West Conshohocken, PA.
[19] Plaxis 3D (2016). Toturial Manual, URL: file:///C:/Users/Dr.%20Nihad/Downloads/PLAXIS_3D_Tutorial_Manual.pdf, accessed on 08 April 2022.
[20] E. Al-Taie, N. Al-Ansari, S. Knutsson, Evaluation of Foundation Settlement under Various Added Loads in Different Locations of Iraq Using Finite Element. Eng., 8(2016) 257-268.‏
[21] A. Q. O. Al-Ramthan, Using Matlab with Quadrilateral Finite Elements in Analysis of Multilayered Nonhomogeneous Soils under Strip Footing. Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol,. 4(2012) 717-723.‏
[22] T. K. Nagaraj, P. B. Ullagaddi, Experimental study on load settlement behavior of sand foundations. In Indian Geotech. Con., 2010.
[23] D.A. Widiarso, W. Haryanto, D. Muslim,Z. Zakaria, T. Y. Iskandarsyah, Potential Consolidation Settlement due to Load Stresses of Building Structures. Int. J. GEOMATE., 17(2019) 204-210.
[24] S. G. Paikowsky, C. J. Palmer, L. E. Rolwes, L. The use of tactile sensor technology for measuring soil stress distribution. In GeoCongress Geotechnical Engineering in the Information Technology Age .(2006) 1-6.
[25] H. Farouk., M. Farouk, Effect of foundation embedment depth on contact stress distribution and differential settlement. In Vulnerability, Uncertainty, and Risk: Quantification, Mitigation, and Management ,(2014) 2508-2517.
[26] D. W. Taylor, Fundamentals of Soil Mechanics. Publisher, John Wiley & Sons-New YorkInc., Chapman & Hall-London., 1948.