Document Type : Research Paper


Production Engineering and Metallurgy Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq.


Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is a non-traditional technique widely used in various industries to remove material using electrical discharges. Finding a suitable electrode material that can resist high temperatures and efficiently remove material from the workpiece is a major difficulty in electrical discharge machining (EDM). Due to their exceptional electrical and thermal properties, composite electrodes of various metals have become extremely popular. In this study, a composite electrode (Cu-1%Cr-0.5%WC-1%Ag) manufactured using the stir casting technique will be utilized to evaluate the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. The study compares the performance between conventional pure copper electrodes and composite electrode utilization of stainless steel 304L as the workpiece material. The results indicate composite electrodes can increase machining effectiveness and reduce electrode wear. Utilizing a current of 10 A, with a pulse on time of 50µs followed by a pulse off time of 50 µs, reduced the tool wear rate to 0.215 gm/min for the composite electrode. By comparison, it was observed that the copper electrodes displayed a tool wear rate of 0.514 gm/min under the same conditions. While the pure copper electrode had the lowest material removal rate (MRR) at 54.5588 mm3/min, the composite electrode had the greatest MRR at 56.8689 mm3/min. The surface Roughness (SR) of the composite electrode was 3.747μm; this value was lower than that of the pure copper electrode, 3.967μm. As a result, composite electrodes present a potentially viable substitute for traditional EDM electrodes.

Graphical Abstract


  • The TWR for the pure copper electrode was 0.514 gm/min, while the composite electrode (Cu-1%Cr-0.5%WC-1%Ag) had the lowest TWR at 0.215gm/min.
  • The pure copper electrode had a higher MRR of 54.5588 mm3/min, while the composite electrode (Cu-1%Cr-0.5%WC-1%Ag) had the best MRR at 56.8689 mm3/min.
  • The composite electrode (Cu-1%Cr-0.5%WC-1%Ag) had an improved SR of 3.747 μm versus 3.967 μm for the pure copper electrode.
  • Current, followed by pulse on/off time, significantly impacted the electrodes' TWR, MRR, and SR.


Main Subjects

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