Document Type : Review Paper


1 Institute of Sustainable Energy, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (The National Energy University), Jalan Ikram-Uniten, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia

2 Department of Electrical Power Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (The National Energy Univer-sity), Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000, Kajang, Selangor

3 Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (The National Energy University), Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000, Kajang, Selangor

4 Faculty of Electronic Information Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian Jiangsu, 223003 China

5 Faculty of Electrical and Automation Engineering Technology, UC TATI, 24000 Terengganu, Malaysia


The smart street-lighting system (SSLS) is a leading candidate in the smart city. By the time of the last 15 cycles, many meaningful improvements have been executed in the SSLS with the impact of the internet of things technologies and universal networking devices. Conventional smart street lighting systems are restricted to wireless sensor networks, mobile devices, and old lighting control systems. This article presents a comprehensive treatment of network designs, namely communication, control, and wireless sensor-based smart street lighting system by deploying based on their existing system architecture, and network topologies including leading with it a host of privileges. In addition, choosing the right lighting class, high-intensity discharge (HID) lights, and retrofitting lighting technologies have all been covered in detail. This paper's objective is to evaluate various control technologies that may support the many applications deployed on networked streetlights. Moreover, issues and recommendations, distinguished in this paper, will pave the route for future smart street lighting systems that promote a reliable and seamless driving experience and are energy-efficient for environmental sustainability. It is far anticipated that LoRa and Sigfox with additional gateways could be the best possible smart street lighting system options as these technologies are facilitated for long distances but with a limited data rate. It is way more suitable for lighting control compared to other protocols to control thousands of streetlights.

Graphical Abstract


  • Communication, control, and wireless sensor-based smart street lighting system were investigated.
  • Various control technologies that may support many applications deployed on networked streetlights were evaluated.
  • Issues and recommendations distinguished in this paper will pave the route for future smart street lighting systems. 


Main Subjects

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