Document Type : Research Paper


1 Materials Engineering Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq.

2 School of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GQ, UK

3 Mechanical and Automobile Engineering Dept., Technological University of Shannon, Limerick, V94 EC5T, Ireland.


Numerical analyses offer a cost-effective and efficient alternative to experimental investigations, and Finite Element (FE) models have become a popular tool to simulate the behavior of Fiber metal laminates (FMLs) under impact loads. This study verified the reliability of the proposed FE models to predict the perforation response of ‎the FMLs investigated under low-velocity impact loadings. The validation of ‎the FE models was assessed through comparison with the corresponding results of the ‎experimental work. The results showed that the proposed simulations are capable of predicting the dynamic response of the laminates investigated with a high degree of success. The parametric studies were conducted on 2/1 titanium FMLs based on 2-ply composite cores and 2/1 aluminum FMLs based on 4-ply composite cores under impact with a variety of loading conditions. The developed FE models were then used to explore the structural behavior of the fiber metal laminates investigated with an extended variation of parameters, i.e., projectile striking angle, impact locations, the geometry of the projectile, and velocity. The results of the FE models are presented in terms of load-displacement traces, energy absorption, and failure modes. The findings of this study contribute to the understanding of the structural behavior of FMLs under impact loads and can inform the design and optimization of FMLs for various engineering applications. The use of FE models provides a cost-effective and efficient means of exploring the structural behavior of FMLs under different impact conditions, which can reduce the need for costly and time-consuming experimental investigations.

Graphical Abstract


  • Understanding impact behavior informs design and optimization of FMLs for diverse engineering applications.
  • FE models offer cost-effective exploration of structural behavior in FMLs under varying impact conditions.
  • FE modeling reduces the requirement for expensive and time-consuming experimental investigations. 


Main Subjects

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