Document Type : Research Paper


1 Civil Engineering Dept., Covenant University, PMB 1023, Ota, Ogun state, Nigeria.

2 Civil Engineering Dept., Madonna University, P.M.B 05, Elele, Rivers State, Enugu, Nigeria.


In recent times, the production of concrete has become a significant concern due to the rapid population growth and the depletion of raw materials. In this research, we investigated the use of Uncracked Palm Kernel Shell (UPKS) as a replacement for crushed granite in concrete production, with replacement percentages of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 100%. The concrete mix combined Ordinary Portland Cement with river sand and coarse aggregates (granite and UPKS). The properties of fresh concrete were assessed using the slump test, while the compressive strength test was conducted after curing the samples for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. A total of 60 concrete cubes were cast for this study. Our findings indicate that the workability of concrete decreased as the percentage of UPKS replacement for granite increased. Additionally, the compressive strength of the concrete decreased with higher percentages of UPKS replacement. On the 28th day of curing, the control concrete achieved a strength of 28.59 N/mm². However, concrete containing 10%, 20%, 30%, and 100% uncracked palm kernel shells achieved average strengths of 20.74 N/mm², 18.22 N/mm², 15.31 N/mm², and 12.23 N/mm², respectively. This represents a 27%, 36%, 46%, and 57% decrease in strength compared to the control concrete. Our study reveals that concrete with 10% to 30% replacement of granite with uncracked palm kernel shell can produce eco-friendly lightweight grade 15/20 concrete, making it suitable for sustainable construction. The developed model was tested and found adequate for predicting the concrete properties.

Graphical Abstract


  • Grade C20 concrete was obtained for CC10,90 on the 28th day of curing.
  • Grade C15 concrete was obtained for CC20,80 and CC30,70 on the 28th day of curing.
  • A predictive model with a good coefficient of determination was formulated.
  • The adequacy of the model was verified using a student’s t-test.


Main Subjects

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