Document Type : Research Paper


Production Engineering and Metallurgy Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq.


The optimal performance of bubble cups relies on achieving the appropriate surface quality, a common requirement in various industrial applications. The effectiveness of the Magnetic Abrasive Finishing (MAF) process depends on several factors, including the brush's flexibility, that vary across tools. This study investigates the influence of five key parameters, voltage, finishing time, gap distance, rotating speed, and particle size, on microhardness (MH). Experimental work was based on Taguchi design with L27 trials in Minitab 17, involving five variables with three levels for each. The impact of these parameters on microhardness for stainless steel SUS420 bubble cups is assessed using Taguchi and ANOVA analyses. According to the Taguchi analysis, the main parameters that improve microhardness (MH) most are, in order, gap distance, voltage, time, particle size, and spindle speed. The percentage change in microhardness (%∆MH) increases with higher voltage and time values and decreases with higher particle size and spindle speed values. This study observes an exception to this trend for the gap distance value of 1.2 mm. The use of smaller particle sizes in the range of (20-63) µm showed the most significant enhancement in microhardness (MH) at 21.20%, whereas larger particle sizes (125-250 µm) exhibited lower enhancement in microhardness (MH) at 4.12%.

Graphical Abstract


  • Magnetic abrasive finishing enhanced SUS420 stainless steel bubble cup microhardness
  • A 21.20% microhardness increase occurred with the smallest particle size, high voltage, moderate gap and lower rotation speed
  • Optimizing parameters enabled substantial microhardness improvement through magnetic abrasive finishing


Main Subjects

  1. Mohamed, Types and Design of the Towers Tray, Faculty Of Petroleum & Mining Engineering, (2013)1–14.
  2. Zoesch, T. Wiener, and M. Kuhl, Zero defect manufacturing: Detection of cracks and thinning of material during deep drawing processes, Procedia CIRP, 33 (2015) 179–184.
  3. Engel V. How to design and optimize Bubble Cap Trays, Part 2, ©WelChem GmbH • 2020.
  4. S. Mahdi , K. N. Sallomi and H. H. Ismail, Improvement of Microhardness and Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel by Nanocomposite Coating, Al-Khwarizmi Eng. J., 10 (2016).
  5. Bartkowski, A. Bartkowska, and D. Przestacki, Microstructure, Microhardness, Corrosion and Wear Resistance of B, Si and B-Si Coatings Produced on C45 Steel Using Laser Processing, Metals,10 (2020) 792.
  6. Ahmad, R. M. Singari, and R. S. Mishra, Tri-objective constrained optimization of pulsating DC sourced magnetic abrasive finishing process parameters using artificial neural network and genetic algorithm, Mater. Manuf. Process., 36 (2021) 843–857.
  7. Othman, Improvements in out-of-roundness and microhardness of inner surfaces by internal ball burnishing process Improvements in out-of-roundness and microhardness of inner surfaces by internal ball burnishing process,
  8. Mater. Process. Technol.,196 (2008) 120-128.
  9. Abdallha, S. Al-zubaidi, and A. H. Kadhum, Effect of Magnetic Abrasive Finishing Process on the Surface roughness of CuZn28 With New Pole Geometry, J. Mech. Eng. Res. Dev.,43 (2020) 256–264.
  10. Sihag, P. Kala, and P. M. Pandey, Chemo assisted magnetic abrasive finishing: Experimental investigations, Procedia CIRP, 26 (2015) 539–543.
  11. El-Hofy H., Advanced Machining Processes, Nontraditional and Hybrid Machining Processes, Production Engineering Department Alexandria University, Egypt, The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005.
  12. Kumar, D. K. Singh, and S. Gangwar, ScienceDirect Advances in Magnetic Abrasive Finishing for Futuristic Requirements - A Review, Mater. Today Proc., 5 (2018) 20455–20463.
  13. Singh, S., Gupta, V., and Sankar, M. R., Magnetic Abrasive Finishing Process,” B. Adv. Abras. Based Mach. Finish. Process. Mater. Forming, Mach. Tribol. Springer, Cham., pp. 183–210, 2022, doi:
  14. Ayad , S. K. Shather, W. K. Hamdan, Improve the Micro-hardness of Single Point Incremental Forming Product Improve the Micro-hardness of Single Point Incremental Forming Product Using Magnetic Abrasive Finishing, Eng. Technol. J. 38 (2020) 1137-1142.
  15. M. Nahy and A. H. Kadhum, Optimizing the micro-hardness of a surface by magnetic abrasive finishing Optimizing the micro-hardness of a surface by magnetic abrasive finishing, IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng., 870 (2020) 012018 .
  16. Zhang, A. Chaudhari, and H. Wang, Surface quality and material removal in magnetic abrasive fi nishing of selective laser melted 316L stainless steel, J. Manuf. Process., 45 (2019) 710–719.
  17. Cui et al., Study on magnetic abrasive finishing process of AlSi10Mg alloy curved surface formed by selective laser melting, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 118 (2022) 3315–3330.
  18. M. Mousa, Improvement the Hardness of Stainless Steel 321 by Magnetic Abrasive Finishing Process, Al-Nahrain J. Eng. Sci., 20 (2017) 838–845.
  19. K. Amineh, A. F. Tehrani, and A. Mohammadi, Improving the surface quality in wire electrical discharge machined specimens by removing the recast layer using magnetic abrasive finishing method, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 66 (2013) 1793-1803.
  20. Kang, A. George, and H. Yamaguchi, High-speed internal finishing of capillary tubes by magnetic abrasive finishing, Procedia CIRP, 1 (2012) 414–418.
  21. Saraeian, H. Soleimani Mehr, B. Moradi, H. Tavakoli, and O. Khalil Alrahmani, Study of Magnetic Abrasive Finishing for AISI321 Stainless Steel, Mater. Manuf. Process., 31 (2016) 2023–2029.
  22. K. Shather, and M. Alaqeeli, Influence Of Silicon Carbide (Sic) Abrasive On Surface Roughness And Metal Removal Rate During Magnetic Abrasive Finishing, Glob. J. Eng. Sci Res. Manag., 6 (2019) 8-20.
  23. Wahab, H. Singh, A. Meena, and I. Ahamad, Experimental investigation on magnetorheological finishing process parameters, Mater. Today Proc., 48 (2021) 1892-1898.
  24. Liu and Y. Zou, Study on Elucidation of the Roundness Improvement Mechanism of the Internal Magnetic Abrasive Finishing Process Using a Magnetic Machining Tool, J. Manuf. Mater. Process., 7 (2023) 49.
  25. Nagdeve, K. Dhakar, and H. Kumar, Development of novel finishing tool into Magnetic Abrasive Finishing process of Aluminum 6061, Mater. Manuf. Process., 35 (2020) 1129–1134.
  26. Vahdati and S. A. Rasouli, Evaluation of Parameters Affecting Magnetic Abrasive Finishing on Concave Freeform Surface of Al Alloy via RSM Method, Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2016.
  27. Zou, H. Xie, Z. Yulong, and T. Liaoning, Study on surface quality improvement of the plane magnetic abrasive finishing process Study on surface quality improvement of the plane magnetic abrasive finishing process, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 109 (2020) 1-15.
  28. Collaborative, How to Calculate Percentage Change, 2007–2008, 2008.
  29. Stapenhurst and A. Bendell, Taguchi Methods, Oper. Res. Soc. Japan, 41 (1990)887-889.
  30. Azadeh, S. S. Miri-Nargesi, S. M. Goldansaz, and N. Zoraghi, Design and implementation of an integrated Taguchi method for continuous assessment and improvement of manufacturing systems, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 59 (2012)1073–1089.
  31. Limon-Romero, D. Tlapa, Y. Baez-Lopez, A. Maldonado-Macias, and L. Rivera-Cadavid, Application of the Taguchi method to improve a medical device cutting process, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 87 (2016) 3569–3577. ,
  32. Alaskari, A. Albannai, B. Althaqeb, and T. Liptakova, Improving the surface quality of 60 / 40 brass using flexible magnetic burnishing brush formed with permanent magnets, Manuf. Lett., 24 (2020) 113–122.
  33. K. Alkarkhi, Study on the parameter optimization in magnetic abrasive study on the parameter optimization inmagnetic abrasive polishing forbrass cuzn33plate using taguchi method, Iraq. J. Mech. Mater. Eng., 12 (2012) 596-615.
  34. L. Mahdi and A. H. Kadhum, The effect of magnetic system geometry on the quality of the surface in MAF, Thesis for: Master, 2022.