Document Type : Research Paper


1 Mechanical Engineering Dept., Hawija Institute, Northern Technical University, Kirkuk, Iraq. Production Engineering and Metallurgy Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq.

2 Production Engineering and Metallurgy Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq.


Electrical Discharging Machining (EDM) offers broad capabilities that allow it to be used in the manufacturing, automotive, and aviation industries, as well as practically all disciplines of conductive material machining. This experimental and numerical work aims to use EDM to evaluate the surface of Alloy Steel (X210). The experiments used the EDM copper electrode with a novel horizontal flushing hole. The findings of the investigations have been analyzed so that the best settings for the input process factors can be determined. Alloy tool steel (X210) is cut in dimensions by the Wire EDM (dk7740) (15 × 15 × 10 mm) with very little research dealing with this alloy. ARL spectrometer method was used to determine the percentage chemical composition. In the current experimental work, the Effect of different parameters such as electrode angle (EA), peak current (Ip), pulse on time (Pon), and pulse off time (Poff) have been investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Microhardness reaches the maximum value with an electrode angle of 67.5º with increasing current and pulse. Responses (SR and MH) were modeled using RSM. It is found that the lowest SR is achieved when conducted with an electrode tilt of 45º. A high peak current (Ip) has also been discovered to raise SR further while decreasing pulse-off time. The primary effects of input parameters, specifically E.A, Ip, Pon, and Poff, were determined to impact the Ra and MH considerably. Peak current greatly affects 45º angled electrodes while keeping other parameters constant.

Graphical Abstract


  • A new electrode design with horizontal flushing hole
  • The novel design improves Hardness and reduce surface roughness of Alloy Steel (X210).
  • A 3D contour diagrams are achieved to determine the importance of each parameter.
  • A good agreement between standard deviation and coefficient of variation for predicted and actuals values.
  • A 45º angled electrode has the lowest value of surface roughness.


Main Subjects

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